Knowledge of the presence of abnormally-high pressure zones (AHFP) prior to drilling into them can prevent considerable economic losses and, possibly, save human lives.
The various origins (undercompaction, tectonics, etc.) of AHFPs are discussed, followed by the description of predictive techniques in clastic, carbonate and salt-bearing formations. In addition to the well-logging predictive techniques, the authors discuss smectite-illite transformation and the chemistry of interstitial solutions. Other topics covered include (a) abnormally low formation pressures and subsidence, and (b) mathematical modelling. Loss of potential production may result if AHFPs are not properly identified and evaluated. Many hydrocarbon-bearing formations with AHFPs are erroneously "condemned".
This book is of interest to engineers and geologists involved in the (a) evaluation, (b) drilling in, (c) completing, and (d) producing from hydrocarbon reservoirs with AHFPs.
Preface. List of Contributors. 1. Introduction to Abnormally Pressured Formations. (E.C. Donaldson et al.). Introduction. Abnormal pressures. Subpressures. Surpressures. Origin of vertical barriers resulting in abnormal formation pressures. Undercompaction. Tectonic compression. Faulting. Diapirism. Geothermal temperature. Phase changes that produce abnormal pressures. Osmosis as a factor for generation of abnormal pressure. Salinity of interstitial water. Reservoir engineering concepts in abnormal pressure environments 13 Economics in overpressure environments. Summary. Bibliography. 2. Origin of Abnormal Formation Pressures (G.V. Chilingar et. al.). Introduction. Definitions. Compaction process. Hydrostatic pressure. Formation or interstitial fluid pressure. Sediment consolidation. State of stress in compacting shales. Resolution of the total stress field. Hydrostatic stress state. Deviatoric stress state. Total stress tensor. Spring models of compaction. Hooke's law. Load transfer. Porosity-density variations with depth. Compaction models. Athy's compaction model. Hedberg's compaction model. Weller's compaction model. Powers' compaction model. Teodorovich and Chernov's compaction model. Burst's compaction model. Beall's compaction model. Overton and Zanier's compaction model. Creation and maintenance of abnormal pressures. Mechanisms generating abnormal formation pressures. Undercompaction. Tectonics. Growth faults. Transference. Effect of temperature increase on formation pressure (aquathermal pressuring). Decomposition of organic matter. Gas migration. Osmosis. Density contrast. Conclusions. Bibliography. 3. Origin of Formation Fluid Pressure Distributions (A. Gurevich et al.). Introduction. Factors causing fluid flow and pressure distributions. Factors of fluid flow and pressure distribution and changes. Free convection of ground fluids. Forced convection of gro
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- © Elsevier Science 2002
- 24th May 2002
- Elsevier Science
- eBook ISBN:
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School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2531, USA
@from:Y.A. Kettanah and M.R. Islam @qu:...this book is the most comprehensive and complete publication written so far on the subject of abnormal formation pressures. We recommend it to the scientists, engineers, and technicians working in petroleum industry. It is specially recommended to the students of geology, geophysics, petroleum engineering, and other branches of engineering as it makes an excellent text book that addresses research topics of utmost importance. @source:Energy Sources @from:J.F. Burst @qu:...Bringing together a generational compendium of authors, Chilingar shows, once again, a masterful understanding of the problem. ...This is a publication of consequence. ...Also noteworthy is that many invaluable contributions of Russian and former Soviet Union scientists that were originally published in Russian are included in this volume, which will become a classic reference for all petroleum geologists and engineers. @source:AAPG Bulletin