Orthopaedic Mechanics

Orthopaedic Mechanics

Procedures and Devices

1st Edition - January 28, 1981

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  • Editors: Dhanjoo N. Ghista, Robert Roaf
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483257594

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Orthopaedic Mechanics: Procedures and Devices, Volume II covers the biomechanical considerations for designing orthopedic procedures and devices. This six-chapter volume emphasizes the mechanics of skeletal responses and rehabilitation devices. The first chapter reviews the design development of a device for non-invasive evaluation of bone strength by determination of the in vivo modulus of elasticity of the tibia. The next chapters provide finite-element stress analyses of the proximal tibia and the stresses and deformations resulting from forcing a prosthesis into the medullary canal through a viscoelastic annular cylindrical tube model. These topics are followed by descriptions of a three-dimensional analysis for a more representative computation of muscle and joint forces. A chapter focuses on the features and applications of the Torqheel device for correcting a lower extremity rotational deformity causing foot misalignment. This dynamic device activates the corrective forces by a collapse of the rubber ribs when ground contact is made, thus creating a rotational displacement of the heel about in its center. The last chapter illustrates the implementation of some considerations of the biomechanical design in the case of some popular orthopedic implants. This book will prove useful to orthopedic surgeons and orthopedic mechanics researchers.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    1. Tibiometry

    I. Introduction

    II. Theory

    A. Model Set-Up

    B. Model Set-Up

    C. The Determination of the Moment of Inertia

    III. Design

    IV. Procedure

    A. Clinical Testing

    B. Results

    C. Unresolved Technical Problems

    D. Future Evolution of the Device


    2. Finite Element Stress Analysis of the Human Knee

    I. Introduction

    II. Biological Background

    A. Anatomy of the Knee Joint

    B. Articular Cartilage

    C. Subchondral Trabecular Bone

    D. Degenerative Joint Disease (Osteoarthritis)

    III. Previous Stress Analyses of Synovial Joints

    IV. Synovial Joint Loads and Material Properties

    A. Tibiofemoral Forces and Contact Areas

    B. Mechanical Properties of Articular Cartilage

    C. Mechanical Properties of Trabecular Bone

    V. Finite Elements Stress Analysis of the Knee

    A. Finite Element Method

    B. Stress Analysis of the Normal and Arthritic Proximal Tibia

    C. Discussion

    VI. Applications to Total Knee Design Evaluations

    A. Tibial Component Fixation in Total Knee Prosthesis

    B. Patellar Resurfacing Procedures


    3. Endoprosthesis Features

    I. Introduction

    II. Intramedullary Devices

    III. Structure of Bone

    IV. Evaluation of Elastic Stress Distribution

    A. First Approximation

    B. Elastic Solution

    C. Influence of Concentrated Forces

    V. Influence of Viscoelasticity, Orthotropy and Non-Homogeneity

    VI. Closure




    4. Human Locomotion Analysis

    I. Introduction

    A. Relevance

    B. Gait Analysis: Previous Works and the Scope of the Chapter

    II. Three-Dimensional Gait Analysis

    A. Data Acquisition

    B. Data Utilization to Help Formulate the Terms Required for the Governing Equations

    C. Determination of the Joint And Muscle Forces (by Means of a Dynamic Analysis of the Limb)

    III. Error Analysis

    A. Analytic Representation of the Monitored Kinematic Variables

    B. Velocities and Accelerations

    IV. Simplified Two-Dimensional Analysis in the Sagittal Plane

    A. Determination of the Muscular Torques

    B. Data Acquisition

    C. Influence of the Measurements Errors on the Computed Torques

    D. Analysis of Muscular Activity

    V. Results From Two-Dimensional Analysis in the Sagittal Plane

    A. Kinematics and Ground Reactions

    B. Joint Torques and Muscle Activity Coordination

    C. Electrical Activity and Instantaneous Length of Muscles

    VI. Clinical Evaluation of Normal and Pathological Gait By Means of the Butterfly Diagrams

    A. Equipment and Procedure

    B. Butterfly-Patterned Dynamic Ground Reaction Vector Diagrams of Normal Subjects

    C. Preliminary Observations on Abnormal Cases

    D. Reproducibility of the Vector Diagrams

    Appendix A

    Appendix B



    5. Torqheels

    I. Biomechanical Aetiology of Lower Extremity Rotational Deformities

    A. Internal Rotation

    B. External Rotation

    II. Correction Approaches

    A. Application Of Opposing Rotation

    B. Static Versus Dynamic Treatment

    III. Torqheel—A Ground Contact Rotational Device

    A. Torques Produced by Torqheels

    B. Prescription and Installation Recommendations

    C. Wear and Maintenance

    IV. Kinematic Analysis of Wedging

    V. Clinical Results


    6. The Relationship Between Design and Material Selection in Orthopaedic Implants

    I. Introduction

    II. Principles of Material Selection

    A. Structure of Materials

    B. Mechanical Properties

    C. Corrosion and Degradation

    III. Principles of Biocompatibility

    A. Local Tissue Response to Implanted Materials

    B. Systemic Effects Following Implantation

    C. Hypersensitivity

    D. Infection

    E. Carcinogenicity

    IV. Materials in Clinical Use

    A. Metals

    B. Plastics

    C. Ceramics and Glasses

    V. Internal Fixation

    A. Fracture Healing

    B. Rigidity in Fracture Healing

    C. The Strength of Fixation Devices

    D. Screws for Fracture Plating

    E. Examples of Implants for Internal Fixation

    F. Materials for Internal Fixation

    VI. Tribological Characteristics of Total Joint Replacement Prostheses

    A. Friction and Lubrication

    B. Wear

    C. Summary of Materials Considerations

    VII. The Stabilization of Prostheses

    A. Impaction and Mechanical Fixation

    B. Cements

    C. Tissue Ingrowth into Porous Surfaces

    D. Adhesion via Chemical Bonding

    VIII. Total Joint Replacement Prostheses

    A. Replacement of the Hip Joint

    B. Replacement of the Knee Joint

    C. Replacement of Shoulder, Elbow and Ankle Joints

    D. Replacement of Finger Joints

    IX. Conclusions


Product details

  • No. of pages: 320
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1981
  • Published: January 28, 1981
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483257594

About the Editors

Dhanjoo N. Ghista

Dr. Dhanjoo N. Ghista is President of the University 2020 Foundation and a world authority in Biomedical Engineering. Dr. Ghista is author and editor of numerous books on subjects ranging from Biomedical Engineering to Cardiology science and technology, and he is the inventor of novel medical diagnostic and surgical procedures. Dr. Ghista is a pioneer in the field of Biomedical Engineering in Translational Medicine. He promotes a new STEMbased model of Medicine for precision medicine and surgery, as well as the role of universities in contributing sustainable community development. Dr. Ghista has an international standing in academia, having set up programs and departments at universities in responsible academic-administrative positions (from Department Head to CAO/Provost), and has even been involved in planning universities. Dr. Ghista has taught courses in Engineering, Physics, Biomedical Engineering, medical sciences, sports science, and hospital management. His research involvements and publications include Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Cognitive Science and therapy, sports science, sustainable communities, and the role of university in society. Dr. Ghista is the author/editor of Biomedical Engineering Modeling for Medical Assessment, Volumes 1-3, Springer; Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Design Simulations, Lambert Academic Publishing; Cardiac Perfusion and Pumping Engineering, World Scientific Publishing; Applied Biomedical Engineering Mechanics, CRC Press; and Orthopaedic Mechanics Procedures and Devices, Academic Press; among many others.

Robert Roaf

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