Palm Oil

Palm Oil

Production, Processing, Characterization, and Uses

1st Edition - April 12, 2012
This is the Latest Edition
  • Editors: Oi-Ming Lai, Chin-Ping Tan, Casimir Akoh
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128102305
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128043462

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Description

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Characterization, and Uses serves as a rich source of information on the production, processing, characterization and utilization of palm oil and its components. It also includes several topics related to oil palm genomics, tissue culture and genetic engineering of oil palm. Physical, chemical and polymorphic properties of palm oil and its components as well as the measurement and maintenance of palm oil quality are included and may be of interest to researchers and food manufacturers. General uses of palm oil/kernel oil and their fractions in food, nutritional and oleochemical products are discussed as well as the potential use of palm oil as an alternative to trans fats. Some attention is also given to palm biomass, bioenergy, biofuels, waste management, and sustainability.

Key Features

  • Presents several chapters related to oil palm genetics, including oil palm genomics, tissue culture and genetic engineering.
  • Includes contributions from more than 80 well-known scientists and researchers in the field.
  • In addition to chapters on food uses of palm oil, the book contains nonfood applications such as use as a feedstock for wood-based products or for bioenergy.
  • Covers key aspects important to the sustainable development of palm oil.

Readership

food manufacturers, food scientists, plant geneticists, chemical engineers, nutritionists, food formulators

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: A Brief History of the Oil Palm

    • Introduction
    • Taxonomy, Origins and Distribution of Oil Palms
    • Development of the Oil Palm Industry
    • Uses of the Oil Palm
    • Historical Trends in Yield Improvement
    • Palm Fruit Processing
    • Recent Developments
    • Acknowledgments
    • Appendix

    Chapter 2: Breeding and Genetics of the Oil Palm

    • Introduction
    • World Trade and Uses
    • Plant Variety Improvement
    • Variety Groups and Genetic Resources
    • Reproductive Biology and Plant Propagation
    • Tissue Culture Clonal Propagation
    • Breeding and Selection Methods
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 3: Oil Palm Genomics

    • Introduction
    • Building the Foundation for Oil Palm Genomics Research
    • Unraveling the Oil Palm DNA
    • Genomic Platforms for Producing New and Improved Planting Materials
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 4: Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering of Oil Palm

    • Introduction
    • Tissue Culture of Oil Palm
    • Oil Palm Tissue Culture in Other Countries
    • Genetic Engineering of Oil Palm
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 5: Ripening, Harvesting, and Transport of Oil Palm Bunches

    • Introduction
    • Bunch Development, Oil Synthesis, and Fruit Maturation
    • Harvesting Schedules and Criteria
    • Harvesting Practice and Tools
    • Breeding for Efficient Harvesting
    • Harvesting Costs and the Need for Mechanization
    • Handling and Transport of Bunches
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 6: Effect of Pests and Diseases on Oil Palm Yield

    • Introduction
    • Leaf-eating Caterpillars
    • Leaf Miners
    • Long Horn Grasshoppers
    • Bunch Moth
    • Rhinoceros Beetle
    • Red Palm Weevil
    • Cockchafer Beetles
    • Rats
    • Important Diseases
    • Basal Stem Rot (BSR)
    • Upper Stem Rot (USR)
    • Fusarium Wilt or Vascular Wilt
    • Red Ring Disease
    • Sudden Wither
    • Bunch Rot
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 7: The Economics of Malaysian Palm Oil Production, Marketing, and Utilization

    • Introduction
    • Policy Environment
    • Production of Palm Oil
    • Marketing and Trade
    • Import Demand of CPO
    • Palm Oil Utilization
    • Issues and Challenges
    • The Way Forward

    Chapter 8: Palm and Palm Kernel Oil Production and Processing in Malaysia and Indonesia

    • Introduction
    • Oil Palm Industry Value Chain
    • Oil Palm Milling Process
    • Palm Kernel Crushing Process
    • Oil Palm Sustainability Issues
    • The Way Forward

    Chapter 9: Palm and Palm Kernel Oil Production and Processing in Brazil

    • Introduction
    • Production and Commercialization of Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil in Brazil
    • Processing of Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil in Brazil
    • Use of Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil
    • Governmental Incentives for Oil Palm Tree Production in Brazil
    • Future Developments Related to Palm Oil In Brazil
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 10: Palm and Palm Kernel Oil Production and Processing in Nigeria

