Paramedic Principles and Practice

Paramedic Principles and Practice

A Clinical Reasoning Approach

2nd Edition - October 1, 2020

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  • Authors: Brett Williams, Linda Ross
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780729543064

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Description

Edited by expert academics and educators, Brett Williams and Linda Ross, and written by content specialists and experienced clinicians, this essential resource encourages readers to see the links between the pathophysiology of a disease, how this creates the signs and symptoms and how these should to be managed in the out-of-hospital environment. Additionally, Paramedic Principles and Practice 2e will arm readers with not only technical knowledge and expertise, but also the non-technical components of providing emergency care, including professional attitudes and behaviours, decision-making, teamwork and communication skills. Case studies are strategically used to contextualise the principles, step readers through possible scenarios that may be encountered and, importantly, reveal the process of reaching a safe and effective management plan. The case studies initially describe the pathology and typical presentation of a particular condition and progress to more-complex and less-typical scenarios where the practitioner faces increasing uncertainty.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • About the editors
  • Contributing authors
  • Reviewers
  • The key to improving your clinical practice
  • Acknowledgements
  • PART ONE: PARAMEDIC PRINCIPLES
  • SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION TO PARAMEDIC PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Professionalism
  • Summary
  • SECTION 2: FOUNDATION KNOWLEDGE
  • Chapter 2: Introduction to: Foundation Knowledge
  • Chapter 3: Perfusion
  • Introduction
  • What is perfusion?
  • Factors leading to normal perfusion
  • Disturbances of perfusion
  • Assessment of perfusion
  • Principles of medical management of perfusion
  • Summary
  • Chapter 4: The Autonomic Response
  • Introduction
  • The autonomic nervous system
  • Assessment of ANS function
  • Principles of management
  • Summary
  • Chapter 5: The Inflammatory Response
  • Introduction
  • What is inflammation?
  • The basics of normal inflammation
  • Abnormal inflammation
  • Summary
  • Chapter 6: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Pharmacodynamics (what the drug does to the body)
  • Pharmacokinetics (what the body does to the drug)
  • The effects of population variance on pharmacokinetics
  • Summary
  • SECTION 3: FOUNDATION CONCEPTS
  • Chapter 7: Introduction to: Foundation Concepts
  • Chapter 8: Evidence-Based Practice in Paramedicine
  • Case 1
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to evidence-based practice
  • Strengths of evidence-based practice
  • Barriers and weaknesses of evidence-based practice
  • So what does this all mean for paramedics?
  • Chapter 9: The Clinical Reasoning Process
  • Introduction
  • How do paramedics make decisions?
  • Theoretical and conceptual foundations of clinical reasoning
  • Dual-process theory—a framework for reasoning
  • Approaches to decision-making 'on the ground’
  • Factors affecting the clinical reasoning process
  • Strategies to enhance quality of clinical reasoning
  • A step-by-step guide to clinical decision-making
  • Summary
  • Chapter 10: Introduction to: Communication and Non-technical Skills
  • SECTION 4: COMMUNICATION AND NON-TECHNICAL SKILLS
  • Chapter 11: Interpersonal Communication and Patient-Focused Care
  • Introduction
  • Fundamental concepts of communication
  • Verbal and non-verbal communication
  • The science and art of patient communication
  • Effective listening
  • Patient-centred communication
  • Emotional and behavioural components of effective communication
  • Summary
  • SECTION 5: THE AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS
  • Chapter 12: Introduction to: The Australian and New Zealand Healthcare Systems
  • Chapter 13: The Paramedic Role in Healthcare
  • Introduction
  • The roles of ambulance services and paramedics in Australia and New Zealand
  • Professionalism, regulation and professional standards
  • The future paramedic role
  • Summary
  • Chapter 14: Characteristics of Ambulance Patients
  • Introduction
  • Who is using ambulance services?
  • What factors can lead to people calling for an ambulance?
  • From problem onset to the decision to call for an ambulance
  • The process of calling for an ambulance
  • Summary
  • SECTION 6: PATIENT AND PARAMEDIC SAFETY
  • Chapter 15: Introduction to: Patient and Paramedic Safety
  • Chapter 16: Patient Safety and Paramedicine
  • Introduction
  • The harm caused by healthcare errors
  • Types of medical error
  • Models of error
  • Reducing diagnostic errors
  • Error defence
  • Error management
  • Evidence-based practice and patient safety
  • EBP, individual patients and clinical reasoning
  • Summary
  • Chapter 17: Paramedic Health and Wellbeing
  • Introduction
  • Paramedic health and safety
  • Definitions
  • Stress
  • Managing emotion
  • Fatigue
  • Shiftwork
  • Occupational violence
  • Getting help
  • Physical injury, physical employment standards and physical activity
  • Nutrition
  • Alcohol and other drugs
  • Summary
  • SECTION 7: LEGAL, ETHICAL AND PROFESSIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • Chapter 18: Introduction to: Legal, Ethical and Professional Considerations
  • Chapter 19: Legal and Ethical Considerations in Clinical Decision-Making
  • Introduction
  • Ethics and the law
  • Consent
  • Refusal of treatment
  • Elements of consent from a paramedic perspective
  • Case study evaluation
  • Documentation
  • Summary
  • Chapter 20: Introduction to: The Paramedic Clinical Approach
  • PART TWO: PARAMEDIC PRACTICE
  • SECTION 8: THE PARAMEDIC CLINICAL APPROACH
  • Chapter 21: The Structured Clinical Approach
  • Introduction
  • The structured clinical approach
  • Chapter 22: The Patient-Centred Interview
