Ornithology in Laboratory and Field - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780125524506, 9781483263113

Ornithology in Laboratory and Field

4th Edition

Authors: Olin Sewall Pettingill
eBook ISBN: 9781483263113
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1984
Page Count: 544
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Description

Ornithology in Laboratory and Field is intended as an aid to ornithological study at the college or university level. Students who lack the background knowledge usually acquired during a course in general zoology or biology should keep it handy for ready reference a standard elementary text on the subject.
This book contains extensive material for purely informational reading, possibly enough to supplant the need of an additional textbook. Its principal purpose still complies with the title of its predecessors for it is essentially a manual to guide and assist the student in direct observations. All twenty sections, except the last (""The Origin, Evolution, and Decrease of Birds""), suggest methods and provide instructions for studies; and all conclude with an extensive list of references, frequently annotated, for further information.
The twenty sections of the book can be taken up in almost any order and some may be omitted without affecting the instructional value of the others. A feature of this new edition is an introduction to birds and ornithology, intended for reading at the beginning of a course. The purpose is twofold: to show the significance of birds for study and to give an overall preview of ornithology, the subject, with emphasis on its wide scope, how it is studied, and some of the continuing and exciting opportunities that it offers for investigation.

Table of Contents


Birds and Ornithology: an Introduction

Birds Defined

Achievements for Flight

Range in Size

Ornithology Defined

Ornithology Previewed

Form, Structure, and Physiology

Species and Speciation

Distribution

Behavior

Migration and Orientation

The Reproductive Cycle

Longevity, Numbers, and Populations

Evolution

Topography

The Head

The Neck

The Trunk

The Bill

The Wings

The Tail

The Legs and Feet

References

Feathers and Feather Tracts

Structure of a Typical Feather

Feathers of Adult Birds

Feathers of Newly Hatched Birds

Feather Development

The Coloration of Feathers

Feather Tracts

The Number of Contour Feathers on a Bird

Feather Parasites

References

Anatomy and Physiology

Part I. The Anatomy of the Pigeon

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Respiratory and Digestive Systems

