Orthodontics

Orthodontics

Current Principles and Techniques

7th Edition - August 26, 2022

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  • Authors: Lee Graber, Katherine Vig, Greg Huang, Pádhraig Fleming
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323778602

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Description

Comprehensive, cutting-edge content addresses contemporary orthodontic practice! Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques, 7th Edition provides an evidence-based approach to orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, and clinical techniques, including esthetics, genetics, temporary anchorage devices, aligners, technology-assisted biomechanics, and much more. New to this edition are seven chapters, covering topics like AI, maxillary expansion in adults, Class II correctors, and autotransplantation. Newly authored chapters on orthognathic surgery and the craniofacial team, the periodontal-orthodontic interface, interdisciplinary treatment, and accelerated tooth movement, among others, address current perspectives. The 7th edition comes with access to an enhanced eBook version, which includes videos and additional visuals to show concepts difficult to explain with words alone. Readers can also find additional, online-only chapters and a fully searchable version of the text. Respected editors Lee Graber, Katherine Vig, and Greg Huang are joined by new editor Pádhraig Fleming, along with expert contributors from around the world. This text provides the most current and comprehensive collection of orthodontic knowledge, making it the go-to book for orthodontic residents and practitioners!

Key Features

  • Comprehensive coverage provides a one-stop resource for the field of orthodontics, including foundational theory and the latest on the materials and techniques used in today’s practice.
  • Experienced, renowned editors lead a team of expert, international contributors to provide the most authoritative clinical practice and supporting science from the best and brightest in the industry.
  • More than 3,400 images include a mixture of radiographs, full-color clinical photos, and anatomic or schematic line drawings, showing examples of treatment, techniques, and outcomes.
  • Detailed, illustrated case studies show the decision-making process, highlighting the consequences of various treatment techniques over time.
  • Extensive references make it easy to look up the latest in orthodontic research and evidence-based information, and all references also appear online.
  • Enhanced ebook, included with every print purchase, features a fully searchable version of the text and bonus online-only chapters, instructional videos, and more.

