Paleotemperature Analysis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483230313, 9781483275062

Paleotemperature Analysis, Volume 2

1st Edition

Authors: Robert Bowen
eBook ISBN: 9781483275062
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 276
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Table of Contents


Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Ancient Climates

Climate Today

Ancient Climates

Biological Indicators

Inorganic Indicators

Cold Climates

Hot Climates

The Carbonate Thermometer

Uniformitarianism

The Post-Silurian Climatic History of the Earth

Chapter 2 . The Isotopes of Oxygen As Climatic Indicators

Oxygen and Paleotemperatures

Carbonate-Water Equilibrium

Technical Problems

Chapter 3. The Sampling of Recent and Fossil Organisms

Belemnoidea

Phragmocone

Rostrum

Other Fossils

Chapter 4. Chemical Techniques

Thermal Decomposition of Carbonates

Acid Decomposition of Carbonates

Precipitation of Carbonate

Slow Formation of Carbonate Solids

Impurity Problems

Isotopic Exchange Experiments

Chapter 5. Mass Spectrometric Methods

Mass Spectrometry

Nier-Mckinney-Urey Type Machine

Inlet System

The Ion Source

The Analyzer Tube

The Collectors

The Balance Circuit

The Data Recorded

Conclusion

Chapter 6. Paleotemperature Scales

Mccrea's Carbonate Paleotemperature Scale

The Naidin, Teis and Chupakhin Scale

The Epstein, Buchsbaum, Lowenstam and Urey Carbonate-Water Isotopic Temperature Scales

Standards

Salinity

Average δ18O For Oceans

Relationship Between 18O Content and Salinity

Chapter 7. Magnesium and Strontium Concentrations

Magnesium and Strontium Contents

Magnesium

Strontium

History of Sea Water

18O/16O Ratios

Strontium and Magnesium

Recent and Fossil Samples

Chapter 8. Paleozoic Paleotemperatures

Devonian

Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous)

Permian

Carnarvon Basin, Lyons Group (Sakmarian)

Fitzroy Basin, Noon Kanbah Formation (Upper Artinskian)

The Moral of Eurydesma

Chapter 9. Jurassic Paleotemperatures

Europe

North America

East Greenland

Alaska

Canada

U.S.A

South America

Australia and New Guinea

India

Seasonal Variation Analyses

Chapter 10. Cretaceous Paleotemperatures

Introduction

Temperature Ranges

General Climatic Trends

Latitudinal Climatic Gradients

Shifts of Isotherms

Chapter 11. Tertiary and Pleistocene Paleotemperatures

Tertiary

Pleistocene

Corrections For Oxygen Isotope Data

Methods of Age Dating

Causes of Ice Ages

Further Pleistocene Core and Macrofossil Work

Absolute Chronology of Human Evolution

Chapter 12. Oxygen-18/Oxygen-16 Measurements On Recent Organisms

Temperature Conditions On Bermuda Platform

Depth Habitats of Some Pelagic Foraminifera

Isotopic Composition of Some Recent Marine Organisms

Addendum

Phosphate Thermometry

Future Prospects

Appendix 1. Method of Preparation of 100% Phosphoric Acid

Appendix 2. Correction Factors For Mass-Spectrometric Analysis of C02

Appendix 3. Average Ocean Water, Smow and The PDB-1 Standard

Appendix 4. Additional Standards

Appendix 5. Seasonal Analyses On Jurassic Belemnoidea

Appendix 6. The Aptian In The Devoluy

Final Note

References

Index



Description

Methods in Geochemistry and Geophysics, 2: Paleotemperature Analysis focuses on the paleotemperature-analytical method, including the use of oxygen isotopes in carbonate analysis and in advancing knowledge on paleoclimates. The manuscript first offers information on the isotopes of oxygen as climatic indicators and sampling of fossil organisms, as well as oxygen and paleotemperatures, belemnoidea, and other fossils. The book also ponders on chemical techniques and mass spectrometric methods. Discussions focus on thermal and acid decomposition of carbonates, slow formation of carbonate solids, precipitation of carbonate, and mass spectrometry.
The text examines paleotemperature scales and magnesium and strontium concentrations. Topics include salinity, standards, magnesium and strontium contents, history of sea water, and Mccrea's carbonate paleotemperature scale. The publication also takes a look at paleozoic, Jurassic, cretaceous, and tertiary and Pleistocene paleotemperatures.
The publication is a dependable reference for readers interested in paleotemperatures.


Details

No. of pages:
276
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1966
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9781483275062

Ratings and Reviews


About the Authors

Robert Bowen Author