Patterns of Emotions - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123777508, 9781483270500

Patterns of Emotions

1st Edition

A New Analysis of Anxiety and Depression

Authors: Carrolle E. Izard
eBook ISBN: 9781483270500
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1972
Page Count: 314
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Patterns of Emotions: A New Analysis of Anxiety and Depression provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of anxiety and depression phenomena experienced in some degree by everyone and in crippling intensity by many. This book is a sequel to The Face of Emotion (Izard, 1971), which presented a general conceptual framework for the study of the personality, a theory of the emotions, and evidence for the universality of the fundamental emotions of interest, joy, surprise, distress, anger, disgust, contempt, shame, and fear. The book defines the problems of anxiety and depression, in the framework of differential emotion theory, as combinations or patterns of interacting fundamental emotions and bodily feelings. The differential emotion theory of anxiety and depression is compared with psychoanalytic theory, cognitive theory, and biogenetic theory. A number of studies are presented which support the differential emotion analysis of anxiety and depression. The book also presents studies of various life situations in which a particular fundamental emotion is dominant. What has been found repeatedly is that, in each such situation, the dominant emotion occurs in a pattern of dynamically related fundamental emotions. The patterns for a variety of commonly experienced and universal emotion situations are presented and discussed.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1 The Emotions and Their Neurophysiological Substrates

I. A Way of Conceptualizing the Emotions

II. Neurophysiological and Biochemical Considerations

III. Summary

Chapter 2 The Neurophysiology and Biochemistry of Fear and Anxiety

I. Neurophysiological Considerations

II. Biochemical Considerations

III. Summary

Chapter 3 Anxiety as a Variable Combination of Interacting Fundamental Emotions

I. Introduction

II. A Conceptual Analysis of Anxiety

III. Summary

Chapter 4 Differential Emotion Theory in Relation to Classical Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Theories of Emotion and Anxiety

I. The Classical Psychoanalytic Theory of Anxiety

II. Emotion and Behavior as a Result of Cognition

III. Emotion as Response or Response Syndrome

IV. Emotion Response Syndrome versus Intraperson Emotion System

V. Anxiety as Anticipatory Reaction or Arousal

VI. Anxiety as a Concept That Includes Fear, Shame, and Guilt

VII. Summary

Chapter 5 An Empirical Analysis of Anxiety in Terms of Discrete Emotions

I. Introduction

II. The Differential Emotion Scale

III. Combining the DES and an Anxiety Scale

IV. DES+A as a Tool for Analyzing the Experience of Anxiety

V. DES+A Applied to the Emotions That Constitute Anxiety

VI. Patterns of Emotions

VII. Patterning of Emotions as Represented by the Empirical Factors

VIII. Can Anxiety Be Considered a Second-Order Factor?

IX. Relationships among Free-Response Descriptions of the Anxiety Situation and the Discrete Emotion Situations

X. Patterning of Emotions as Represented by the a Priori Scales

XI. Patterns of Emotions in a Highly Threatening Real-Life Situation

XII. Summary

Chapter 6 A Dimensional and Discrete Emotions Investigation of the Subjective Experience of Emotion

I. Introduction

II. Basic Dimensions of Emotion

III. Method

IV. Procedure

V. Results

VI. Discussion

VII. Comparison of DRS and DES in the Assessment of the Anxiety Experience

VIII. Relationship of Dimensional and Discrete Emotions Approaches to the Study of Emotional Experience

IX. Summary

Chapter 7 Neurophysiological and Biochemical Factors in Depression

I. Neurophysiological Considerations

II. Biochemical Considerations

III. The Need for a New Concept of Depression

IV. Summary

Chapter 8 Psychoanalytic Theories of Depression

I. Introduction

II. The Original Psychoanalytic Model of Depression

III. Freud's View of Depression

IV. Narcissistic Loss and Fixation

V. Dependency, Emptiness, and Shame

VI. Loss of Self-Esteem and Ego Conflicts

VII. Depression Independent of Loss

VIII. Depression and the Disruption of Sensory and Perceptual Functions

IX. A Psychoanalytic View Involving Discrete Emotions and Emotion Dynamics

X. Empirical Studies of Psychoanalytic Concepts


Chapter 9 Biogenetic, Socio cultural, and Cognitive Factors in Depression

I. A Biogenetic Theory of Depression

II. Sociocultural Factors in Depression

III. Cognitive Factors and a Detailed Cognitive Theory

IV. The Symptomatology and Phenomenology of Depression

V. Some Personality (Test) Characteristics of Depression

VI. Summary

Chapter 10 Depression as a Pattern of Emotions and Feelings: Factor-

I. Analytic Investigations

II. Alan G. Marshall and Carroll E. Izard


IV. Study I

V. Study II

VI. Summary

Chapter 11 Differential Emotion Theory and the Empirical Analysis of Depression

I. Introduction

II. The Differential Emotion Theory of Depression

III. Empirical Analysis of Depression

IV. Patterns of Emotions and Feelings in Depression

V. Anxiety versus Depression

VI. Measures Used in the Depression Studies

VII. The Depression Scores from the Depression and Fundamental Emotion Situations

VIII. The DES+D Profiles from the Depression and the Fundamental Emotion Situations

IX. DES+D Factors in the Fundamental Emotion Situations

X. A Priori Profiles in Depression and the Related Fundamental Emotion Situations

XI. Patterns of Emotions of Depressive Clients in Psychotherapy

XII. Patterns of Emotion and Feelings in Hospitalized Depressive Patients

XIII. Summary


Subject Index


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Academic Press
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About the Author

Carrolle E. Izard

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