Preface. List of Contributors. 1. Introduction to Abnormally Pressured Formations. (E.C. Donaldson et al.). Introduction. Abnormal pressures. Subpressures. Surpressures. Origin of vertical barriers resulting in abnormal formation pressures. Undercompaction. Tectonic compression. Faulting. Diapirism. Geothermal temperature. Phase changes that produce abnormal pressures. Osmosis as a factor for generation of abnormal pressure. Salinity of interstitial water. Reservoir engineering concepts in abnormal pressure environments 13
Economics in overpressure environments. Summary. Bibliography. 2. Origin of Abnormal Formation Pressures (G.V. Chilingar et. al.). Introduction. Definitions. Compaction process. Hydrostatic pressure. Formation or interstitial fluid pressure.
Sediment consolidation. State of stress in compacting shales. Resolution of the total stress field. Hydrostatic stress state. Deviatoric stress state. Total stress tensor. Spring models of compaction. Hooke's law. Load transfer. Porosity-density variations with depth. Compaction models. Athy's compaction model. Hedberg's compaction model. Weller's compaction model. Powers' compaction model. Teodorovich and Chernov's compaction model. Burst's compaction model. Beall's compaction model. Overton and Zanier's compaction model. Creation and maintenance of abnormal pressures. Mechanisms generating abnormal formation pressures. Undercompaction. Tectonics. Growth faults. Transference. Effect of temperature increase on formation pressure (aquathermal pressuring). Decomposition of organic matter. Gas migration. Osmosis. Density contrast. Conclusions. Bibliography. 3. Origin of Formation Fluid Pressure Distributions (A. Gurevich et al.). Introduction. Factors causing fluid flow and pressure distributions. Factors of fluid flow and pressure distribution and changes. Free convection of ground fluids. Forced convection of gro