Circulatory System

Urogenital System

Nervous System

Part II. Some Anatomical and Physiological Considerations

Literature

Skeleton

Musculature

The Oil Gland

Digestive System

Respiratory System

Circulatory System

Body Temperature

Urogenital System

Salt Glands

Endocrine Organs

Special Senses and Their Organs

The Brain

Systematics

The Species

Subspecies

Speciation

Some Examples of Bird Speciation

The Higher Categories

Nomenclature

References

External Structural Characters

Characters of the Bill

Characters of the Tail

Characters of the Wings

Characters of the Feet

Characters of the Plumage

Miscellaneous Characters

Synopsis of North American Orders and Families

Laboratory Identification

Identification of Orders and Families

Identification of Species

Identification of Subspecies

Key to the Orders of Birds of North America North of Mexico

Key to the Families of Birds of North America North of Mexico

Plumages and Plumage Coloration

Sequences of Plumages and Molts

Eclipse Plumage

Molting in Adults

Plumage-Change with Molt

A Study of Plumage-Changes

Abnormal Plumage Coloration

Color Phases

Sexual, Age, and Seasonal Differences in Plumage Coloration

Uses of Plumage Coloration

References

Distribution

Geographical Distribution

Continental

Insular

Marine

Seasonal Distribution

Ecological Distribution

Major Biotic Communities

Seral Communities

Primary and Secondary Communities

Edge Effect

Niches

Altitudinal Distribution

Life Zones

References

Field Identification

Equipment

Materials

Procedure

Results

Supplementary Guides

Other Guides and References

Behavior

Inherited and Learned Behaviors

Individual Behavior

Maintenance Behaviors

Selecting Habitat and Shelter

Selecting Food and Feeding

Playing

Social Behavior

Agonistic Behavior

Defense Behavior

Flocking Behavior

Reproductive Behavior

General Study Procedures

Objectives of the Study

The Study of Behavior

References

Migration

Causes of Migration

Preparation and Stimulus for Migration

Diurnal and Nocturnal Migration

Effects of Weather on Migration

Regularity of Migratory Travel

Irregular Migrations

Reverse Migration

Rate of Migratory Travel

Mortality in Migration

Altitudes of Migratory Travel

Course of Migration and Migration Routes

Altitudinal Migration

Distances in Migratory Travel

Flight Lanes and Concentrations

Flocking during Migration

Direction-Finding

Aids and Additional Suggestions for the Study of Migration

Study of Nocturnal Migration

Study of Diurnal Migration

References

Territory

Classification of Territory

Establishment and Maintenance of Territory

Size of Territory

Functions of Territory

Home Range

The Study of Territory

References

Song

Functions of Song

Substitutes for Song

Male Songs

Female Songs

Mimicry

Subsongs

Inheritance of Song

The Study of Bird Song

References

Mating

Preliminary Stages

Mating

Kinds of Mating Relations

Duration of Mating

Mating Displays

The Study of Mating

References

Nests and Nest-Building

The Development of Nests

Classification of Nests

Identification of Nests

Nest-Building

False Nests

Re-Use of Nests

Protection of Nests

Nest Fauna

The Study of Nests and Nest-Building

References

Eggs, Egg-Laying, and Incubation

Size, Shape, and Coloration

Identification of Eggs

Number of Eggs in a Clutch

Number of Clutches per Breeding Season

Egg-Laying

Incubation

Abnormalities of Incubation

Brood Parasitism

The Study of Eggs, Egg-Laying, and Incubation

References

Young and Their Development

Hatching

Development of Altricial Young

Development of Precocial Young

Age of Maturity for Breeding

The Study of Young and Their Development

References

Parental Care

Removal of Eggshells

Brooding

Feeding

Nest Sanitation

Nest Helpers

Parental Carrying of Young

Defense

Young-Parent Recognition

Duration of Family Bond

The Study of Parental Care

References

Longevity, Numbers, and Populations

Longevity

Numbers

Populations

Measurements of Populations

Composition of Populations

Fluctuations in Populations

Comparison of Populations

The Study of Populations

References

Ancestry, Evolution, and Decrease of Birds

Speculations on Ancestry

Early Evolution

Later Evolution

The Number of Birds in the Past

Loss of Flight

The Decrease of Birds

References

Appendix A: Ornithological Methods

Blinds for Observation and Photography

Bird Photography

Recording Bird Vocalizations

Recording Colors of Birds and Bird Eggs

Measuring Elevation of Nests and Flight Paths

Marking Nest Sites, Boundaries of Territories, and Census Lines

Capturing Wild Birds

Banding Wild Birds

Marking Wild Birds

Collecting Birds

Permits for Capturing, Banding, Marking, and Collecting Birds

Preparing and Storing Specimens

Determining the Sex and Age of Live Birds

Weighing Birds

Measuring Birds

Attracting Birds

Controlling Objectionable Birds

Appendix B: Preparation of a Paper

Preparation of the Manuscript

Organization

Style of Writing

Appendix C: Bibliographies Pertaining to Ornithology

Appendix D: Bibliography of Life History Studies

Appendix E: Selected Bibliography of Regional Works

United States

Canada

Greenland

Mexico

Central America

West Indies

South America

Atlantic Islands

Europe and Asia

Europe

Asia

Africa

Australia, New Zealand, and Islands of the Western Pacific

Marine Birds

Appendix F: Books for General Information and Recreational Reading

Appendix G: Current Ornithological Journals

North American

Foreign

Appendix H: Clutch Sizes, Incubation Periods, and Ages at Fledging

Appendix I: Ectoparasites of Birds: a Brief Review

Index

Details

No. of pages:
544
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483263113

About the Author

Olin Sewall Pettingill