Personalized Epigenetics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124201354, 9780128004364

Personalized Epigenetics

1st Edition

Editors: Trygve Tollefsbol
eBook ISBN: 9780128004364
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124201354
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st May 2015
Page Count: 610
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Description

Personalized Epigenetics discusses the core translatability of epigenetics to health management of individuals who have unique variations in their epigenetic signatures that can guide both disorder and disease prevention and therapy.

The book details inter-individual variability in the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA, and the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential of the field, it also reviews the impact of the environment on epigenetic variations among individuals and the role of pharmacology and drug development in personalized epigenetics.

Most importantly, the text covers personalized epigenetics from a disease-oriented perspective, presenting chapters that provide advances in widespread disorders or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and pain management.

Key Features

  • Discusses the core translatability of epigenetics to health management of individuals who have unique variations in their epigenetic signatures
  • Details inter-individual variability in the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA, and the consequent diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential of the field
  • Reviews the impact of the environment on epigenetic variations among individuals and the roles of pharmacology and drug development
  • Devotes several chapters to the advances made in widespread disorders or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and pain management

Readership

Advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, health care professionals, university researchers, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies interested in drug development. This book could also serve as a core textbook for advanced university or professional school courses with a focus on genetic and/or human diseases

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Section I. Overview
    • Chapter 1. Epigenetics of Personalized Medicine
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Epigenetic Variations among Individuals
      • 3. Bioinformatics of Personalized Epigenetics
      • 4. Diagnostic and Prognostic Epigenetic Approaches to Personalized Medicine
      • 5. Environmental Personalized Epigenetics
      • 6. Pharmacology and Drug Development of Personalized Epigenetics
      • 7. Personalized Epigenetics of Disorders and Disease Management
      • 8. Challenges and Future Directions
      • 9. Conclusion
  • Section II. Epigeneticvariations Among Individuals
    • Chapter 2. Interindividual Variability of DNA Methylation
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Biochemical Pathways Regulating DNA Methylation
      • 3. Challenges in Studying DNA Methylation
      • 4. Classification of Epigenotypes
      • 5. Early Evidence of Interindividual Variation in DNA Methylation from DNA Methylation Mutants
      • 6. Studies of Natural Variation in DNA Methylation—Model Systems
      • 7. Studies of Natural Variation in DNA Methylation—Humans
      • 8. Twin Studies
      • 9. Methylation Quantitative Trait Loci and Epigenetic Quantitative Trait Loci Studies
      • 10. Impact of Variation in DNA Methylation on Personalized Medicine
      • 11. Conclusion
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 3. Differences in Histone Modifications Between Individuals
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Chromatin Structure and Histone Modifications
      • 3. An Analytical Toolbox for Chromatin Structure and Histone Modifications
      • 4. The Discovery of cis-Regulatory Mutations
      • 5. An Abundance of cis-Regulatory Mutations
      • 6. Cis-Regulatory Mutations Influence Chromatin Structure, Histone Modifications, and Transcriptional Output
      • 7. Cis-Regulatory Mutations Can Act in a Cell-Type-Dependent Manner
      • 8. Expression Quantitative Trait Loci, Chromatin Accessibility, and Disease Pathways
      • 9. Chromatin Translates Genetic Variation into Transcriptional Phenotypes
      • 10. Prospects for the Analysis of Histone Modifications in Humans
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 4. Individual Noncoding RNA Variations: Their Role in Shaping and Maintaining the Epigenetic Landscape
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Regulatory Interactions between MicroRNAs and Epigenetic Machinery
      • 3. Epigenetic Alterations and Regulation of Trinucleotide Repeats in Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • 4. Long Noncoding RNAs Guide the Epigenetic Machinery and Interfere with Other Noncoding RNA Functions to Regulate Gene Expression
      • 5. Conclusion
      • Glossary
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 5. Personalized Epigenetics: Analysis and Interpretation of DNA Methylation Variation
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. DNA Methylation and Demethylation Mechanisms
      • 3. Genetic and Epigenetic Variations
      • 4. Allelic-Specific DNA Methylation
      • 5. Blood Cellular Heterogeneity and Methylation Variation
      • 6. Brain Cellular Heterogeneity and Methylation Variation
      • 7. Stem Cellular Heterogeneity and Methylation Variation
      • 8. Quantitative Assessment of DNA Methylation Variation
      • 9. Closing Remarks
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Section III. Bioinformatics of Personalized Epigenetics
    • Chapter 6. Computational Methods in Epigenetics
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Epigenetic Profiling: Heterogeneous Data and Particular Challenges of Different Epigenetic Factors
      • 3. Epigenetic Data Integration and Analysis
      • 4. Conclusions and Future Trends
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Section IV. Diagnostic and Prognostic Epigenetic Approaches to Personalized Medicine
    • Chapter 7. Epigenetic Biomarkers in Personalized Medicine
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Cancer
      • 3. Noncancerous Diseases
      • 4. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 8. Epigenetic Fingerprint