Table of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Part A: Foundations of Orthodontics
  • 1: The History of Orthodontics… From an Idea to a Profession
  • Pre-1900 development of the orthodontic specialty
  • The professionalization of orthodontics
  • The American Board of Orthodontics, Albert Ketcham, and early 20th-century appliances
  • More early 20th-century appliances and the extraction controversy
  • The cephalometer takes its place in the orthodontic armamentarium
  • Functional appliances to midcentury
  • The golden age of orthodontics
  • Two controversies: early treatment and occlusion
  • The temporomandibular joint and orthognathic surgery
  • Surgical adjuncts to orthodontics
  • Skeletal anchorage
  • Late 20th-century
  • 2: Craniofacial Growth and Development: Developing a Perspective
  • Somatic Growth
  • Craniofacial Complex
  • Molecular Basis of Craniofacial Development and Growth
  • Cranial Vault
  • Cranial Base
  • Midface/Nasomaxillary Complex
  • Mandible
  • Arch Development, Tooth Migration, and Eruption
  • Adult Changes in Craniofacial Form
  • Postnatal Interrelationships During Craniofacial Growth
  • Significance of Understanding Craniofacial Growth for Orthodontics
  • References
  • 3: Genetics and Orthodontics
  • Etiology
  • Background and basic definitions
  • Types of genetic effects and modes of inheritance
  • Nature versus nurture
  • Normal facial growth
  • Tooth size and agenesis
  • Dental eruption problems
  • Environmental and genetic influences on bilateral symmetry
  • Genetic factors and external apical root resorption
  • Short root anomaly
  • Personalized-precision orthodontics
  • Summary
  • References
  • 4: The Biological Basis for Orthodontics
  • Introduction
  • Tooth-supporting tissues
  • Biology of orthodontic tooth movement through bone
  • Fundamental studies reveal tissue-level bone changes leading to tooth movement
  • Bone cell modeling activity enables tooth movement through bone
  • Mechanical orthodontic forces stimulate biochemical cell signals
  • Local biological mediators of orthodontic tooth movement
  • Neuropeptides and orthodontic tooth movement
  • RANK/RANKL/OPG system for control of osteoclastogenesis and tooth movement
  • Biological control of osteogenesis involved in orthodontic tooth movement
  • Physical methods aimed at stimulating the biology of orthodontic tooth movement
  • Future directions
  • References
  • 5: Bone Physiology, Metabolism, and Biomechanics in Orthodontic Practice
  • Acknowledgments
  • Osteology
  • Bone physiology
  • Skeletal adaptation: remodeling and modeling
  • Cortical bone growth and maturation
  • Bone metabolism
  • Biomechanics
  • Sutures
  • Orthodontic tooth movement
  • Current status of miniscrew implants
  • Animal models for studying bone adaptation, remodeling, and modeling
  • Expedited tooth movement
  • Summary
  • References
  • 6: Application of Bioengineering to Clinical Orthodontics
  • Acknowledgment
  • Sign conventions
  • Biomechanics of tooth movement
  • The orthodontic appliance
  • Summary
  • References
  • 7: Clinically Relevant Aspects of Dental Materials Science in Orthodontics
  • Acknowledgments
  • Impact of appliance properties on mechanics
  • Archwires
  • Photocuring and adhesives
  • Materials for fixed retainers
  • Materials used in aligner treatment
  • Summary
  • References
  • 8: The Role of Evidence in Orthodontics
  • Introduction
  • The best scientific evidence
  • Applying evidence-based orthodontics in clinical practice
  • Integrating clinical expertise, the best evidence, and patient preferences/values
  • The future of evidence-based orthodontics
  • References
  • 9: Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Big Data Analytics in Orthodontics
  • Introduction
  • Applications of artificial intelligence in orthodontics
  • Artificial intelligences and genomics
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part B: Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
  • 10: The Decision-Making Process in Orthodontics
  • Background Concepts
  • Patient evaluation: the diagnostic process in orthodontics
  • Treatment planning: the problem-oriented approach
  • References
  • 11: Psychological Aspects of Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Patient perceptions
  • Patients with psychological disorders
  • Patients having orthognathic surgery
  • Patients with craniofacial deformities
  • Summary
  • References
  • 12: Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Planning with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Imaging
  • Introduction
  • Strategies for assessment of radiation dose risk
  • Clinical indications for the use of cone-beam computed tomography in orthodontics
  • Image analyses and the use of three-dimensional surface models and superimpositions
  • Treatment planning with computer-assisted surgery
