Peatlands

Peatlands

Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes

1st Edition - December 4, 2006

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  • Editors: I.P. Martini, A. Martinez Cortizas, W. Chesworth
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080468051

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Description

'In the past two decades there has been considerable work on global climatic change and its effect on the ecosphere, as well as on local and global environmental changes triggered by human activities. From the tropics to the Arctic, peatlands have developed under various geological conditions, and they provide good records of global and local changes since the Late Pleistocene.The objectives of the book are to analyze topics such as geological evolution of major peatlands basins; peatlands as self sustaining ecosystems; chemical environment of peatlands: water and peat chemistry; peatlands as archives of environmental changes; influence of peatlands on atmosphere: circular complex interactions; remote sensing studies of peatlands; peatlands as a resource; peatlands degradation, restoration, plus more.'

Key Features

* Presents an interdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on Earth Science, and addresses the need for intergration between subdisciplines and the developing of new approaches
* Synthesizes the evolutionary, ecological, and chemical characteristics of major peatlands, as well as focuses on the environmental changes, from climate changes to surface ares changes due to human activities
* Covers topical studies of worldwide interest and provides examples from many different countries

Readership

Researchers and graduate and post graduates in biology, earth science, geography, environmental engineering, landuse planning, environmental impact studies, and global change

Table of Contents

  • Contents
    Preface
    List of COntributors
    List of Reviewers
    Chapter 1: Peatlands: a concise guide to to volume (I.P. Martini, A. Martinez Cortizas, W. Chesworth).
    A. Peatland basin analysis: Evolution and structure
    Chapter 2: Northern peatlands: their characteristics, development and sensitivity to climate change (C. Tarnocai, V. Stolbovoy).
    Introduction
    Area and extent
    Peatland regions
    Canada
    Russia
    Peatland classification
    Canada
    Finland
    Russia
    Peat materials
    Peat developments
    Age of peat deposits
    Peat accumulation
    Carbon stocks
    Sensitivity to climate change
    Canada
    Northern Eurasia
    References
    Chapter 3. The cold-climate peatlands of the Hudson Bay Lowland, Canada: Brief review of recent work. (I.P. Martini)
    Introduction
    Peatland evolution
    Peat stratigraphy
    Palynology
    Organic mineralogy
    Peat Pb chemistry
    Peatlands and the carbon cycle
    Resources
    References
    Chapter 4: Mountain mires from Galicia (NW Spain) (X. Pontevedra-Pombal, J.C. Novoa-Munoz, E. Garcia-Rodeja, A. Martinez Cortizas)
    Introduction
    Mires development
    Distribution of biogeographical conditions
    Typology
    Chronology
    Growth and accumulation rates
    Composition and properties
    Classification
    Galicia mires: geochemical archives of environmental changes
    Conclusions
    References
    Chapter 5: Geomorphological emplacement and vegetation characteristics of Fuegian peatlands, southernmost Argentina, South America (A. Coronato, C. Roig, L. Collado, F. Roig).
    Introduction
    Physical setting
    Previous work
    Methodology
    Results
    Geomorphologic aspects
    Vegetation and floristic diversity aspects
    Relationships between geomorphology and vegetation
    Conclusions
    References
    Chapter 6: The peatlands of Argentine Tierra del Fuego as a source of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental information (J. Rabassa, A. Coronato, C.J. Heusser, F. Roig Junent, A. Borromei, M. Quattrocchio)
    Introduction
    Geographical setting
    Methodology for peatlands studies
    Glacial history of Tierra del Fuego and basal peat chronostratigraphic data
    Peat accumulation rates
    The occurrence of Holocene tephras in Fuegian peatlands
    Coastal wetlands
    Climatic variability as demonstrated by proxy elements
    Pleistocene pollen records
    Holocene pollen records
    Dendrochonology
    Bogs and archaeology
    Final comments
    References
    Chapter 7. Lowland tropical peatlands of Southeast Asia (S.E. Page, J.O. Rieley, R Wüst)
    Introduction
    History, location and extent of lowland tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia
    Structure and hydrology of lowland tropical peatlands
    Classification and genesis
    Coastal peatlands
    Basin or valley peatlands
    High, interior, or watershed peatlands