  • Introduction
  • The structured patient-centred interview
  • Paramedic-patient interview structure
  • Summary
  • Chapter 23: Introduction to: The Paramedic Approach to the Patient With a Respiratory Condition
  • SECTION 9: THE PARAMEDIC APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH A RESPIRATORY CONDITION
  • Chapter 24: Airway Obstruction
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Hospital admission
  • Follow-up
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 25: Asthma
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Gas trapping
  • Airway remodelling
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Follow-up
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future directions
  • Summary
  • Chapter 26: Acute Pulmonary Oedema
  • Introduction
  • EVALUATE
  • Hospital admission
  • Long-term impact
  • Acute pulmonary oedema across the lifespan
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 27: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Definitions
  • ASSESS
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Hospital admission
  • Investigations
  • Follow-up
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research and trends
  • Summary
  • Chapter 28: Pneumothorax
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Hospital admission
  • Long-term impact
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 29: Pulmonary Embolism
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Risk factors
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Research
  • Summary
  • SECTION 10: THE PARAMEDIC APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH A CARDIAC CONDITION
  • Chapter 30: Introduction to: The Paramedic Approach to the Patient With a Cardiac Condition
  • Chapter 31: Chest Pain
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Myocardial perfusion and myocardial workload
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Investigations
  • Ongoing management
  • Hospital admission
  • Follow-up
  • ACS across the lifespan
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 32: Arrhythmias
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Hospital admission
  • Arrhythmias across the lifespan
  • Wolff-Parkinson-White
  • Long QT syndrome
  • Commotio cordis
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 33: Cardiac Arrest
  • Introduction
  • Chain of survival
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Long-term outcomes
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • SECTION 11: THE PARAMEDIC APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH A MEDICAL CONDITION
  • Chapter 34: Introduction to: The Paramedic Approach to the Patient With a Medical Condition
  • Chapter 35: Hypoglycaemia and Hyperglycaemia
  • Introduction
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Hyperglycaemia
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Euglycaemic DKA
  • Hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar states
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • What else could it be?
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 36: Stroke
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical manifestations
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Investigations
  • Hospital admission
  • Stroke across the lifespan
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 37: Overdose
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Methamphetamine
  • Opioids
  • Quetiapine
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing treatment
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 38: Anaphylaxis
  • Introduction
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Investigations
  • Ongoing management
  • Hospital admission
  • Post-discharge management
  • Anaphylaxis across the lifespan
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 39: Seizures
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Seizure classification
  • Management
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research and trends
  • Summary
  • Chapter 40: Pain
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 41: Acute Abdominal Pain
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Specific conditions
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management in hospital
  • Hospital admission
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Bowel obstruction across the lifespan
  • Summary
  • Chapter 42: Sepsis
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Sepsis across the lifespan
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 43: Bleeding From the Gastrointestinal and Urinary Tract
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Hospital management
  • Summary
  • SECTION 12: THE PARAMEDIC APPROACH TO THE TRAUMA PATIENT
  • Chapter 44: Introduction to: The Paramedic Approach to the Trauma Patient
  • Chapter 45: Head Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Investigations
  • Hospital admission
  • Hospital discharge
  • Head injuries across the lifespan
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 46: Chest Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Investigations
  • Hospital admission
  • Long-term role
  • Chest trauma across the lifespan
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 47: Musculoskeletal Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • 2 CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Investigations
  • Ongoing management of uncomplicated injuries
  • Torn muscle repair
  • Management of specific fractures
  • Complications of MSIs
  • Rehabilitation
  • Long-term impact
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • 2 CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 48: Traumatic Spinal Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Long-term issues and care
  • Life expectancy for SCI survivors
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • 4 EVALUATE
  • 1 ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 49: Burns
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy of the skin
  • Pathophysiology of burn injury
  • Burn injury severity