    • Introduction
    • Palm and Palm Kernel Oil Production Structure in Nigeria
    • Palm and Palm Kernel Oil Market Structure in Nigeria
    • Demand and Supply Dynamics
    • Production Cost of Palm and Palm Kernel Oil
    • Processing of Palm and Palm Kernel Oil
    • Nigerian Fresh Fruit Bunch Processing Capacity
    • Palm Kernel Oil Production in Nigeria
    • Palm and Palm Kernel Oil Refining
    • Fresh Fruit Bunch Yield Fluctuations in Nigeria
    • Uses of Palm and Palm Kernel Oil in Nigeria
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 11: Oil Recovery from Palm Fruits and Palm Kernel

    • Introduction
    • Economic Importance of Efficient Oil Recovery from the Palm Fruit and Kernel to the Various Stakeholders
    • Environment
    • Sources of Oil Loss Along the Palm Fruit and Palm Kernel Processing Chain
    • Major Challenges and Problems of Oil Recovery to the Oil Processors
    • Quality and Uses of the Recovered Oils
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 12: Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil Refining and Fractionation Technology

    • Introduction
    • Compositional Properties of Palm and Palm Kernel Oils
    • Minor Components in Crude Palm and Palm Kernel Oils
    • Quality Parameters of Crude Palm and Palm Kernel Oils
    • Refining Practices for Crude Palm and Palm Kernel Oils
    • Latest Developments in Palm and Palm Kernel Oils Refining
    • Quality Parameters of Refined Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil
    • Specially Refined Palm Based Products
    • Equipment for Dry Fractionation of Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil
    • Multi-step Dry Fractionation of Palm Oil
    • Dry Fractionation of Palm Kernel Oil
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 13: The Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil and Its Components

    • Introduction
    • The Physical Properties of Palm Oil and Its Components
    • The Chemical Properties of Palm Oil and Its Components
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 14: Polymorphic Properties of Palm Oil and Its Major Component Triacyglycerols

    • Introduction
    • Polymorphism and Mixing Phase Behavior of TAGs
    • Polymorphism of Major Component Triacylglycerols in Palm Oil
    • Binary Mixing Behavior of Main Component Triacylglycerols in Palm Oil
    • Granular Crystal Formation in Palm-based Fat Spread
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgment

    Chapter 15: Measurement and Maintenance of Palm Oil Quality

    • Introduction
    • Quality
    • Quality in the Various Sectors of the Oil Palm Industry
    • Quality in the Refining Sector
    • Quality during Storage and Handling
    • Some Causes of Oil Quality Deterioration of Palm Oil Products during Storage and Handling
    • Measurement of Palm Oil Quality
    • Standardization of Analytical Techniques
    • General Palm Oil Quality Characteristics
    • Oxidation Analysis
    • Hydrolysis Analysis
    • Contamination with Foreign Substances Analysis
    • Contamination by Pesticides and Weedicides
    • Cross-Contamination Analysis
    • Other Quality/Contractual Analysis
    • MPOB Analytical Methods
    • Possible Solutions to Overcoming Quality Deteriorations
    • Conclusions
    • Appendix A
    • Appendix B

    Chapter 16: Minor Constituents of Palm Oil: Characterization, Processing, and Application

    • Introduction
    • Carotenoids
    • Tocopherols and Tocotrienols
    • Phytosterols
    • Other Minor Constituents
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 17: Enzymatic and Chemical Modification of Palm Oil, Palm Kernel Oil, and Its Fractions

    • Introduction
    • Structured Lipids
    • Production of Structured Lipids
    • Applications of Enzymatically-Synthesized Palm-Based Structured Lipids
    • Chemical Synthesis of Palm-Based Structured Lipids
    • Enzymatic Versus Chemical Synthesis
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 18: Health and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Its Components

    • Introduction
    • Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil
    • Dietary Fat and Health
    • Palm Oil as an Alternative to trans-fatty Acids
    • Palm Minor Constituents and Health
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 19: Food Uses of Palm Oil and Its Components

    • Introduction
    • Composition of Palm Oil
    • Fractionation of Palm Oil and Their Composition
    • Food Uses of Palm Oil, Its Fractions, and Components
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 20: Palm Oleochemicals in Non-food Applications

    • Introduction
    • Processing Routes for Basic Oleochemicals
    • Oleochemical Applications
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 21: Oil Palm Biomass for Various Wood-based Products

    • Introduction
    • Sources and Availability of Oil Palm Biomass in Malaysia
    • Wood-based Products
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 22: Oil Palm as Bioenergy Feedstock