  • Final considerations
  • References
  • 13: Upper Airway, Cranial Morphology, and Sleep Apnea
  • Acknowledgment
  • Introduction
  • Airway complications have far-reaching effects
  • Anatomy and growth
  • Airway measurements and imaging
  • Influence of orthodontic treatment on the airway
  • Sleep-disordered breathing: airway disorders and management
  • Importance of a multidisciplinary approach
  • Summary and conclusions
  • References
  • 14: Orthodontic Therapy and the Patient with Temporomandibular Disorders
  • Introduction
  • The Concept of Orthopedic Stability
  • Finding the Musculoskeletal Stable Position
  • Evaluating the Patient for Temporomandibular Disorders
  • Developing the Orthodontic/Temporomandibular Disorder Treatment Plan
  • Managing Temporomandibular Disorder Symptoms that Arise During Orthodontic Therapy
  • Summary
  • References
  • 15: The Orthodontist’s Role and Collaboration in a Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Team
  • The Team Approach
  • Orthodontic Treatment and Team Collaboration
  • Current Issues in the Access of Orthodontic Care
  • References
  • Part C: Orthodontic Treatment
  • 16: Principles of Treatment: Balancing Outcome and Efficiency
  • Introduction
  • Balancing risk and benefit
  • Orthodontic planning and esthetics
  • Orthodontic planning and dental health
  • Treatment process, experience, and outcome
  • Treatment duration and experience: association with outcome
  • Optimizing efficiency: treatment planning and mechanics
  • Fixed appliance attachments
  • Nonsurgical and surgical adjunctive procedures
  • “Short-term” orthodontics
  • Treatment principles: planning for stability
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 17: Optimizing Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
  • Acknowledgments
  • PART A: Patient Management and Motivation for the Child and Adolescent Patient
  • PART B: Treatment Timing and Mixed Dentition Therapy
  • References
  • 18: Standard Edgewise: Tweed-Merrifield Philosophy, Diagnosis, Treatment Planning, and Force Systems
  • 19: Contemporary Straight Wire Biomechanics
  • Straight wire appliance design and values
  • Straight wire appliance and self-ligation
  • Future directions
  • Summary
  • References
  • 20: Self-Ligating Bracket Biomechanics
  • The Historical Context of Self-Ligation
  • Factors that Hindered the Adoption of Self-Ligation
  • Proposed Core Advantages of Self-Ligating Brackets
  • Active Clips and Passive Slides
  • Self-Ligation and Treatment Efficiency
  • Self-Ligation and Patient Comfort
  • Self-Ligation and Effectiveness of Torque Control
  • Self-Ligation and The Periodontium
  • Self-Ligation and Root Resorption
  • Force Levels with Self-Ligation and Conventional Ligation
  • Does Self-Ligation Reduce the Need for Extractions?
  • PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND CLINICAL TECHNIQUE TIPS
  • Summary
  • References
  • 21: Lingual Appliance Treatment
  • Introduction
  • Customized Treatment Goals and Lingual Appliances
  • Main Differences Between Labial and Lingual Techniques
  • Summary
  • References
  • 22: Clear Aligner Treatment
  • Introduction
  • Materials
  • Attachment design and other features
  • Software
  • Biomechanics of clear aligner treatment
  • Clinical application
  • References
  • 23: New Frontiers in Fixed Class II Correctors
  • Introduction
  • Two-phase treatment with fixed class II correctors
  • Interarch appliances
  • Intraarch appliances
  • Temporary anchorage devices anchored or bone-borne noncompliance appliances for molar distalization
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 24: Temporary Anchorage Devices
  • Acknowledgment
  • PART A: Biomechanical considerations with temporary anchorage devices
  • PART B: The use of palatal mini-implant anchorage: conventional APPROACHES versus computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing workflows
  • PART C: Extraalveolar Bone Screw Anchorage Applied To Challenging Malocclusions
  • PART D: Orthopedic changes with bone-anchored miniplates and functional jaw orthopedics: biological basis and practice
  • References
  • Biomechanical Considerations with Temporary Anchorage Devices
  • The Use of Palatal Mini-implant Anchorage: Conventional Approaches Versus Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Workflows
  • Extraalveolar Bone Screw Anchorage Applied to Challenging Malocclusions
  • Orthopedic Changes with Bone-Anchored Miniplates and Functional Jaw Orthopedics: Biological Basis and Practice
  • 25: Maxillary Expansion in Adults
  • Traditional Tooth-Borne Expansion Appliances
  • Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion
  • Evolution of Bone-Borne Expansion Appliance
  • Maxillary Skeletal Expander
  • Fundamental Concept of Adult Expansion with Maxillary Skeletal Expander
  • Future Consideration
