Partitioning In Aqueous Two – Phase System - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127338606, 9780323142915

Partitioning In Aqueous Two – Phase System

1st Edition

Theory, Methods, Uses, and Applications To Biotechnology

Editors: Harry Walter
eBook ISBN: 9780323142915
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st March 1986
Page Count: 730
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Partitioning in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems: Theory, Methods, Uses, and Applications to Biotechnology is a collection of papers that discusses the applications of aqueous two-phase systems to problems of separation and extraction of macromolecules, organelles, and cells. Papers focus on the theoretical basis and the practical details of the procedures used. Some of the papers describe in one or a few steps how two components can be separated by the investigator manipulating their partitions so that one component is in one phase and the other component is in the other phase or at the interface. Investigators can also avail of developed batch extractions for plant organelles, cell membranes, nucleic acids, and proteins. The book cites as an example the partitioning of right-side-out and inside-out vesicles (obtained from fragments of thylakoid membranes) to the top and bottom phases, respectively, of a Dx-PEG system. Other papers describe the use of the countercurrent distribution when single extraction steps are not sufficient to produce a separation in materials that do not differ greatly in their partitioning behavior. The collection can prove valuable for bio-chemists, cellular biologists, micro-biologists, and developmental biologists.

Table of Contents



Abbreviations and Conventions

1 History of Aqueous Polymer Two-Phase Partition



2 Theoretical Aspects of Partitioning

I. Properties of Polymers

II. Phase Separation

III. Theory of Partitioning


3 Preparation of Phase Systems and Measurement of Their Physicochemical Properties

I. Introduction

II. Preparation of Phase Systems

III. Single-Step Partition Experiments

IV. Measurement of Physicochemical Properties of Phase Systems


4 Thin-Layer Countercurrent Distribution and Apparatus

I. Introduction

II. Principles of Countercurrent Distribution

III. Phase System Selection

IV. Countercurrent Distribution of Particulate Samples

V. Thin-Layer Countercurrent Distribution Apparatus


5 Other Types of Countercurrent Distribution Apparatus and Continuous Flow Chromatography Techniques

I. Introduction

II. Enhanced Gravity Countercurrent Distribution

III. Column Chromatography

IV. Countercurrent Chromatography

V. Emerging Techniques

VI. Commercial Availability


6 Partitioning of Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Properties Determining the Partitioning Behavior of Proteins

III. Practical Procedures Used in Partitioning Proteins

IV. Practical Aspects of Protein Extraction

V. Multistep Extraction Procedures

VI. Analytical Applications

VII. Specific Studies


7 Partitioning of Nucleic Acids

I. Introductory Remarks

II. General Behavior of Nucleic Acids in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

III. Isolation and Fractionation of Nucleic Acids in Aqueous Two-Phase Polymer Systems

IV. Fractionation of Chromosomes by Partitioning in Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Dextran Systems

V. Applications of Partitioning for Studying Nucleic Acid-Ligand Interactions


8 Interacting Systems and Binding Studied by Partitioning

I. Introduction

II. Theory

III. Examples

IV. Conclusion


9 Steroid Receptors and Steroid-Binding Plasma Proteins Studied by Partitioning

I. Biological Functions of Steroid-Binding Proteins

II. Use of Partitioning for Studying Steroid-Protein Binding

III. Use of Partitioning for Studying Molecular Conversions of Glucocorticoid-Receptor Complexes


10 Surface Properties of Cells Reflected by Partitioning: Red Blood Cells as a Model

I. Introduction

II. What Red Blood Cells Taught Us About Phase Systems

III. What Phase Systems Taught Us About Red Blood Cells

IV. Comments on Dextran-Ficoll Aqueous Phase Systems

V. Conclusion


11 Separation and Subfractionation of Selected Mammalian Cell Populations

I. Introduction

II. Separation and Subfractionation of Blood Elements

III. Partitioning of Bone Marrow Cells: Cells Containing Hemoglobin

IV. Fractionation of Lymphoid Cells from Spleen and Other Tissues

V. Tissue Cells

VI. Tissue Culture Cells

VII. Conclusion


12 Partitioning of Bacteria, Virus, and Phage

I. Introduction

II. Aqueous Two-Phase Partitioning of Bacteria

III. Aqueous Two-Phase Partitioning of Virus and Phage

IV. Summary


13 Partitioning of Animal Membranes and Organelles

I. Introduction

II. Relevant Principles in Phase Partitioning as Applied to Cell Particles

III. Preparative and Semipreparative Procedures

IV. Analytical Phase Partitioning Procedures: Application to Membrane Fragments and Organelles

V. Conclusions


14 Partitioning of Plant Cells, Cell Walls, Membranes, and Organelles

I. Cells and Cell Walls

II. Protoplasts

III. Plasma Membranes

IV. Intact Chloroplasts

V. Leaf Mitochondria

VI. Separation of Right-Side-Out and Inside-Out Membrane Vesicles

VII. Concluding Remarks


15 Applications of Phase Partitioning in Biotechnology

I. Introduction

II. Enzyme Purification by Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

III. Extractive Bioconversions in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

IV. Additional Preparative Applications

Appendix: Analysis of PEG-Salt Systems


16 Polymer-Ligands Used in Affinity Partitioning and Their Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. General Chemistry of Poly(ethylene Glycol)

III. Synthesis of Poly(ethylene Glycol) Derivatives

IV. Selected Poly(ethylene Glycol) Derivatives for Affinity Partitioning

V. General Chemistry of Dextran

VI. Synthesis of Dextran Derivatives

VII. Selected Dextran Derivatives for Affinity Partitioning


17 Partitioning: A Comprehensive Bibliography



Addendum 1961-1983

Addendum 1984-1985



No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1985
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Harry Walter

Affiliations and Expertise

Aqueous Phase Systems, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

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