  • The inflammatory response to burn injury
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT AND EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • TREAT
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Other types of burns
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 50: Mass-Casualty Incidents
  • Introduction
  • The 'all-hazard’ response to MCIs
  • Managing the scene at an MCI
  • Summary
  • SECTION 13: THE PARAMEDIC APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION
  • Chapter 51: Introduction to: The Paramedic Approach to the Patient With an Environmental Condition
  • Chapter 52: Hypothermia and Hyperthermia
  • Introduction
  • Hypothermia
  • ASSESS
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Chapter 53: Decompression Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 54: Snakebite Envenoming
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Hospital management
  • Investigations
  • Hospital admission
  • Long-term impact
  • Snake bites across the lifespan
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 55: Spider Bites
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing hospital management
  • Hospital admission
  • Long-term impact
  • Spider bites across the lifespan
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 56: Marine Envenoming
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Hospital management
  • Long-term impact
  • Envenoming across the lifespan
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Hospital management
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 57: Tropical Medicine
  • Introduction
  • General approach
  • Guidelines
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Malaria and other vector-borne diseases
  • Tuberculosis
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Other tropical and emerging diseases
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • SECTION 14: THE PARAMEDIC APPROACH TO COMPLEX CASES: SPECIFIC CHALLENGES TO PARAMEDIC REASONING AND MANAGEMENT
  • Chapter 58: Introduction to: The Paramedic Approach to Complex Cases: Specific Challenges to Paramedic Reasoning and Management
  • Chapter 59: The Socially Isolated Patient
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Hospital admission
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 60: The Dying Patient
  • Introduction
  • Death and dying across the lifespan
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Ongoing management
  • Hospital admission
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 61: Older Patients
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Approach to assessment
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 62: Indigenous Australian Patients
  • Introduction
  • Kinship
  • Culture
  • Distribution
  • Epidemiological profile
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 63: Māori Patients
  • Introduction
  • Specific aspects of healthcare for Mori
  • Epidemiological profile
  • Mental health
  • Delayed access to healthcare
  • Death among Mori populations
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 64: Family Violence
  • Introduction
  • Background to family violence
  • The role of paramedics and ambulance services
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • SECTION 15: THE PARAMEDIC APPROACH TO THE PATIENT DISPLAYING CHANGES IN BEHAVIOUR: MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL ILLNESS
  • Chapter 65: Introduction to: The Paramedic Approach to the Patient Displaying Changes in Behaviour: Mental Health and Mental Illness
  • Chapter 66: Mental Health Conditions
  • Introduction
  • Prevalence of out-of-hospital and emergency department mental health presentations
  • The mental health system: why the increase in the out-of-hospital attendance to those with mental health concerns
  • Concepts of recovery and the biopsychosocial model of care
  • Pathophysiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Chapter 67: De-Escalation Strategies
  • Introduction
  • Aggression
  • De-escalation
  • Summary
  • SECTION 16: THE PARAMEDIC APPROACH TO OBSTETRIC, NEONATAL AND PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS
  • Chapter 68: Introduction to: The Paramedic Approach to Obstetric, Neonatal and Paediatric Patients
  • Chapter 69: Imminent Birth
  • Introduction
  • Physiology
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • Hospital admission
  • Investigations
  • Follow-up
  • ASSESS
  • TREAT
  • ASSESS
  • TREAT
  • ASSESS
  • TREAT
  • ASSESS
  • TREAT
  • Further research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 70: Neonatal Resuscitation
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Identifying the newborn at risk of disorders during transition
  • Failure to breathe effectively at birth
  • Failure to establish effective ventilation after birth
  • Preparing for the birth of a baby
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Newborn airway management
  • Ongoing management
  • Documentation
  • Birth during transport
  • Discontinuing resuscitation
  • Hospital admission
  • Investigations
  • Follow-up
  • The preterm baby
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Long-term role
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Hospital management
  • Future research
  • Summary
  • Chapter 71: Paediatric Patients
  • Introduction
  • Important differences in children
  • Respiratory distress
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • ASSESS
  • CONFIRM
  • TREAT
  • EVALUATE
  • Summary
  • Medications Commonly Encountered in Community Emergency Health
  • Glossary
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1100
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2020
  • Published: October 1, 2020
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780729543064

About the Authors

Brett Williams

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Paramedicine, Monash University, Australia

Linda Ross

Affiliations and Expertise

Head, Postgraduate Programs & Deputy Head, Department of Paramedicine, Monash University

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