COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444594860, 9780444594433

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids, Volume 6

1st Edition

Challenges and Limitations

Author: Michael Turk
eBook ISBN: 9780444594433
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444594860
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 6th November 2014
Page Count: 152
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.

Table of Contents

  • Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology
    • Series Editor – Erdogan Kiran
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Some Conventions
    • 1.2. Solid Compounds of Interest
    • 1.3. Scope of the Book
    • 1.4. Motivation
  • Chapter 2. Fundamentals
    • 2.1. Pure Supercritical Fluids
    • 2.2. Mixtures Consisting of an SCF and a Low Volatile Substance
    • 2.3. Useful Equations of State
    • 2.4. Modeling Binary Systems
    • 2.5. Modeling Ternary Systems
    • 2.6. Apparatus/Experimental Techniques for Measuring (High Pressure) Phase Equilibria Data
    • 2.7. Selected Particle Characterization Methods
  • Chapter 3. Basics of Particle Formation Processes
    • 3.1. Fluid Dynamics, Mass, Energy, and Momentum Balances
    • 3.2. Supersaturation
    • 3.3. Energetics of Nucleus Formation
    • 3.4. Kinetics of Phase Transition
    • 3.5. Particle Formation and Growth
  • Chapter 4. Formation of Organic Particles Using a Supercritical Fluid as Solvent
    • 4.1. Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution
    • 4.2. Modification of the RESS Process
    • 4.3. Conditions for Successful Particle Formation
  • Chapter 5. Formation of Organic Particles Using a Supercritical Fluid as Antisolvent
    • 5.1. Gas Antisolvent
    • 5.2. Modifications of the GAS Process
    • 5.3. Conditions for Successful Particle Formation—Results and Applications
  • Chapter 6. Formation of Organic Particles Using a Supercritical Fluid as Solute
    • 6.1. Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions
    • 6.2. Modification of the PGSS Process
    • 6.3. Conditions for Successful Particle Formation—Typical Results
  • Chapter 7. Formation of Inorganic Particles Using a Supercritical Fluid as Reaction Media
    • 7.1. Supercritical Fluid Reactive Deposition
    • 7.2. Hydrothermal Synthesis in Supercritical Water
    • 7.3. Conditions for Successful Particle Formation
  • Chapter 8. State of the Art Modeling of Particle Formation in Supercritical Fluids
    • 8.1. Rapid Expansion of a Supercritical Solution Process
    • 8.2. Gas Antisolvent Process
    • 8.3. Particles from Gas-Saturated Solutions Process
    • 8.4. Supercritical Fluid Reactive Deposition Process
    • 8.5. HTS Process
  • Chapter 9. Perspectives in Future Trends and Research Needs
  • List of Most Important Symbols
  • Index


Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions.

The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics.

Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines.

Key Features

  • Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids
  • Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory
  • Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties


Chemical engineers, materials scientists, chemists and physicists from both academia and industry


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2014
6th November 2014
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Author

Michael Turk

Michael Turk

Michael Türk received his Dipl.-Ing. degree in Chemical Engineering from the Universität Karlsruhe (Technische Hochschule). In 1993 M. Türk completed his PhD thesis in the field of thermodynamic properties and intermolecular interactions of binary gaseous mixtures. In his professorial dissertation of 2001 a theory was proposed allowing understanding of the relationship between process conditions and the properties of organic particles produced by supercritical fluid based processes.

His current research activities are focused on the use of supercritical fluids (mainly CO2 and H2O) as media to prepare organic, inorganic and metallic materials by physical transformation or chemical reaction and the development of new, energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly strategies to create novel products with extraordinary performance for pharmaceutical, energy and biomedical applications.

So far, M. Türk has authored 125 articles (including 13 book chapters); has graduated 20 PhD students (10 as supervisor and 10 as co-advisor) and more than 50 Diploma / Master and 15 Bachelor students.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute for Technical Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany