Ornithology in Laboratory and Field

Ornithology in Laboratory and Field

4th Edition - January 1, 1984

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  • Author: Olin Sewall Pettingill
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483263113

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Description

Ornithology in Laboratory and Field is intended as an aid to ornithological study at the college or university level. Students who lack the background knowledge usually acquired during a course in general zoology or biology should keep it handy for ready reference a standard elementary text on the subject. This book contains extensive material for purely informational reading, possibly enough to supplant the need of an additional textbook. Its principal purpose still complies with the title of its predecessors for it is essentially a manual to guide and assist the student in direct observations. All twenty sections, except the last (""The Origin, Evolution, and Decrease of Birds""), suggest methods and provide instructions for studies; and all conclude with an extensive list of references, frequently annotated, for further information. The twenty sections of the book can be taken up in almost any order and some may be omitted without affecting the instructional value of the others. A feature of this new edition is an introduction to birds and ornithology, intended for reading at the beginning of a course. The purpose is twofold: to show the significance of birds for study and to give an overall preview of ornithology, the subject, with emphasis on its wide scope, how it is studied, and some of the continuing and exciting opportunities that it offers for investigation.

Table of Contents


  • Birds and Ornithology: an Introduction

    Birds Defined

    Achievements for Flight

    Range in Size

    Ornithology Defined

    Ornithology Previewed

    Form, Structure, and Physiology

    Species and Speciation

    Distribution

    Behavior

    Migration and Orientation

    The Reproductive Cycle

    Longevity, Numbers, and Populations

    Evolution

    Topography

    The Head

    The Neck

    The Trunk

    The Bill

    The Wings

    The Tail

    The Legs and Feet

    References

    Feathers and Feather Tracts

    Structure of a Typical Feather

    Feathers of Adult Birds

    Feathers of Newly Hatched Birds

    Feather Development

    The Coloration of Feathers

    Feather Tracts

    The Number of Contour Feathers on a Bird

    Feather Parasites

    References

    Anatomy and Physiology

    Part I. The Anatomy of the Pigeon

    Skeletal System

    Muscular System

    Respiratory and Digestive Systems

    Circulatory System

    Urogenital System

    Nervous System

    Part II. Some Anatomical and Physiological Considerations

    Literature

    Skeleton

    Musculature

    The Oil Gland

    Digestive System

    Respiratory System

    Circulatory System

    Body Temperature

    Urogenital System

    Salt Glands

    Endocrine Organs

    Special Senses and Their Organs

    The Brain

    Systematics

    The Species

    Subspecies

    Speciation

    Some Examples of Bird Speciation

    The Higher Categories

    Nomenclature

    References

    External Structural Characters

    Characters of the Bill

    Characters of the Tail

    Characters of the Wings

    Characters of the Feet

    Characters of the Plumage

    Miscellaneous Characters

    Synopsis of North American Orders and Families

    Laboratory Identification

    Identification of Orders and Families

    Identification of Species

    Identification of Subspecies

    Key to the Orders of Birds of North America North of Mexico

    Key to the Families of Birds of North America North of Mexico

    Plumages and Plumage Coloration

    Sequences of Plumages and Molts

    Eclipse Plumage

    Molting in Adults

    Plumage-Change with Molt

    A Study of Plumage-Changes

    Abnormal Plumage Coloration

    Color Phases

    Sexual, Age, and Seasonal Differences in Plumage Coloration

    Uses of Plumage Coloration

    References

    Distribution

    Geographical Distribution

    Continental

    Insular

    Marine

    Seasonal Distribution

    Ecological Distribution

    Major Biotic Communities

    Seral Communities

    Primary and Secondary Communities

    Edge Effect

    Niches

    Altitudinal Distribution

    Life Zones

    References

    Field Identification

    Equipment

    Materials

    Procedure

    Results

    Supplementary Guides

    Other Guides and References

    Behavior

    Inherited and Learned Behaviors

    Individual Behavior

    Maintenance Behaviors

    Selecting Habitat and Shelter

    Selecting Food and Feeding

