Orthopaedic Mechanics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122816024, 9781483257594

Orthopaedic Mechanics

1st Edition

Procedures and Devices

Editors: Dhanjoo N. Ghista Robert Roaf
eBook ISBN: 9781483257594
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1981
Page Count: 320
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Orthopaedic Mechanics: Procedures and Devices, Volume II covers the biomechanical considerations for designing orthopedic procedures and devices. This six-chapter volume emphasizes the mechanics of skeletal responses and rehabilitation devices.

The first chapter reviews the design development of a device for non-invasive evaluation of bone strength by determination of the in vivo modulus of elasticity of the tibia. The next chapters provide finite-element stress analyses of the proximal tibia and the stresses and deformations resulting from forcing a prosthesis into the medullary canal through a viscoelastic annular cylindrical tube model. These topics are followed by descriptions of a three-dimensional analysis for a more representative computation of muscle and joint forces. A chapter focuses on the features and applications of the Torqheel device for correcting a lower extremity rotational deformity causing foot misalignment. This dynamic device activates the corrective forces by a collapse of the rubber ribs when ground contact is made, thus creating a rotational displacement of the heel about in its center. The last chapter illustrates the implementation of some considerations of the biomechanical design in the case of some popular orthopedic implants.

This book will prove useful to orthopedic surgeons and orthopedic mechanics researchers.

Table of Contents



1. Tibiometry

I. Introduction

II. Theory

A. Model Set-Up

B. Model Set-Up

C. The Determination of the Moment of Inertia

III. Design

IV. Procedure

A. Clinical Testing

B. Results

C. Unresolved Technical Problems

D. Future Evolution of the Device


2. Finite Element Stress Analysis of the Human Knee

I. Introduction

II. Biological Background

A. Anatomy of the Knee Joint

B. Articular Cartilage

C. Subchondral Trabecular Bone

D. Degenerative Joint Disease (Osteoarthritis)

III. Previous Stress Analyses of Synovial Joints

IV. Synovial Joint Loads and Material Properties

A. Tibiofemoral Forces and Contact Areas

B. Mechanical Properties of Articular Cartilage

C. Mechanical Properties of Trabecular Bone

V. Finite Elements Stress Analysis of the Knee

A. Finite Element Method

B. Stress Analysis of the Normal and Arthritic Proximal Tibia

C. Discussion

VI. Applications to Total Knee Design Evaluations

A. Tibial Component Fixation in Total Knee Prosthesis

B. Patellar Resurfacing Procedures


3. Endoprosthesis Features

I. Introduction

II. Intramedullary Devices

III. Structure of Bone

IV. Evaluation of Elastic Stress Distribution

A. First Approximation

B. Elastic Solution

C. Influence of Concentrated Forces

V. Influence of Viscoelasticity, Orthotropy and Non-Homogeneity

VI. Closure




4. Human Locomotion Analysis

I. Introduction

A. Relevance

B. Gait Analysis: Previous Works and the Scope of the Chapter

II. Three-Dimensional Gait Analysis

A. Data Acquisition

B. Data Utilization to Help Formulate the Terms Required for the Governing Equations

C. Determination of the Joint And Muscle Forces (by Means of a Dynamic Analysis of the Limb)

III. Error Analysis

A. Analytic Representation of the Monitored Kinematic Variables

B. Velocities and Accelerations

IV. Simplified Two-Dimensional Analysis in the Sagittal Plane

A. Determination of the Muscular Torques

B. Data Acquisition

C. Influence of the Measurements Errors on the Computed Torques

D. Analysis of Muscular Activity

V. Results From Two-Dimensional Analysis in the Sagittal Plane

A. Kinematics and Ground Reactions

B. Joint Torques and Muscle Activity Coordination

C. Electrical Activity and Instantaneous Length of Muscles

VI. Clinical Evaluation of Normal and Pathological Gait By Means of the Butterfly Diagrams

A. Equipment and Procedure

B. Butterfly-Patterned Dynamic Ground Reaction Vector Diagrams of Normal Subjects

C. Preliminary Observations on Abnormal Cases

D. Reproducibility of the Vector Diagrams

Appendix A

Appendix B



5. Torqheels

I. Biomechanical Aetiology of Lower Extremity Rotational Deformities

A. Internal Rotation

B. External Rotation

II. Correction Approaches

A. Application Of Opposing Rotation

B. Static Versus Dynamic Treatment

III. Torqheel—A Ground Contact Rotational Device

A. Torques Produced by Torqheels

B. Prescription and Installation Recommendations

C. Wear and Maintenance

IV. Kinematic Analysis of Wedging

V. Clinical Results


6. The Relationship Between Design and Material Selection in Orthopaedic Implants

I. Introduction

II. Principles of Material Selection

A. Structure of Materials

B. Mechanical Properties

C. Corrosion and Degradation

III. Principles of Biocompatibility

A. Local Tissue Response to Implanted Materials

B. Systemic Effects Following Implantation

C. Hypersensitivity

D. Infection

E. Carcinogenicity

IV. Materials in Clinical Use

A. Metals

B. Plastics

C. Ceramics and Glasses

V. Internal Fixation

A. Fracture Healing

B. Rigidity in Fracture Healing

C. The Strength of Fixation Devices

D. Screws for Fracture Plating

E. Examples of Implants for Internal Fixation

F. Materials for Internal Fixation

VI. Tribological Characteristics of Total Joint Replacement Prostheses

A. Friction and Lubrication

B. Wear

C. Summary of Materials Considerations

VII. The Stabilization of Prostheses

A. Impaction and Mechanical Fixation

B. Cements

C. Tissue Ingrowth into Porous Surfaces

D. Adhesion via Chemical Bonding

VIII. Total Joint Replacement Prostheses

A. Replacement of the Hip Joint

B. Replacement of the Knee Joint

C. Replacement of Shoulder, Elbow and Ankle Joints

D. Replacement of Finger Joints

IX. Conclusions



No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1981
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Dhanjoo N. Ghista

Robert Roaf

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