Periodic Operation of Chemical Reactors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123918543, 9780123918666

Periodic Operation of Chemical Reactors

1st Edition

Authors: P. L. Silveston R. R. Hudgins
eBook ISBN: 9780123918666
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123918543
Paperback ISBN: 9780323282130
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 12th November 2012
Page Count: 792
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This comprehensive review, prepared by 24 experts, many of whom are pioneers of the subject, brings together in one place over 40 years of research in this unique publication. This book will assist R & D specialists, research chemists, chemical engineers or process managers harnessing periodic operations to improve their process plant performance.

Periodic Operation of Reactors covers process fundamentals, research equipment and methods and provides "the state of the art" for the periodic operation of many industrially important catalytic reactions. Emphasis is on experimental results, modeling and simulation. Combined reaction and separation are dealt with, including simulated moving bed chromatographic, pressure and temperature swing and circulating bed reactors. Thus, Periodic Operation of Reactors offers readers a single comprehensive source for the broad and diverse new subject. This exciting new publication is a "must have" for any professional working in chemical process research and development.

Key Features

  • A comprehensive reference on the fundamentals, development and applications of periodic operation
  • Contributors and editors include the pioneers of the subject as well as the leading researchers in the field
  • Covers both fundamentals and the state of the art for each operation scenario, and brings all types of periodic operation together in a single volume
  • Discussion is focused on experimental results rather than theoretical ones; provides a rich source of experimental data, plus process models
  • Accompanying website with modelling data


Chemical engineers and process engineers and researchers. Industrial researchers dealing with process development and improvement and/or process design – these may be chemists, biochemists or chemical or biochemical engineers

Table of Contents


About the Authors

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Periodic Operation

1.2 Origins of Periodic Operation

1.3 Variables in Periodic Operation

1.4 Cycle Structure in Periodic Operation

1.5 Measuring Improvement

1.6 Inherently Periodic Processes

1.7 Objectives of Periodic Operation

1.8 Strategies in Periodic Operation

1.9 Equipment for Periodic Operation

1.10 Reaction Systems Examined

1.11 New Directions

1.12 A Brief History of the Study of Periodic Operation

Chapter 2. Hydrogenation Processes

2.1 Ammonia Synthesis

2.2 NOx Reduction

2.3 Methanation

2.4 Methanol Synthesis

2.5 Ethylene Hydrogenation

2.6 Aromatics Hydrogenation

2.7 Oscillatory Behavior

Chapter 3. Catalytic Oxidation and Reduction of Gases

3.1 Introduction

3.2 CO Oxidation

3.3 Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation

3.4 Reduction of SO3 by CO Over Platinum

3.5 Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides

3.6 Traveling Waves in Packed Beds

Chapter 4. Partial Oxidation and Dehydrogenation of Hydrocarbons

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Partial Oxidation and Reforming of Methane to Syngas

4.3 Oxidative Coupling of Methane

4.4 Epoxidation

4.5 Propene and Butene Partial Oxidation and Ammoxidation

4.6 Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Propane, Butane and Higher Hydrocarbons

4.7 Maleic Anhydride from Butane

4.8 Anhydrides and Aldehydes from Aromatic Hydrocarbons

4.9 Aromatic Nitriles

Chapter 5. Combustion Systems

5.1 Non-Catalytic Combustion Reactions

5.2 Catalytic Combustion

5.3 Looping Combustion

5.4 Simulated Loop Reactors

Chapter 6. Automotive Exhaust Catalysis

6.1 Internal Combustion Engines

6.2 Modulation of Detoxification Reactions

6.3 Modeling Studies

6.4 Studies on Modulating Automotive Exhaust

6.5 Effect of A/F Modulation on Poisoning and Sintering

6.6 Effects of Irregular A/F Variation

6.7 Lean Burn Spark-Ignited Engines

6.8 Application of NSR to Diesel Exhausts

6.9 Does A/F Modulation Improve Converter Performance?

Chapter 7. Polymerization Under Modulation

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Simulation of Polymerization Under Input Modulation