  • Maxillary Skeletal Expander (MSE) Versus Surgery and Microimplant–Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion (SMARPE) Versus Surgically Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion (SARPE)
  • The Microimplant-Assisted Rapid Palatal Expander and Orthodontics
  • References
  • 26: Orthodontic–Periodontal Interface
  • Prevalence of Periodontal Disease and Conditions
  • Pathologic Tooth Migration Related to Periodontal Disease
  • Gingival Recession
  • Gingival Recession and Planning of Orthodontic Treatment
  • Treatment of Gingival Recession in Orthodontic Patients
  • Increasing Gingival Thickness in Relation to Orthodontic Tooth Movement
  • Indications for The Treatment of Gingival Recession in Orthodontically Treated Patients
  • Timing of Soft Tissue Augmentation in Relation to Orthodontic Treatment
  • Surgical Treatment of Gingival Recession in Orthodontic Patients
  • Development of Gingival Recession in the Long-Term Following Orthodontic Treatment
  • Orthodontic Fixed Retainers and Periodontal Health
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 27: Orthodontic Aspects of Orthognathic Surgery
  • Acknowledgment
  • Background
  • Objectives
  • Effectiveness
  • Treatment need
  • The patient pathway
  • Patient evaluation
  • Systematic clinical evaluation
  • Treatment planning principles
  • The orthodontist’s role in orthognathic surgery
  • Soft tissue effects
  • Stability
  • Considerations in specific situations
  • Complications
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 28: Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy: Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Acknowledgments
  • Current Status of Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy
  • Goals of Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy
  • Diagnosis of Adult Orthodontic Conditions
  • Clinical Management of The Interdisciplinary Adult Therapy Patient
  • Sequence of Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy
  • Dentoalveolar Collapse: Orthodontic and Restorative Considerations in The Adult Interdisciplinary Patient
  • Stability and Individualized Retention for The Adult Interdisciplinary Patient
  • Risk Management for The Adult Interdisciplinary Therapy Patient
  • Summary
  • References
  • Part D: Specialized Treatment Considerations
  • 29: Bonding in Orthodontics
  • Introduction and Historical Perspective
  • Materials and Devices Used in Orthodontic Bonding
  • BONDING
  • Debonding
  • Prevention and Reversal of Decalcification
  • Bonded Retainers
  • Other Applications of Bonding
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 30: Management of Impactions
  • Teeth normally erupt! (cause)
  • Is there an impaction? (diagnosis)
  • Which teeth are the most likely to be affected? (prevalence)
  • Where is the tooth? (positional diagnosis)
  • Assessment of the overall malocclusion (treatment planning)
  • Resolving the impaction
  • Rationale for surgical exposure
  • Surgical options: two approaches
  • Attachments
  • Traction mechanisms, their range, and their directional potential
  • Finishing and the importance of torque correction
  • Impacted canines that resorb the incisors
  • Failure—patient-dependent factors
  • Failure—orthodontist-dependent factors
  • Failure—surgeon-dependent factors
  • References
  • 31: Management of Dental Luxation and Avulsion Injuries in the Permanent Dentition
  • Tissue response to trauma
  • Root resorption
  • Pulpal response
  • Alveolar fracture
  • Management of trauma and immediate sequelae
  • Treatment of avulsed permanent teeth with closed apex
  • Treatment of avulsed permanent teeth with open apex
  • Prevention
  • References
  • 32: Autotransplantation of Developing Teeth
  • Autotransplantation of developing premolars
  • Transalveolar transplantation
  • Autotransplantation of developing third molars
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 33: Iatrogenic Effects of Orthodontic Appliances
  • PART A: Prevention and management of demineralized lesions
  • Treatment of demineralized lesions
  • PART B: External apical root resorption
  • Management
  • Common questions
  • References
  • Prevention and Management of Demineralized White Lesions
  • External Apical Root Resorption
  • Further readingS
  • 34: Minimally Invasive and Noninvasive Approaches to Accelerate Tooth Movement
  • Patient and parent perspective on orthodontic treatment duration
  • Avenues to reduce duration of orthodontic treatment
  • Objective outcome measures in tooth movement acceleration
  • Approaches to accelerate the rate of tooth movement
  • Invasive methods
  • Minimally invasive methods Orthodontic Tooth Movement
  • Noninvasive methods
  • Drugs, hormones, and biologics
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 35: Aerosols in Orthodontics
  • 36: Computer-Assisted Orthodontics: Integrating Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Technology with Diagnosis, Treatment Planning, and Therapeutics
