Partitioning In Aqueous Two – Phase System

Partitioning In Aqueous Two – Phase System

Theory, Methods, Uses, and Applications To Biotechnology

1st Edition - March 21, 1986

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  • Editor: Harry Walter
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142915

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Partitioning in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems: Theory, Methods, Uses, and Applications to Biotechnology is a collection of papers that discusses the applications of aqueous two-phase systems to problems of separation and extraction of macromolecules, organelles, and cells. Papers focus on the theoretical basis and the practical details of the procedures used. Some of the papers describe in one or a few steps how two components can be separated by the investigator manipulating their partitions so that one component is in one phase and the other component is in the other phase or at the interface. Investigators can also avail of developed batch extractions for plant organelles, cell membranes, nucleic acids, and proteins. The book cites as an example the partitioning of right-side-out and inside-out vesicles (obtained from fragments of thylakoid membranes) to the top and bottom phases, respectively, of a Dx-PEG system. Other papers describe the use of the countercurrent distribution when single extraction steps are not sufficient to produce a separation in materials that do not differ greatly in their partitioning behavior. The collection can prove valuable for bio-chemists, cellular biologists, micro-biologists, and developmental biologists.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Abbreviations and Conventions

    1 History of Aqueous Polymer Two-Phase Partition



    2 Theoretical Aspects of Partitioning

    I. Properties of Polymers

    II. Phase Separation

    III. Theory of Partitioning


    3 Preparation of Phase Systems and Measurement of Their Physicochemical Properties

    I. Introduction

    II. Preparation of Phase Systems

    III. Single-Step Partition Experiments

    IV. Measurement of Physicochemical Properties of Phase Systems


    4 Thin-Layer Countercurrent Distribution and Apparatus

    I. Introduction

    II. Principles of Countercurrent Distribution

    III. Phase System Selection

    IV. Countercurrent Distribution of Particulate Samples

    V. Thin-Layer Countercurrent Distribution Apparatus


    5 Other Types of Countercurrent Distribution Apparatus and Continuous Flow Chromatography Techniques

    I. Introduction

    II. Enhanced Gravity Countercurrent Distribution

    III. Column Chromatography

    IV. Countercurrent Chromatography

    V. Emerging Techniques

    VI. Commercial Availability


    6 Partitioning of Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. Properties Determining the Partitioning Behavior of Proteins

    III. Practical Procedures Used in Partitioning Proteins

    IV. Practical Aspects of Protein Extraction

    V. Multistep Extraction Procedures

    VI. Analytical Applications

    VII. Specific Studies


    7 Partitioning of Nucleic Acids

    I. Introductory Remarks

    II. General Behavior of Nucleic Acids in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

    III. Isolation and Fractionation of Nucleic Acids in Aqueous Two-Phase Polymer Systems

    IV. Fractionation of Chromosomes by Partitioning in Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Dextran Systems

    V. Applications of Partitioning for Studying Nucleic Acid-Ligand Interactions


    8 Interacting Systems and Binding Studied by Partitioning

    I. Introduction

    II. Theory

    III. Examples

    IV. Conclusion


    9 Steroid Receptors and Steroid-Binding Plasma Proteins Studied by Partitioning

    I. Biological Functions of Steroid-Binding Proteins

    II. Use of Partitioning for Studying Steroid-Protein Binding

    III. Use of Partitioning for Studying Molecular Conversions of Glucocorticoid-Receptor Complexes


    10 Surface Properties of Cells Reflected by Partitioning: Red Blood Cells as a Model

    I. Introduction

    II. What Red Blood Cells Taught Us About Phase Systems

    III. What Phase Systems Taught Us About Red Blood Cells

    IV. Comments on Dextran-Ficoll Aqueous Phase Systems

    V. Conclusion


    11 Separation and Subfractionation of Selected Mammalian Cell Populations

    I. Introduction

    II. Separation and Subfractionation of Blood Elements

    III. Partitioning of Bone Marrow Cells: Cells Containing Hemoglobin

    IV. Fractionation of Lymphoid Cells from Spleen and Other Tissues

    V. Tissue Cells

    VI. Tissue Culture Cells

    VII. Conclusion


    12 Partitioning of Bacteria, Virus, and Phage

    I. Introduction

    II. Aqueous Two-Phase Partitioning of Bacteria

    III. Aqueous Two-Phase Partitioning of Virus and Phage

    IV. Summary


    13 Partitioning of Animal Membranes and Organelles

    I. Introduction

    II. Relevant Principles in Phase Partitioning as Applied to Cell Particles

    III. Preparative and Semipreparative Procedures

    IV. Analytical Phase Partitioning Procedures: Application to Membrane Fragments and Organelles

    V. Conclusions


    14 Partitioning of Plant Cells, Cell Walls, Membranes, and Organelles

    I. Cells and Cell Walls

    II. Protoplasts

    III. Plasma Membranes

    IV. Intact Chloroplasts

    V. Leaf Mitochondria

    VI. Separation of Right-Side-Out and Inside-Out Membrane Vesicles

    VII. Concluding Remarks


    15 Applications of Phase Partitioning in Biotechnology

    I. Introduction

    II. Enzyme Purification by Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

    III. Extractive Bioconversions in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

    IV. Additional Preparative Applications

    Appendix: Analysis of PEG-Salt Systems


    16 Polymer-Ligands Used in Affinity Partitioning and Their Synthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. General Chemistry of Poly(ethylene Glycol)

    III. Synthesis of Poly(ethylene Glycol) Derivatives

    IV. Selected Poly(ethylene Glycol) Derivatives for Affinity Partitioning

    V. General Chemistry of Dextran

    VI. Synthesis of Dextran Derivatives

    VII. Selected Dextran Derivatives for Affinity Partitioning


    17 Partitioning: A Comprehensive Bibliography



    Addendum 1961-1983

    Addendum 1984-1985


Product details

  • No. of pages: 730
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1986
  • Published: March 21, 1986
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142915

About the Editor

Harry Walter

Affiliations and Expertise

Aqueous Phase Systems, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

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