Peat  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122646508, 9780323157117

Peat

1st Edition

Industrial Chemistry and Technology

Authors: Charles Fuchsman
eBook ISBN: 9780323157117
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1980
Page Count: 298
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Description

Peat: Industrial Chemistry and Technology explores the chemistry and chemical technology of peat as a chemical feedstock. The processes that generate peat chemicals, such as solvent extraction and acid hydrolysis, are discussed. Some of the more important implications of peat use for humans and nature are also pointed out. This book describes alternative technologies for each of the major organic components of peat, including solvent extraction of peat bitumens; decolorization and oxidation of peat waxes; acid hydrolysis of unfractionated peat; and coke production. Other chapters discuss chemical characterization and analysis of peat; composition and hydrolysis of peat carbohydrates; composition of peat hydrolysates intended for yeast production; production of organic chemicals by peat hydrolysis; and scale of peat chemical operations. The final chapter examines the ecological and other environmental factors affecting the chemical technology of peat. This monograph will be a useful source of information for chemists, engineers, and managers interested in the industrial potential of peat as a chemical feedstock.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Chemical Characterization of Peats

I. Classification and Selection of Peats

II. Significance of Peat Characterization in Chemical Technology

III. Relation of Chemical Composition to the Process of Peat Formation

IV. Subsurface Biological Characterization of Peat

Chapter 3 Solvent Extraction of Peat Bitumens

I. Terminology

II. Bitumen Extraction Processes

III. Extraction with Mixed Solvents

IV. Extraction with Benzene-Ethanol

V. Other Extraction Procedures

VI. Yield of Bitumens

VII. Effects of Heat and Chemical Treatment on the Yield of Peat Bitumens

VIII. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Bitumens

IX. Chemical Composition of Bitumens

Chapter 4 Production of Peat Waxes

I. Removal of Resins

II. Removal of Asphaltic Materials

III. Yield of Resins

IV. Asphaltenes in Peat

V. Characterization of Deresinated Peat Waxes

VI. Hydrocarbons in Peat Wax

VII. Esters and Alcohols in Peat Wax

VIII. Peat Wax Acids and the Problems of Peat Wax Saponification

IX. Deasphalted Peat Wax

X. Decolorization and Oxidation of Peat Waxes

XI. Uses and Properties of Peat Waxes

XII. Other Uses of Peat Waxes and Bitumens

XIII. Uses of Dewaxed Peats

XIV. Commercial Aspects of Peat Wax Utilization

Chapter 5 Resin Component of Peat Bitumens

I. Characterization of Peat Resins by Nonchromatographic Methods

II. Characterization of Resin Acids by Saponification and Chromatography

III. Unsaponifiable Components of Resins

IV. Steroids in Peat

A. ß-Sitosterol and ß-Sitostanol

B. Other Steroids

C. Occurrence of Steroids in Peat

V. Triterpenoids in Peat

Chapter 6 Peat Carbohydrates: Composition and Hydrolysis

I. Approaches to the Study of Peat Carbohydrates

II. Nature and Distribution of Peat Carbohydrates

III. Pectins

IV. Hemicelluloses

V. Cellulose

VI. Chitin

VII. Significance of the Hydrolysis of Peat Cellulose

VIII. Cellulose Hydrolysis with Concentrated Sulfuric Acid

IX. Cellulose Hydrolysis with Dilute Sulfuric Acid at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures

X. Enzymic Hydrolysis of Cellulose

Chapter 7 Acid Hydrolysis of Un-fractionated Peat

I. Significance of the Acid Hydrolysis of Peat

II. Saccharification of Peat with Hydrochloric Acid

III. Basic Problems in the Sulfuric Acid Hydrolysis of Peat

IV. Attempts to Use Small Amounts of Concentrated Sulfuric Acid in Peat Hydrolysis

V. Attempts to Use Small Quantities of Dilute Sulfuric Acid in Peat Hydrolysis

VI. Inversion of Peat Hydrolysate

Chapter 8 Composition of Peat Hydrolysates Intended for Yeast Production

I. Carbohydrate-Derived Components in Peat Hydrolysates

II. Nitrogen Compounds in the Hydrolysate

III. Other Components of Peat Hydrolysates

IV. Supplementation of Peat Hydrolysis by Oxidation

Chapter 9 Production of Organic Chemicals by Peat Hydrolysis

I. Production of Furfural

II. Production of Lactic and Glycolic Acids from Peat Hydrolysates

III. Other Products from the Hydrolysis of Peat Carbohydrates

IV. Utilization of the Residue from Peat Hydrolysis

Chapter 10 Cultivation of Yeast on Peat Hydrolysates