      • Outline
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Identifying a Stain’s Tissue Source
      • 3. Estimating Biological Age
      • 4. Exposure to the Heavy Metals, Arsenic and Lead
      • 5. MZ Twins
      • 6. Clinical Profiling
      • 7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 9. Epigenetics of Personalized Toxicology
      • Outline
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Basic Epigenetics
      • 3. Individual Epigenetic Variation in Response to Toxicants
      • 4. Epigenetic Changes that are Induced by Toxic Exposure
      • 5. Epigenetic Evaluation of Toxicity
      • 6. Epigenetic Toxicity of Environmental Chemicals
      • 7. Epigenetic Toxicology of Drug Intoxication
      • 8. Interaction between Genetic and Epigenetic Variation in Toxicology
      • 9. Conclusion
      • Glossary
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Section V. Environmental Personalized Epigenetics
    • Chapter 10. Environmental Contaminants and Their Relationship to the Epigenome
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Overview of Epigenetic Mechanisms and Methods for Assessment
      • 3. Air Pollution–Associated Chemicals and the Epigenome
      • 4. Alcohol and the Epigenome
      • 5. Metals and the Epigenome
      • 6. Pharmacological Agents and the Epigenome
      • 7. Cigarette Smoke and the Epigenome
      • 8. Further Considerations
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 11. Nutriepigenomics: Personalized Nutrition Meets Epigenetics
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Connection between Chromatin Structure and Metabolic Status
      • 3. Evidence for Dietary Factors Affecting Epigenetic Patterns
      • 4. Epigenetic Biomarkers—Novel Tools to Assess Metabolic Disorders and Diet Response
      • 5. Conclusions and Future Prospects
      • Glossary
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Section VI. Pharmacology and Drugdevelopment of Personalized Epigenetics
    • Chapter 12. Personalized Pharmacoepigenomics
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Genome-Wide Epigenetic Studies
      • 3. Pharmacoepigenomics in Relation to Pharmacodynamics
      • 4. Personalized Pharmacoepigenomics in Relation to Pharmacodynamics
      • 5. Personalized Pharmacoepigenomics in Relation to Pharmacokinetics
      • 6. Personalized Pharmacoepigenomics in Relation to Adverse Drug Reactions
      • 7. Conclusions
      • 8. Future Directions
      • Glossary
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 13. Personalized Medicine and Epigenetic Drug Development
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Epigenetics and Drug Discovery
      • 3. Personalized Medicines
      • 4. Conclusions
  • Section VII. Personalized Epigenetics of Disorders and Disease Management
    • Chapter 14. Epigenetics and Personalized Pain Management
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Epigenetic Regulation
      • 3. DNA Methylation
      • 4. DNA Methylation and Pain
      • 5. Methylation Changes in Response to Drugs
      • 6. Histone Modifications
      • 7. Histone Modifications in Pain States and in Response to Drugs
      • 8. Nucleosome Positioning and Chromatin Remodelers
      • 9. Genomic Imprinting
      • 10. Noncoding RNAs
      • 11. MicroRNA and Pain
      • 12. Long Noncoding RNA and Pain
      • 13. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 15. Understanding Interindividual Epigenetic Variations in Obesity and Its Management
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Identification of Susceptibility Loci for Obesity
      • 3. How Do Epigenetic Changes Contribute to Obesity?
      • 4. Nutritional Epigenetics
      • 5. When Do Dietary Factors Influence the Epigenome?
      • 6. Genomic Imprinting in Obesity
      • 7. Obesity Management
      • 8. Challenges and Future Perspectives
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 16. Epigenetic Modifications of miRNAs in Cancer
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. DNA Methylation
      • 3. DNA Methyltransferases
      • 4. microRNA: General Overview
      • 5. DNA Methyltransferases 1
      • 6. DNA Methyltransferases 3A
      • 7. DNMT3A Regulation by microRNA
      • 8. DNA Methyltransferases 3B
      • 9. DNMT3B Regulation by microRNA
      • 10. Histone Modifications
      • 11. Histone Deacetylases and microRNA
      • 12. Long Noncoding RNAs
      • 13. DNA Hypomethylation-Dependent Activation of microRNAs
      • 14. miR-370 and miR-373 and miR-375
      • 15. microRNA Regulation of FANCA, KIF14, and KLF6
      • 16. Interplay of NF-κB and microRNAs
      • 17. Carcinogens
      • 18. In vivo
      • 19. Conclusion
    • Chapter 17. Managing Autoimmune Disorders through Personalized Epigenetic Approaches
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Evolution of the Treatment of Autoimmunity
      • 3. Epigenetic Basis for Autoimmunity
      • 4. Lessons from Oncology
      • 5. Personalized Epigenetic Therapy in Autoimmune Diseases
      • 6. Specific Epigenetic Agents in Autoimmunity
      • 7. Environmental Agents Involved in Autoimmunity that Influence Epigenetics
      • 8. Big Data and Epigenetics
      • 9. Discussion
      • 10. Conclusions
    • Chapter 18. Cardiovascular Diseases and Personalized Epigenetics
      • 1. Introduction—Cardiovascular Disease and Epigenetics
      • 2. DNA Methylation and Cardiovascular Disease
      • 3. C1 Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease
      • 4. Histone Modifications in Cardiovascular Disease
      • 5. MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Disease
      • 6. Conclusions and Further Perspectives
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Section VIII. Challenges and Future Directions
    • Chapter 19. Future Challenges and Prospects for Personalized Epigenetics
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Personalized Epigenetics
      • 3. Future Direction of Personalized Medicine in Epigenetics
      • 4. Epigenetic Data versus Genetic Data in Personalized Medicine
      • 5. Computational Epigenetics
      • 6. Challenges of Personalized Epigenetics
      • 7. Conclusions
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
610
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128004364
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124201354