    • Introduction
    • Bioenergy Potential from Oil Palm
    • Oil Palm as a Bioenergy Resource
    • Conversion Processes
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 23: Waste and Environmental Management in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    • Introduction
    • Future Trends: Palm Oil Industry and Clean Development Mechanism
    • Sustainable Palm Biomass Refinery in Malaysia Through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Project
    • Future Outlook

    Chapter 24: Traceability of RSPO-certified Sustainable Palm Oil

    • Introduction
    • Traceability in the Current Palm Oil Chain
    • Traceability of RSPO-certified Sustainable Palm Oil
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 25: Sustainable Development of Palm Oil Industry

    • Introduction
    • The Palm Oil Sustainability Debate
    • The Multi-Stakeholder Response—The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)
    • The Business Case for Sustainable Palm Oil Production—Going Beyond Certification
    • Outlook

Product details

  • No. of pages: 852
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2012
  • Published: April 12, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128102305
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128043462
  • About the Editors

    Oi-Ming Lai

    Oi-Ming Lai is a Professor in Enzyme Technology from the Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia. She obtained her Ph.D. in Biotechnology from Universiti Putra Malaysia in 1999. She is the coeditor of Healthful Lipids (AOCS Press), the author or co-author of more than 100 referenced SCI publications, more than 8 book chapters and the holder of 8 patents. She has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in enzyme technology, food biotechnology, industrial biotechnology, and food biocatalysis. Oi-Ming’s research program includes the development and improvement of structured lipids, upscaling and bioreactor design and kinetics, and product diversification of various oilseed components and its by-products. She has won numerous professional awards including the WIPO’s Best Invention by Woman Award in 2008 in Brussels, Belgium. She also sits on the Editorial Board of the Food and Bioprocess Technology Journal published by Springer USA.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Professor in Enzyme Technology, Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia

    Chin-Ping Tan

    Chin-Ping Tan is an associate professor in the Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia. He obtained his B.Sc. in Food Science and Technology and Ph.D. in Food Processing from Universiti Putra Malaysia in 1998 and 2001, respectively. From 2002 to 2004, he served as a JSPS Postdoctoral Fellow at National Food Research Institute, Japan. He has a strong interest in physicochemical properties and changes in quality of palm oil products. His current research interests center on lipid science and technology, food nanotechnology, food emulsion, food processing, flavor sciences, and thermal analysis. He has published 5 book chapters, over 120 refereed papers in international refereed journals and presented more than 130 papers in various national and international conferences. In June 2011, he was appointed Visiting Professor at King Saud University, Riyadh, where he is involved in the research related to extraction and modification of plant oil from underutilized oilseeds. To date, he has received more than 40 research awards by various national and international bodies. Most recently, he was awarded the ProSPER.Net-Scopus Young Researcher Award 2010, TWAS Young Affiliate Fellow (2010–2014) and Universiti Putra Malaysia’s Excellent Researcher in Science and Technology in 2011.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Associate Professor, Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia

    Casimir Akoh

    Casimir C. Akoh received the Ph.D. degree (1988) in food science from Washington State University, Pullman. He holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in Biochemistry from Washington State University and the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, respectively. He is a Distinguished Research Professor of Food Science and Technology and an Adjunct Professor of Foods and Nutrition at The University of Georgia, Athens. He is the coeditor of the book Carbohydrates as Fat Substitutes (Marcel Dekker, Inc.), coeditor of Healthful Lipids (AOCS Press), editor of Handbook of Functional Lipids (CRC Press), the author or coauthor of over 210 referenced SCI publications, and the holder of three U.S. patents. He is an ISI Highly Cited Researcher in Agricultural Science. Springer Publisher listed his paper as the top 5 most cited articles in 2008/2009 in the J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists (2005), American Oil Chemists’ Society (2006), and the American Chemical Society (2006). He serves on the editorial boards of six journals and is a member of the Institute of Food Technologists, the American Oil Chemists’ Society, and the American Chemical Society. He has received numerous international professional awards for his work on lipids including 1998 IFT Samuel Cate Prescott Award, 2003 D. W. Brooks Award, 2004 AOCS Stephen S. Chang Award, 2008 IFT Stephen S. Chang Award, 2008 IFT Research and Development Award, 2009 AOCS Biotechnology Division Lifetime Achievement Award, and 2012 Supelco/Nicholas Pelick-AOCS Research Award. His research interest is on improving human health through healthful lipids produced by enzymatic reactions.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Distinguished Research Professor of Food Science and Technology and Adjunct Professor of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, Athens, United States