Origin and Distribution of the Elements

Origin and Distribution of the Elements

International Series of Monographs in Earth Sciences

1st Edition - January 1, 1968

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  • Editor: L. H. Ahrens
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483158150

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Description

Origin and Distribution of the Elements, Volume 30 presents detailed studies of trace elements and isotopes and the use of these data with the techniques of physical and organic chemistry to make relevant interpretations in geology. This book discusses some of the problems of applied chemistry. Organized into five sections encompassing 89 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the theories of nucleosynthesis that are based on broad empirical foundations involving experiment in nuclear physics and observation in geophysics and astronomy. This text then explores the primeval abundance of the elements wherein the composition of the material from which the Galaxy is formed. Other chapters consider the production of helium in the galaxy. This book discusses as well the dynamics of the cores of highly evolved massive stars. The final chapter deals with the measurements of site populations in crystal structures by electron diffraction and X-ray. Physicists, astronomers, geologists, and geochemists will find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Introductory Remarks

    Section I. Theories of Origin

    The empirical foundations of nucleosynthesis

    Primeval element abundances

    Instabilité vibrationnelle des étoiles massives et formation d'hélium

    Neutron capture cross-sections and the s-process

    Nucleosynthesis of the isotopes of lead

    Nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions

    The utilization of nuclear particle tracks in solids to study the distribution of certain elements in nature and in the cosmic radiation

    On the existence of plutonium-244 in the early solar system

    Sur la nucléosynthèse du lithium, du beryllium et du bore et la formation du système solaire

    Astrophysical implications of the stellar abundances of Li, Be and B

    A new table of abundances of the elements in the solar system

    Section II. Solar, Stellar and Interstellar Abundances

    The chemical composition of normal stellar atmospheres

    The solar abundances

    Abondances solaires de quelques éléments représentatifs au point de vue de la nucléosynthèse

    On the abundances in the solar corona

    Chemical compositions of diffuse nebulae

    Chemical composition of old stars

    The composition of late-type peculiar stars

    Abundances in the magnetic stars

    The problem of lithium and the other light elements deuterium, beryllium and boron

    Detailed analysis of the star ö Aurigae

    Section III. Meteorites

    The problem of elemental abundances

    Solar element abundances and the composition of meteorites

    Fractionation of some abundant lithophile element ratios in chondrites

    Rare earth abundances in meteoritic chondrules

    Indium abundances in chondritic and achondritic meteorites and in terrestrial rocks

    The distribution of gold and iridium in meteoritic and terrestrial materials

    Abundances of some volatile elements in meteorites

    Mercury abundances and thermal history of meteorites

    A comparison of trace element distribution in the metal phase of chondrites and in iron meteorites

    Distribution of trace elements in Smithonia iron meteorite by spark source mass spectrometry

    Chlorine as an indicator of terrestrial contamination in iron meteorites

    Extinct radioactivities and the history of the elements and the solar system

    Neon and xenon in carbonaceous chondrites

    The distribution of potassium and argon in chondrites

    Ages of silicate inclusions in iron meteorites

    Radiogenic and cosmic-ray exposure ages of meteorites, their orbits and parent bodies

    Dynamical studies of asteroidal and cometary orbits and their relation to the origin of meteorites

    Origine cométaire des meteorites déduite de reffet du rayonnement cosmique solaire dans les meteorites et la conséquence de cette origine

    The LL-group chondrites

    Variations morphologiques de la magnetite des meteorites carbonées d'Alais, Ivuna et Orgueil

    Evaluation du taux d'ablation de l'amphotérite de Saint-Séverin par l'étude des traces d'ions lourds du flux primaire du rayonnement cosmique

    Section IV. Planets, Asteroids, Comets, Tektites

    Chemical abundances in planetary atmospheres

    The surface geochemistry of solid bodies in space

    Boron in tektites

    Geochemistry of Australian impact glasses and tektites (Australites)

    Density of zodiacal dust in interplanetary space

    Section V. Terrestrial Abundances

    (a) Crustal abundances, granitoids and ultramafic rocks

    The composition of the crust

    Geochemistry of andésites

    Brief notes on elemental abundances in ultramafic rocks

    The geochemical evolution of continental rocks. A model

    Abundances of the chemical elements in the main rock types of the lithosphère in relation to a system of correlations

    Equilibrium distribution of elements between coexisting solid-solution phases

    Distribution regularities of trace elements in granitoid intrusions of the batholith and hypabyssal types

    The function of the rare element distribution in granitoids and their parameters

    Distribution regularities of trace elements in minerals of granitoids

    Distribution of rare-earth elements (RE), yttrium, beryllium and tin in alkaline granitoids and their metasomatites

    On statistical distribution of the average abundances of chemical elements in the earth's crust and meteorites

    Distribution of Pb-isotopes, Sn, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf in granitoids of Nigeria

    Sur la géochimie des alcalins dans les roches de granitisation : endomorphisme ou métasomatose hydrothermale dans les diorites et gabbros quartziques des Pyrénées

    La géochimie des pegmatites en Yougoslavie

    Lead contents in K-feldspars of young igneous rocks of the Dinarides and neighbouring areas

    Distribution of Be in granitic rocks of the Swiss Alps

    Lithium, sodium and potassium in Alpine ultramafic rocks

    Geochemical investigation on differentiated granite plutons in the Black Forest

    Magmatic differentiation and autometasomatism in a zoned granitic batholith from central Texas, U.S.A.

    (b) Oxygen, Potassium, Rubidium, Uranium, Thorium, Rare Earths, Gases

    On the distribution and role of oxygen in the geochemistry of the earth's crust

    Radioactive elements in the Canadian Precambrian shield and the interior of the earth

    The terrestrial abundance relationship between potassium and rubidium

    Relative and absolute terrestrial abundances of the rare earths

    Etude de la distribution et de l'abondance des éléments de transition dans l'écorce terrestre, comparée à celles des terres rares

    Partition coefficients of rare earth elements and barium between igneous matrix material and rock-forming mineral phenocrysts

    Genesis of continental diabases and Oceanic tholeiites considered in light of rare earth and barium abundances and partition coefficients

    The abundance of CO2 in the earth's atmosphere through geologic time

    The distribution of radiogenic gases in the regions of exocontacts of intrusions and in contact zones of some minerals being in paragenetic equilibrium

    Source of helium in natural gas

    Abondance relative des gaz inclus dans quelques minéraux magmatiques d'origine profonde

    c) Sedimentary rocks, waters, miscellaneous topics

    Factors affecting element distributions in sediments

    Chemical fractionation in the sedimentary environment

    Secular change of the chemical composition of sea water

    Relation entre la repartition des elements dans les mineraux argileux et la paleogeographie triasique du Jura

    Abondance et repartition de certains elements dans les formations sedimentaires du Bassin de Paris

    The abundance of mercury in 300 natural water samples from Tuscany and Latium (Central Italy)

    Influence des facteurs structuraux sur les lois statistiques de distribution d'un element

    L'importance geochimique des elements fissuraux dans l'etude du bilan et de la mobilite des elements en traces

    Le fluor dans les roches: erreur d'analyse, echantillons-standards, abondance. Distribution dans la granodiorite du Mte Capanne (Ile d'Elbe, Toscane)

    Germanium und Indium—ein Vergleich zwischen regionalen Durchschnittsgehalten und den Clarke-Werten

    Sur la distribution du cuivre economiquement exploitable sur la terre

    Enrichments of transition-metal ions in silicate crystal structures

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1196
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1968
  • Published: January 1, 1968
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483158150

About the Editor

L. H. Ahrens

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