Palladium Membrane Technology for Hydrogen Production, Carbon Capture and Other Applications

Palladium Membrane Technology for Hydrogen Production, Carbon Capture and Other Applications

Principles, Energy Production and Other Applications

1st Edition - October 10, 2014

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  • Editors: A Doukelis, K Panopoulos, A Koumanakos, E Kakaras
  • eBook ISBN: 9781782422419

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Description

Thanks to their outstanding hydrogen selectivity, palladium membranes have attracted extensive R&D interest. They are a potential breakthrough technology for hydrogen production and also have promising applications in the areas of thermochemical biorefining. This book summarises key research in palladium membrane technologies, with particular focus on the scale-up challenges. After an introductory chapter, Part one reviews the fabrication of palladium membranes. Part two then focuses on palladium membrane module and reactor design. The final part of the book reviews the operation of palladium membranes for synthesis gas/hydrogen production, carbon capture and other applications.

Key Features

  • Review of manufacture and design issues for palladium membranes
  • Discussion of the applications of palladium membrane technology, including solar steam reforming, IGCC plants, NGCC plants, CHP plants and hydrogen production
  • Examples of the technology in operation

Readership

R&D managers in chemical engineering, energy companies which are developing palladium membranes and membrane reactors, and postgraduate researchers working in this field

Table of Contents

  • 1: Introduction to palladium membrane technology

    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Current palladium membrane technology and research
    • 1.3 Principles and types of palladium membrane
    • 1.4 Separation mechanisms
    • 1.5 Palladium-based membranes
    • 1.6 Manufacturing of palladium membranes
    • 1.7 Applications of palladium membranes
    • 1.8 Palladium membrane technology scale-up issues

    Part One: Membrane fabrication and reactor design

    2: Fabrication of palladium-based membranes by magnetron sputtering

    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Membrane fabrication by magnetron sputtering
    • 2.3 Membrane and module design
    • 2.4 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgements

    3: The use of electroless plating as a deposition technology in the fabrication of palladium-based membranes

    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Electroless plating
    • 3.3 Industrial electroless plating applications
    • 3.4 Other deposition techniques and their pros/cons
    • 3.5 Important process parameters in scaling up electroless plating

    4: Large-scale ceramic support fabrication for palladium membranes

    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Tubular porous ceramic substrates
    • 4.3 Flat porous ceramic substrates
    • 4.4 Macro- and mesoporous membrane layers made by slurry coating
    • 4.5 Mesoporous ceramic membrane layers made by the sol-gel process
    • 4.6 Special demands on palladium-supporting ceramic ultra-filtration (UF) membranes
    • 4.7 Mass production of ceramic membranes for ultra-filtration (UF)
    • 4.8 Strategies for reducing ceramic membrane production costs
    • 4.9 Conclusions

    5: Fabrication of supported palladium alloy membranes using electroless plating techniques

    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Preparation of palladium membranes by electroless plating (ELP)
    • 5.3 “Pore-fill” palladium membranes
    • 5.4 Preparation of an ultra-thin Pd-Ag alloy membrane supported on a YSZ-γ-Al2O3 nanocomposite
    • 5.5 High temperature Pd-based supported membranes
    • 5.6 Conclusion

    6: Development and application of self-supported palladium membranes

    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Properties of hydrogenated Pd-Ag
    • 6.3 Dense Pd-Ag membranes
    • 6.4 Applications: membrane reactors
    • 6.5 Conclusions

    7: Testing palladium membranes: methods and results

    • 7.1 Introduction: key parameters in scaling up membrane technology
    • 7.2 The KT – Kinetics Technology membrane assisted steam reforming plant
    • 7.3 Membrane modules
    • 7.4 Testing membrane module stability and durability
    • 7.5 Conclusions

    8: Criteria for palladium membrane reactor design: architecture, thermal effects and autothermal design

    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Design and modelling of an isothermal, single reaction, single reactor
    • 8.3 Design and modelling of an isothermal, single reaction, distributed system
    • 8.4 Modelling multiple reactions
    • 8.5 Modelling thermal effects
    • 8.6 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgement

    9: Simulation of palladium membrane reactors: a simulator developed in the CACHET-II project

    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Reactor configurations investigated during the CACHET-II project
    • 9.3 Model development
    • 9.4 Sub-models
    • 9.5 Calculation of physical properties
    • 9.6 Implementing the model: reactor modules
    • 9.7 Use of the program
    • Nomenclature
    • Greek symbols

    Part Two: Application of palladium membrane technology in hydrogen production, carbon capture and other applications

    10: Palladium membranes in solar steam reforming

    • 10.1 Introduction: what is steam reforming?
    • 10.2 The use of solar energy in steam reforming
    • 10.3 The use of palladium membranes in solar steam reforming
    • 10.4 Examples of solar steam reforming technology using palladium membranes

    11: Using palladium membranes for carbon capture in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants

    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants
    • 11.3 Handling sulphur in IGCC membrane plants
    • 11.4 Palladium membranes for IGCC applications
    • 11.5 Thermodynamic performance of IGCC plants using palladium membranes
    • 11.6 Effect of the membrane operating conditions on plant performance
    • 11.7 Economic assessment
    • 11.8 Conclusions
    • Appendix: nomenclature

    12: Using palladium membranes for carbon capture in natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants: process integration and techno-economics

    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 Design of key components for the optimum operation of the power plant
    • 12.3 Design of water gas shift (WGS) reactors and membrane reactors (MRs)
    • 12.4 Purification, compression and recirculation
    • 12.5 Determining optimum operating parameters
    • 12.6 Optimized case study
    • 12.7 Economic evaluation
    • 12.8 Conclusions

    13: Using palladium membrane reformers for hydrogen production

    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 KT – Kinetics Technology reformer and membrane module (RMM) pilot plant
    • 13.3 RMM operation mode
    • 13.4 RMM performance
    • 13.5 Conclusions

    14: Operation of a palladium membrane reformer system for hydrogen production: the case of Tokyo Gas

    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 Membrane reformers (MRFs): key principles
    • 14.3 Performance of the MRF system: hydrogen production and carbon capture
    • 14.4 Durability of the membrane module
    • 14.5 Long-term operation of the MRF system
    • 14.6 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgements

    15: Using palladium membrane-based fuel reformers for combined heat and power (CHP) plants

    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 Current micro-CHP systems
    • 15.3 Membrane reactor fuel processing for fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems
    • 15.4 Comparison between fixed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for micro-CHP systems
    • 15.5 Conclusions and future trends
    • Note for the reader

    16: Review of palladium membrane use in biorefinery operations

    • 16.1 Introduction
    • 16.2 Pure H2 production
    • 16.3 Main chemicals production
    • 16.4 Fuel upgrading
    • 16.5 By-products recovery through reforming
    • 16.6 Further considerations for potential uses
    • 16.7 Conclusions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 402
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2014
  • Published: October 10, 2014
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9781782422419

About the Editors

A Doukelis

Dr Aggelos Doukelis, is a researcher at the National Technical University of Athens, Greece.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Technical University of Athens, Greece.

K Panopoulos

Dr Kyriakos Panopoulos is a researcher at the Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Greece

Affiliations and Expertise

Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Greece

A Koumanakos

Dr Antonios Koumanakos is a researcher at the National Technical University of Athens, Greece.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Technical University of Athens, Greece.

E Kakaras

Professor Emmanouil Kakaras is afilliated with both the National Technical University of Athens and the Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Greece

Affiliations and Expertise

National Technical University of Athens and the Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Greece

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