    Playing

    Social Behavior

    Agonistic Behavior

    Defense Behavior

    Flocking Behavior

    Reproductive Behavior

    General Study Procedures

    Objectives of the Study

    The Study of Behavior

    References

    Migration

    Causes of Migration

    Preparation and Stimulus for Migration

    Diurnal and Nocturnal Migration

    Effects of Weather on Migration

    Regularity of Migratory Travel

    Irregular Migrations

    Reverse Migration

    Rate of Migratory Travel

    Mortality in Migration

    Altitudes of Migratory Travel

    Course of Migration and Migration Routes

    Altitudinal Migration

    Distances in Migratory Travel

    Flight Lanes and Concentrations

    Flocking during Migration

    Direction-Finding

    Aids and Additional Suggestions for the Study of Migration

    Study of Nocturnal Migration

    Study of Diurnal Migration

    References

    Territory

    Classification of Territory

    Establishment and Maintenance of Territory

    Size of Territory

    Functions of Territory

    Home Range

    The Study of Territory

    References

    Song

    Functions of Song

    Substitutes for Song

    Male Songs

    Female Songs

    Mimicry

    Subsongs

    Inheritance of Song

    The Study of Bird Song

    References

    Mating

    Preliminary Stages

    Mating

    Kinds of Mating Relations

    Duration of Mating

    Mating Displays

    The Study of Mating

    References

    Nests and Nest-Building

    The Development of Nests

    Classification of Nests

    Identification of Nests

    Nest-Building

    False Nests

    Re-Use of Nests

    Protection of Nests

    Nest Fauna

    The Study of Nests and Nest-Building

    References

    Eggs, Egg-Laying, and Incubation

    Size, Shape, and Coloration

    Identification of Eggs

    Number of Eggs in a Clutch

    Number of Clutches per Breeding Season

    Egg-Laying

    Incubation

    Abnormalities of Incubation

    Brood Parasitism

    The Study of Eggs, Egg-Laying, and Incubation

    References

    Young and Their Development

    Hatching

    Development of Altricial Young

    Development of Precocial Young

    Age of Maturity for Breeding

    The Study of Young and Their Development

    References

    Parental Care

    Removal of Eggshells

    Brooding

    Feeding

    Nest Sanitation

    Nest Helpers

    Parental Carrying of Young

    Defense

    Young-Parent Recognition

    Duration of Family Bond

    The Study of Parental Care

    References

    Longevity, Numbers, and Populations

    Longevity

    Numbers

    Populations

    Measurements of Populations

    Composition of Populations

    Fluctuations in Populations

    Comparison of Populations

    The Study of Populations

    References

    Ancestry, Evolution, and Decrease of Birds

    Speculations on Ancestry

    Early Evolution

    Later Evolution

    The Number of Birds in the Past

    Loss of Flight

    The Decrease of Birds

    References

    Appendix A: Ornithological Methods

    Blinds for Observation and Photography

    Bird Photography

    Recording Bird Vocalizations

    Recording Colors of Birds and Bird Eggs

    Measuring Elevation of Nests and Flight Paths

    Marking Nest Sites, Boundaries of Territories, and Census Lines

    Capturing Wild Birds

    Banding Wild Birds

    Marking Wild Birds

    Collecting Birds

    Permits for Capturing, Banding, Marking, and Collecting Birds

    Preparing and Storing Specimens

    Determining the Sex and Age of Live Birds

    Weighing Birds

    Measuring Birds

    Attracting Birds

    Controlling Objectionable Birds

    Appendix B: Preparation of a Paper

    Preparation of the Manuscript

    Organization

    Style of Writing

    Appendix C: Bibliographies Pertaining to Ornithology

    Appendix D: Bibliography of Life History Studies

    Appendix E: Selected Bibliography of Regional Works

    United States

    Canada

    Greenland

    Mexico

    Central America

    West Indies

    South America

    Atlantic Islands

    Europe and Asia

    Europe

    Asia

    Africa

    Australia, New Zealand, and Islands of the Western Pacific

    Marine Birds

    Appendix F: Books for General Information and Recreational Reading

    Appendix G: Current Ornithological Journals

    North American

    Foreign

    Appendix H: Clutch Sizes, Incubation Periods, and Ages at Fledging

    Appendix I: Ectoparasites of Birds: a Brief Review

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1984
  • Published: January 1, 1984
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483263113

About the Author

Olin Sewall Pettingill

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