  • Acknowledgments
  • Evolution of diagnostic media technologies into therapeutics
  • Early treatment simulation technologies
  • Evolution of digital orthodontic therapeutics
  • The suresmile fixed appliance process: collaboration of the practice and digital lab
  • Additional therapies supported on the suresmile platform
  • Summary
  • References
  • Part E: Orthodontic Retention and Posttreatment Changes
  • 37: Stability, Posttreatment Changes, and Retention
  • Historical Background
  • Posttreatment Changes
  • Retention Devices
  • Adjunctive Techniques for Reducing Posttreatment Changes
  • Novel Approaches for Improving Stability
  • Responsibilities and Retention
  • Summary
  • References
  • Part F: Classic Chapters
  • 38: Interceptive Guidance of Occlusion
  • 39: Functional Appliances
  • References
  • 40: Treatment of the Face with Biocompatible Orthodontics
  • 1: Orthodontics: From an Idea to a Profession: How the Specialty Has Evolved from 1850 to the Present
  • Pre-1900 Development of the Orthodontic Specialty
  • The Professionalization of Orthodontics
  • Periodicals
  • The American Board of Orthodontics, Albert Ketcham, and Early Twentieth-Century Appliances
  • More Early Twentieth-Century Appliances and the Extraction Controversy
  • The Cephalometer Takes its Place in the Orthodontic Armamentarium
  • Form-Function Relationship
  • Functional Appliances to Midcentury
  • The Golden Age of Orthodontics
  • Two Controversies: Early Treatment and Occlusion
  • The Temporomandibular Joint and Orthognathic Surgery
  • Surgical Adjuncts to Orthodontics
  • Skeletal Anchorage
  • Late Twentieth-Century Fixed Appliances
  • A Brief History of the American Journal of Orthodontics
  • Formation of the World Federation Of Orthodontists
  • References
  • Pre-1900 Development of the Orthodontic Specialty
  • The Professionalization of Orthodontics
  • The American Board of Orthodontics, Albert Ketcham, and Early 20th-Century Appliances
  • More Early Twentieth-Century Appliances and the Extraction Controversy
  • The Cephalometer Takes its Place in the Orthodontic Armamentarium
  • Functional Appliances to Midcentury
  • The Golden Age of Orthodontics
  • Two Controversies: Early Treatment and Occlusion
  • The Temporomandibular Joint and Orthognathic Surgery
  • Surgical Adjuncts to Orthodontics
  • Skeletal Anchorage
  • Late Twentieth-Century Fixed Appliances
  • A Brief History of the American Journal of Orthodontics
  • Formation of the World Federation of Orthodontists
  • 18: Standard Edgewise: Tweed-Merrifield Philosophy, Diagnosis, Treatment Planning, and Force Systems
  • Acknowledgment
  • Historical Perspective
  • The Angle System
  • The Edgewise Appliance
  • Charles H. Tweed
  • Levern Merrifield
  • Dimensions of the Dentition
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Tweed-Merrifield Edgewise Appliance
  • Treatment with the Tweed-Merrifield Edgewise Appliance
  • Steps of Treatment
  • Summary
  • References
  • 35: Aerosols in Orthodontics
  • What is an aerosol?
  • What happens to aerosol particles and droplets once generated?
  • What are orthodontic aerosols?
  • When do aerosols pose a health risk?
  • How can we mitigate against orthodontic aerosols?
  • Summary
  • References
  • 38: Interceptive Guidance of Occlusion with Emphasis on Diagnosis
  • Diagnostic records
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Class I treatment
  • Premolars
  • Key measurements for diagnosis and case evaluation
  • References
  • Additional Readings
  • 39: Functional Appliances
  • Origin
  • Andresen activator
  • Bite-opening controversy
  • Mechanisms of class ii correction with functional orthopedics
  • Construction bite
  • Summary
  • References
  • 40: Treatment of the Face with Biocompatible Orthodontics
  • Acknowledgment
  • The damon system concept
  • Early observations of damon system treatment
  • Contemporary orthodontic philosophies
  • Force management
  • Computed tomographic scans demonstrate healthy bone structure after treatment with the low-force damon tube system
  • Case presentations and clinical analyses
  • Damon system essentials
  • Summary
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 992
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: August 26, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323778602

About the Authors

Lee Graber

Affiliations and Expertise

Licensed Specialist in Orthodontics; Board Certified, American Board of Orthodontics

Katherine Vig

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair, Section of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH

Greg Huang

Affiliations and Expertise

Chair of the Department of Orthodontics School of Dentistry University of Washington Seattle, Washington

Pádhraig Fleming

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