I. Purposes of Yeast Culture

II. Production of Alcohol and By-Product Oxalic Acid by Yeast Fermentation of Peat Hydrolysates

III. Production of Yeast Protein from Peat Hydrolysate

IV. Characteristics of the Kr-9B1 Strain of Candida Yeast

V. Culture Medium for Candida Yeasts

VI. Production of Protein from Peat Hydrolysate by Nonyeast Microorganisms

VII. Production of Yeasts with High Fat Content

VIII. Production of High-Carotene Yeasts

IX. Vitamins in Peat in Relation to Yeast Culture

Chapter 11 Medicinal Products from Peat

I. Phenolic and Other Antimicrobial Substances

II. Steroids, Triterpenoids, and Other Physiologically Active Substances

Chapter 12 Humic Acids and Lignins

I. Problems in the Definition of Peat Humic Acids

II. Yield of Humic Acid from Peat

III. Preparation of Peat Humic Acid—Some Examples

IV. Structure of Humic Acid Extracted after Preliminary Removal of Bitumens

V. Molecular Weight of Humic Acids

VI. Fractionation of Humic Acids

VII. Hydrolysis of Humic Acids

VIII. Nitrogen in Humic Acids

IX. Chemical Oxidation of Peat Humic Acids

A. Oxidation and Nitration of Humic Acids with Nitric Acid and Nitrogen Dioxide

B. Oxidation of Humic Acids with Nitrobenzene

C. Oxidation of Humic Acids with Permanganate

D. Oxidation of Humic Acids with Halogens and Halogen-Containing Oxidants

E. Oxidation of Humic Acids with Hydrogen Peroxide

F. Reaction of Humic Acids with Aqueous Alkaline Solutions

G. Caustic Fusion of Peat Humic Acids

X. Chemical Reduction of Peat Humic Acids

A. Reduction of Peat and Peat Humic Acids by Hydrogenation

B. Reduction of Humic Acids with Phosphorus and Hydriodic Acid

C. Reduction of Humic Acids with Sodium Amalgam

D. Reduction of Humic Acids with Sodium Hydrosulfite

E. Reduction of Humic Acids with Zinc

XI. Ion-Exchange Capacity of Humic Acids

XII. Fulvic Acid

XIII. Hymatomelanic Acid

XIV. Pyrolysis of Humic Acids

XV. Humus Acid

XVI. Uses of Peat Humic Acids

XVII. Lignin in Peat

Chapter 13 Peat Pyrolysis and Coke Production

I. Nature and Purpose of the Carbonization of Peat

II. Selection Criteria for Peat Suitable for Carbonization

III. Low-Temperature Carbonization of Peat

IV. Chemical Changes below 280°C

V. The "Wet Carbonization" Process

VI. Wet Carbonization in Practice: The Boksitogorsk Plant

VII. Peat Charcoal

VIII. Chemical Changes during Semi-Coking

IX. Yields of Semi-Coke

X. Properties and Uses of Semi-Coke

XI. Production of Peat Semi-Coke

XII. Reactions in the Coking Process

XIII. Peat Coke in Germany: A History of the Wielandt Coke Ovens

XIV. High-Temperature Coking Technology in Germany

XV. Peat Coke Production in Finland

XVI. Composition of Peat Coke

XVII. Particle Size of Peat Coke

Chapter 14 Distillates and Gases from Peat Pyrolysis

I. Peat Tars

II. Distillation of Peat Tar

III. Extraction of Chemical Products from Peat Tar and Peat Tar Distillates

IV. Phenolic Resins from Peat Tar Phenols

V. Pyrolysis Water

VI. Pyrolysis Gas

Chapter 15 Activated Carbon from Peat

Chapter 16 Chemical Methods of Peat Analysis

I. Systems of Proximate Analysis

II. Solvent Extraction

III. Tests on Bitumens

IV. Tests on Water Extracts

V. Hydrolysis and Alkaline Extractions

VI. Preliminary Analysis of Monosaccharides

VII. Purification of Sugars with Ion-Exchange Resins

VIII. Analysis of Uronic Acids

IX. Analysis of Amino Sugars

X. Paper Chromatography of Peat Sugars

XI. Detection of Sugars by Thin-Layer Chromatography

XII. Gas Chromatography of Neutral Sugars

XIII. Analysis of Humic Acids

XIV. Analysis of Cellulose

XV. Amino Acid Analyses

XVI. Vitamin Assays

XVII. Analysis of Peat Ash

XVIII. Degree of Peat Decomposition

XIX. Correlations of Analyses with Preliminary Test Data

Chapter 17 Scale of Peat Chemical Operations

I. Size of Peat Chemical Plants

II. Size of Peat Coke Plants

III. Cost and Staffing of Peat Coke Plants

IV. Size and Character of Peat Wax Plants

V. Possibilities of Integration of Peat Wax Production with Other Processes

VI. Size of Peat-Hydrolysate Yeast Plants

VII. Size of Activated Carbon Plants

Chapter 18 Technological Perspectives for Peat Chemicals

Chapter 19 Ecological and Other Environmental Factors Affecting the Chemical Technology of Peat

I. The Ecological Setting and Environmental Attitudes

II. Pollution Prevention and Environmental Protection by Peat Chemical Factories

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
298
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1980
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323157117

About the Author

Charles Fuchsman