    Physical and chemical characteristics of lowland tropical peat
    Vegetation and biodiversity
    Biomass and nutrient dynamics
    The geochemical record
    Age and rates of peat and carbon accumulation
    The role of tropical peatlands in the global carbon cycle
    Modern tropical peatlands and past coal deposits
    Future prospects for tropical peatlands: the wise use approach
    References
    B Selected characteristics of peat and peatland environments (W. Chesworth, A. Martinez Contizas, E. Garcia-Rodeja)
    Introduction
    Physico-chemical background
    Predominance fields
    Geochemical fences
    The pedogenic grid
    Geochemical trends in the weathering zone
    Proton and electron pumps
    The peatland environment
    Ombrotrophic mires
    Minerotropic mires
    Discussion
    Conclusion
    References
    Chapter 9. Weathering of inorganic matter in peat bogs (G. Le Roux, W. Shotyk)
    Introduction
    Characterization of the weathering milieu
    Botanical composition and climate
    Bog water chemistry
    Geological substrate
    Distribution and supply of inorganic compounds in bog profile
    Preparation of peat samples for mineral identification
    Inorganic constituents supplied by atmospheric deposition
    Mechanisms and rates of weathering
    Reductive dissolution
    Proton-promoted dissolution
    Organic acids promoted dissolution
    Rates of weathering
    Special case: carbonate-dissolution
    Perspectives
    Microorganisms
    Weathering rate and mass balance
    Pb and Sr Isotopes tracers of dust sources and mineral weathering
    Conclusions
    References
    Chapter 10 Molecular chemistry by pyrolysis-GC/MS of selected samples of the Penido Vello peat deposit, Galicia, NW Spain (P. Buurman, K.G.J. Nierop, .X. Pontevedra-Pombal, A. Martinez COrtizas
    Introduction
    Materials and methods
    Extraction of humus
    Pyrolysis gas chromatography – Mass Spectrometry
    Principal component analysis
    Results and discussion
    Conclusions
    Future research
    References
    Chapter 11. Mineral matter and major and trace elements in raised bog peat. A case study from southern Sweden, Ireland and Tierra del Fuego, south Argentina (L.G. Franzen)
    Introduction
    Methods
    Sampling
    Laboratory analyses
    Results and discussion
    Mineral matter
    Detrital minerals
    Authigenic minerals
    Major and trace elements in –peat
    Summary and final remarks
    References
    Chapter 12. Consequences of increasing levels of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on ombrotrophic peatlands: a plant-based perspective (L. Bragazza)
    Introduction
    Effects of increasing N Input: the plant species level
    Mosses
    Vascular plants
    Effects of increasing N input: the community level
    Gas fluxes
    Inter-specific competitive relationships
    Peat accumulation and peat decomposition
    Conclusions
    References
    Chapter 13. Microbial diversity in Sphagnum peatlands (D. Gilbert, E.A. D. Mitchell)
    Introduction
    Microbial diversity in peatlands
    Overviewing of the sampling, observation and biomass estimation methods
    Sampling and fixation
    Observation and counting
    Biomass evaluation
    Individual groups: diversity, abudance, biomass
    Prokaryotes
    Fungi
    Microalgae
    Heterotrophic protests
    Micrometazoa
    Total microbial biomass and relative importance of the different groups
    Functional importance of microbial communities in peatland
    Heterotrophic activities: organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling
    Microbial primary production
    The microbial loop
    Transfer to higher trophic levels
    Practical applications
    Biomonitoring
    Paleoecology
    Open research questions
    References
    Chapter 14. Peatland hydrology (J. Holden)
    Introduction
    Water sources and water budget for peatlands
    Inputs
    Stores
    Losses
    Introduction to hillslope hydrology
    The acrotelm-catotelm model
    Runoff processes within peatlands
    Matrix and overland flow
    Preferential flow
    Conclusions
    References
    Chapter 15. Hydrogeology of major peat basins in North America (P. Glaser, D.S. Siegel, A.S. Reeve, J. Chanton).
    Introduction
    Central problems
    Study areas
    Properties of large peat basins in North America
    Physiographic setting
    Genesis of the peat basins
    Peat landform patterns
    Hydrological models for large peat basins
    Hydrogeological investigations in large North American peat basins
    Peatland hydrology in an isostatically rising landscape
    Response of peatland flow systems to climatic thresholds
    Biogeochemical drivers for groundwater flow in large peat basins
    Problems, prospects and future directions
    Conclusions
    References
    Chapter 16. Slope instability and mass movements in peat (A.P. Dykes, K.J. Kirk)