7.3 Experiments on Polymerization Under Input Modulation

7.4 Spontaneous Oscillations

7.5 Saturation of Polymers

7.6 Assessment

Chapter 8. Catalytic Gas-Solid Reactions

8.1 Partial Oxidation and Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Hydrocarbons

8.2 Methane Cracking

8.3 Non-Catalytic Gas-Solid Reactions

8.4 Catalytic Gasification Under Modulation

8.5 Gasification Employing a Circulating Solid Oxygen Carrier

8.6 Combustion in Circulating Fluidized Beds

8.7 Periodic Reaction Switching

Chapter 9. Electrochemical Processes

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Electroplating

9.3 Electroforming

9.4 Anodization

9.5 Electrochemical Machining and Polishing

9.6 Electrowinning and Electrorefining

9.7 Galvanic Cells

9.8 Electrolytic Production of Chemicals

9.9 Applicability of Principles or Practices to Non-Electrochemical Reactions

Chapter 10. Modulation of Biological Processes

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Theoretical Considerations

10.3 Substrate and Flow Rate Modulation

10.4 Dissolved Oxygen Modulation

10.5 Culture Medium Tuning

10.6 Survival in Mixed Cultures

10.7 Stabilization of Recombinant Cell Cultures

10.8 Applications to Immobilized Cells or Enzymes

10.9 Fed-Batch Operations

10.10 Overview

Chapter 11. Miscellaneous Reactions

11.1 Ethyl Acetate from Ethylene and Acetic Acid

11.2 Claus Reaction

11.3 Dehydrogenation of Methanol

11.4 Deamination and Alcohol Dehydration Reactions

11.5 Photocatalytic Degradation of AZO Dyes

11.6 The Minimal Bromate Reaction

11.7 Propanol Dehydrogenation

11.8 Glucose Oxidation

11.9 Overview

Chapter 12. Modulation of Multiple Reactions

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Homogeneous Reactions

12.3 Solids Catalyzed Reactions

12.4 Competitive Reactions

12.5 Methane Homologation

12.6 Oligomerization of Ethene

12.7 Modulation of Multiple Inputs

Chapter 13. Use of Modulation in Mechanistic Studies

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Qualitative Applications

13.3 Quantitative Applications

13.4 Modulation of Light Intensity

13.5 Application of Modulation to the Testing of Rival Models

13.6 Overview

Chapter 14. Evaluation of Periodic Processes

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Nonlinear Frequency Response and Higher Order Frequency Response Functions

14.3 Estimation of the Time Average Performance of Periodic Processes Using Nonlinear Frequency Response Analysis

14.4 Application of Nonlinear Frequency Response Analysis for the Estimation of the Periodic Steady States of Cyclic Processes

14.5 Summary

Chapter 15. Pressure Modulation

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Acceleration of Mass Transfer

15.3 Sonocatalysis

15.4 Periodic Pressure Reduction

15.5 Combined Compression and Reaction

15.6 Application to Rate and Equilibrium Measurements

15.7 Assessment and Research Opportunities

Chapter 16. Temperature Modulation

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Theoretical Studies

16.3 Simulation Studies

16.4 Experimental Studies with Conventional Laboratory Equipment

16.5 Temperature Modulation of Trickle Beds

16.6 Experimental Studies with Microreactors

16.7 Overview and Comments

Chapter 17. Flow Interruption in Trickle Beds

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Steady-State Operation of A Trickle Bed Reactor

17.3 Periodic Operation of Trickle Bed Reactors

17.4 Liquid Flow Modulation with Multiple Reactions

17.5 Hydrodynamics Under Liquid Flow Modulation

17.6 Modeling of the Periodic Operation of Trickle Bed Reactors

17.7 Summary

Chapter 18. Periodic Flow Reversal

18.1 The Heat-Trapping Concept

18.2 Theoretical Aspects

18.3 Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

18.4 Other Applications of Reverse Flow Reactors

18.5 Thermal Reactors

18.6 Endothermic Processes

18.7 Mass Trapping Reactors

18.8 Biofilters

18.9 Miscellaneous Applications

18.10 Commercial Applications

Chapter 19. Control of Periodically Operated Reactors

19.1 Formulation of an Optimal Control Problem for a Periodically Operated Reactor

19.2 Chattering Controls

19.3 Controls for Stirred Slurry and Fluidized Bed Reactors

19.4 Controls for Packed Bed Reactors

19.5 Control of Packed Bed Reactors with Flow-Direction Switching

19.6 Control of Simulated Moving Bed Chromatographic Reactors

19.7 Other Control Schemes for Periodically Operated Reactors

19.8 Comments and Research Needs

Chapter 20. Chromatographic Reactors

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Concept and Types

20.3 General Models

20.4 Cyclic Steady State

20.5 Pulse Chromatographic Reactor

20.6 Countercurrent Moving Bed Chromatographic Reactor

20.7 Continuous Rotating Annular Chromatographic Reactor

20.8 Stepwise, Countercurrent Multi-Stage Fluidized Bed Chromatographic Reactor

20.9 Fixed Bed Chromatographic Reactor With Flow Direction Switching

20.10 Extractive Reactor Systems

20.11 Centrifugal Partition Chromatographic Reactor

Chapter 21. Simulated Moving Bed Chromatographic Reactors

21.1 Operation and Application

21.2 Modeling and Simulation

21.3 Experimental Studies

21.4 Other Reactor Applications of Simulated Moving Beds

Chapter 22. Pressure and Temperature Swing Reactors

22.1 Concepts and Types of Pressure Swing Reactors

22.2 Models for Swing Reactors

22.3 Computational Considerations

22.4 Simulations of Pressure Swing Systems

22.5 Experimental Studies

22.6 Temperature Swing Reactors

22.7 Simulation of Temperature Swing Systems

22.8 Temperature Swing Reactor Networks

22.9 Experimental

22.10 Combined Pressure and Temperature Swing Reactors

22.11 Overview and Assessment

Chapter 23. New Directions—Research and Development Challenges

23.1 Challenges

23.2 New Directions




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About the Author

P. L. Silveston

Peter L. Silveston is a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the University of Waterloo in Canada. Professor Silveston has authored or co-authored three previous books on reactor engineering topics as well as close to 300 research publications. He is a graduate of M.I.T. and the Technical University of Munich (Germany).

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the University of Waterloo in Canada.

R. R. Hudgins

Robert Hudgins is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Waterloo. His research interests are reactor engineering, specifically periodic operation of catalytic reactors, and he has about 250 research publications. He is a graduate of the University of Toronto and Princeton University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus at the University of Waterloo