Origin and Distribution of the Elements - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080128351, 9781483158150

Origin and Distribution of the Elements

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs in Earth Sciences

Editors: L. H. Ahrens
eBook ISBN: 9781483158150
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1968
Page Count: 1196
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Origin and Distribution of the Elements, Volume 30 presents detailed studies of trace elements and isotopes and the use of these data with the techniques of physical and organic chemistry to make relevant interpretations in geology. This book discusses some of the problems of applied chemistry. Organized into five sections encompassing 89 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the theories of nucleosynthesis that are based on broad empirical foundations involving experiment in nuclear physics and observation in geophysics and astronomy. This text then explores the primeval abundance of the elements wherein the composition of the material from which the Galaxy is formed. Other chapters consider the production of helium in the galaxy. This book discusses as well the dynamics of the cores of highly evolved massive stars. The final chapter deals with the measurements of site populations in crystal structures by electron diffraction and X-ray. Physicists, astronomers, geologists, and geochemists will find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents


Introductory Remarks

Section I. Theories of Origin

The empirical foundations of nucleosynthesis

Primeval element abundances

Instabilité vibrationnelle des étoiles massives et formation d'hélium

Neutron capture cross-sections and the s-process

Nucleosynthesis of the isotopes of lead

Nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions

The utilization of nuclear particle tracks in solids to study the distribution of certain elements in nature and in the cosmic radiation

On the existence of plutonium-244 in the early solar system

Sur la nucléosynthèse du lithium, du beryllium et du bore et la formation du système solaire

Astrophysical implications of the stellar abundances of Li, Be and B

A new table of abundances of the elements in the solar system

Section II. Solar, Stellar and Interstellar Abundances

The chemical composition of normal stellar atmospheres

The solar abundances

Abondances solaires de quelques éléments représentatifs au point de vue de la nucléosynthèse

On the abundances in the solar corona

Chemical compositions of diffuse nebulae

Chemical composition of old stars

The composition of late-type peculiar stars

Abundances in the magnetic stars

The problem of lithium and the other light elements deuterium, beryllium and boron

Detailed analysis of the star ö Aurigae

Section III. Meteorites

The problem of elemental abundances

Solar element abundances and the composition of meteorites

Fractionation of some abundant lithophile element ratios in chondrites

Rare earth abundances in meteoritic chondrules

Indium abundances in chondritic and achondritic meteorites and in terrestrial rocks

The distribution of gold and iridium in meteoritic and terrestrial materials

Abundances of some volatile elements in meteorites

Mercury abundances and thermal history of meteorites

A comparison of trace element distribution in the metal phase of chondrites and in iron meteorites

Distribution of trace elements in Smithonia iron meteorite by spark source mass spectrometry

Chlorine as an indicator of terrestrial contamination in iron meteorites

Extinct radioactivities and the history of the elements and the solar system

Neon and xenon in carbonaceous chondrites

The distribution of potassium and argon in chondrites

Ages of silicate inclusions in iron meteorites

Radiogenic and cosmic-ray exposure ages of meteorites, their orbits and parent bodies

Dynamical studies of asteroidal and cometary orbits and their relation to the origin of meteorites

Origine cométaire des meteorites déduite de reffet du rayonnement cosmique solaire dans les meteorites et la conséquence de cette origine

The LL-group chondrites

Variations morphologiques de la magnetite des meteorites carbonées d'Alais, Ivuna et Orgueil

Evaluation du taux d'ablation de l'amphotérite de Saint-Séverin par l'étude des traces d'ions lourds du flux primaire du rayonnement cosmique

Section IV. Planets, Asteroids, Comets, Tektites

Chemical abundances in planetary atmospheres

The surface geochemistry of solid bodies in space

Boron in tektites

Geochemistry of Australian impact glasses and tektites (Australites)

Density of zodiacal dust in interplanetary space

Section V. Terrestrial Abundances

(a) Crustal abundances, granitoids and ultramafic rocks

The composition of the crust

Geochemistry of andésites

Brief notes on elemental abundances in ultramafic rocks

The geochemical evolution of continental rocks. A model

Abundances of the chemical elements in the main rock types of the lithosphère in relation to a system of correlations

Equilibrium distribution of elements between coexisting solid-solution phases

Distribution regularities of trace elements in granitoid intrusions of the batholith and hypabyssal types

The function of the rare element distribution in granitoids and their parameters

Distribution regularities of trace elements in minerals of granitoids

Distribution of rare-earth elements (RE), yttrium, beryllium and tin in alkaline granitoids and their metasomatites

On statistical distribution of the average abundances of chemical elements in the earth's crust and meteorites

Distribution of Pb-isotopes, Sn, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf in granitoids of Nigeria

Sur la géochimie des alcalins dans les roches de granitisation : endomorphisme ou métasomatose hydrothermale dans les diorites et gabbros quartziques des Pyrénées

La géochimie des pegmatites en Yougoslavie

Lead contents in K-feldspars of young igneous rocks of the Dinarides and neighbouring areas

Distribution of Be in granitic rocks of the Swiss Alps

Lithium, sodium and potassium in Alpine ultramafic rocks

Geochemical investigation on differentiated granite plutons in the Black Forest

Magmatic differentiation and autometasomatism in a zoned granitic batholith from central Texas, U.S.A.

(b) Oxygen, Potassium, Rubidium, Uranium, Thorium, Rare Earths, Gases

On the distribution and role of oxygen in the geochemistry of the earth's crust

Radioactive elements in the Canadian Precambrian shield and the interior of the earth

The terrestrial abundance relationship between potassium and rubidium

Relative and absolute terrestrial abundances of the rare earths

Etude de la distribution et de l'abondance des éléments de transition dans l'écorce terrestre, comparée à celles des terres rares

Partition coefficients of rare earth elements and barium between igneous matrix material and rock-forming mineral phenocrysts

Genesis of continental diabases and Oceanic tholeiites considered in light of rare earth and barium abundances and partition coefficients

The abundance of CO2 in the earth's atmosphere through geologic time

The distribution of radiogenic gases in the regions of exocontacts of intrusions and in contact zones of some minerals being in paragenetic equilibrium

Source of helium in natural gas

Abondance relative des gaz inclus dans quelques minéraux magmatiques d'origine profonde

c) Sedimentary rocks, waters, miscellaneous topics

Factors affecting element distributions in sediments

Chemical fractionation in the sedimentary environment

Secular change of the chemical composition of sea water

Relation entre la repartition des elements dans les mineraux argileux et la paleogeographie triasique du Jura

Abondance et repartition de certains elements dans les formations sedimentaires du Bassin de Paris

The abundance of mercury in 300 natural water samples from Tuscany and Latium (Central Italy)

Influence des facteurs structuraux sur les lois statistiques de distribution d'un element

L'importance geochimique des elements fissuraux dans l'etude du bilan et de la mobilite des elements en traces

Le fluor dans les roches: erreur d'analyse, echantillons-standards, abondance. Distribution dans la granodiorite du Mte Capanne (Ile d'Elbe, Toscane)

Germanium und Indium—ein Vergleich zwischen regionalen Durchschnittsgehalten und den Clarke-Werten

Sur la distribution du cuivre economiquement exploitable sur la terre

Enrichments of transition-metal ions in silicate crystal structures


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© Pergamon 1968
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About the Editor

L. H. Ahrens