    Introduction
    Failures types
    Causes of instability in peatlands
    Anthropogenic causes
    Peat properties
    Failure mechanisms
    Case example of blanket blog instability: Cuilcagh Mountain, Ireland
    Future research directions
    References
    C Peatlands as multi-signal archives of environmental changes
    Chapter 17. Using peat bog archives to reconstruct paleo-pollution and vegetation change during the late Holocene (T.M. Mighall, S. Timberlake, D.A. Jenkins, J.P. Grattan).
    Introduction
    The metallurgical industry as an agent of vegetation change
    Vegetation change during prehistory
    Vegetation change during Roman and historical times
    Paleopollution, mining and metalworking: records from bogs
    Experimental archaeology and peatland research
    Conclusions
    References
    Chapter 18. Beyond the peat: synthesizing peat, lake sediments and soils in studies of the Swedish environment (R. Bindler, J. Klaminder)
    Introduction
    Combining peat and lake sediment records
    Properties of peat and lake sediments
    Improving chronologies of the peat record (using lake sediments)
    Reconstructing regional long-term changes in deposition
    Using the peat record to determine the fate of lead in the Swedish environment
    The example: background levels of lead in the organic horizon of boreal forest soils
    Conclusions
    References
    Chapter 19. Occurrence and fate of halogens in mires (H. Biester, A. Martinez Cortizas, F. Keppler)
    Introduction
    Sources of halogens in peatlands
    Halogens in peat
    Net accumulation and retention rates of halogens
    Halogen accumulation and peat accumulation
    Halogens in peat porewaters
    Release of halogens from peat
    Conclusions
    References
    Chapter 20. Mercury in mires (H. Biester, R. Bindler, A. Martinez Cortizas)
    Introduction
    Atmospheric deposition and retention of mercury
    Mercury concentrations in peat
    Mercury concentrations and peat decomposition
    Mercury accumulation rates
    Mercury accumulation rates and influence of peat diagenesis
    Hg accumulation and climate variation
    Outlook
    References
    Chapter 21. Archiving natural and anthropogenic lead deposition in peatlands (M.E. Kylander, D.J. Weiss, E. Peiteado Varela, T. Taboada Rodriguez and A. Martinez COrtizas)
    Introduction
    Lead from a geological perspective
    Geochemical tools and interpretation
    Lead isotopes – powerful tracers and proxies
    Lead isotope geochemistry
    Applications of lead isotopes
    Enrichment Factors (EF) – gauging the magnitude
    The Swiss experience
    Some examples from north-western Spain
    The lead story told in peatlands
    The pre-anthropogenic period (< 3000 years BP)
    The ancient period (3000-1600 years BP)
    The pre-industrial period (1600-200 years BP)
    The industrial period (200-30 years BP)
    Recent times (30 years BP to present)
    Final thoughts and future directions
    References
    D Direct human impact on peatlands
    Chapter 22. Impacts of artificial drainage of peatlands on runoff production and water quality (J. Holden, P.J. Chapman, S.N. Lane and C. Brookes)
    Introduction
    History and extent of drainage
    Impact of peat drainage on catchment hydrology
    Impact of peat drainage on soil properties
    Hydrological implications
    Chemical implications
    Impact of peat drainage on water chemistry
    Impacts of peat drainage on erosion
    Peatland restoration and the utility of field and modelling approaches
    Water table and vegetation recolonization
    Modeling approaches
    Ditch blocking techniques
    Thresholds of recovery and non-reversible trajectories
    Conclusions
    References
    Chapter 23. Peatland subsidence in the Venice watershed (M. Camporese, G. Gambolati, M. Putti, P. Teatini)
    Introduction
    Peat oxidation and geochemical land subsidence
    Description of the study area
    Field measurements and model setup
    Environmental variables
    CO2 fluxes
    Detailed model of peat swelling/shrinking
    Stephens et al (1984) model of peatland subsidence
    Results
    Hydrology
    Recoverable peatland displacements
    Unrecoverable peatland subsidence
    Conclusions
    References
    Glossary
    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 606
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2006
  • Published: December 4, 2006
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080468051

About the Editors

I.P. Martini

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

A. Martinez Cortizas

Affiliations and Expertise

Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain

W. Chesworth

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

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