About the Editor

Trygve Tollefsbol

Professor of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. Dr. Tollefsbol is a Professor of Biology and a Senior Scientist in the Center for Aging, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Nutrition Obesity Research Center, and the Comprehensive Diabetes Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). He is Director of the UAB Cell Senescence Culture Facility which he established in 1999 and a Steering Committee Member of the UAB Center for Aging. Dr. Tollefsbol trained as a Postdoctoral Fellow and Assistant Research Professor with members of the National Academy of Science at Duke University and the University of North Carolina. He earned doctorates in molecular biology and osteopathic medicine from the University of North Texas Health Sciences Center and his bachelor’s degree in Biology from the University of Houston. He has received prior funding from the NIA, NCI, NHLBI, NIMH and other federal institutes as well as the Glenn Foundation for Medical Research, Susan G. Komen for the Cure, the American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR), and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) among many other sources. The Glenn Foundation for Medical Research funding was unsolicited and was awarded to Dr. Tollefsbol for lifetime contributions to the field of aging. In 2006 Dr. Tollefsbol was selected and highlighted as part of the 25th anniversary of the AFAR for significant contributions to aging research. Dr. Tollefsbol’s research interests have covered a wide range of topics such as aging, epigenetics, nutrition, cancer, telomerase, and caloric restriction. Work from his laboratory has been featured in Women’s Health magazine, Shape magazine, and the AICR Newsletter and Dr. Tollefsbol has been a Scientist in the Spotlight in ScienceNow. Currently he serves as an Associate Editor for Frontiers in Epigenomics and is on the Editorial Boards of the international journals Open Longevity Science, Epigenetics of Diabetes and Obesity, Molecular Biotechnology and Clinical Epigenetics. He is also a contributing Editor of Lewin’s GENES X classic textbook. Over 25 of the publications from Dr. Tollefsbol’s laboratory have received national or international accolades such as best paper award, selection for press release by the journal editors and featured on the journal homepage. Dr. Tollefsbol has been invited to give presentations on his research in many countries including Germany, China, Italy, Switzerland, France and The Netherlands as well as at various leading institutions in the US such as Harvard Medical School, Tufts University and the University of California at San Francisco. His research has received considerable media attention both nationally and internationally through television, newspaper and radio venues and has been highlighted in eScience News and ScienceDaily. He has ten books which have been published or are in progress and a recent book on “Epigenetics of Aging” that Dr. Tollefsbol co-authored and edited was highlighted in Nature.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA