Organic Polarographic Analysis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080138534, 9781483152271

Organic Polarographic Analysis

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry

Authors: Petr Zuman
Editors: R. Belcher L. Gordon
eBook ISBN: 9781483152271
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 324
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Description

Organic Polarographic Analysis deals with the applications of polarography in the analysis of organic compounds. The principles, techniques, and apparatus of organic polarography are discussed, and some selected examples of the applications of organic polarography in various fields of applied chemistry are presented. The direct methods in which the sample is simply dissolved in a suitable supporting electrolyte are also considered. This book consists of 11 chapters and opens with an overview of the basic principles of the polarographic method of analysis, as well as the different types of polarographic limiting currents and of electrode processes. The reader is then introduced to the instruments used in polarography, including the polarograph, dropping and reference electrodes, and electrolysis vessels. Experimental techniques in organic polarography are also described, along with some of its practical applications in fields such as pharmacy, medicine, and biochemistry. Subsequent chapters explore polarographic methods used in the analysis of organic substances, including direct and indirect methods of analysis; separation techniques; and the use of polarography in organic synthesis and isolation of natural products. This monograph is written primarily for organic and analytical chemists.

Table of Contents


Preface

I. Introduction

1.1. Basic Principles

1.2. Types of Polarographic Limiting Currents

1.2.1. Diffusion Currents

1.2.2. Kinetic Currents

1.2.3. Catalytic Currents

1.2.4. Adsorption Currents

1.3. Characterization of the Different Types of the Electrode Processes

1.4. Other Types of Currents in Polarography

II. Polarographic Instrumentation

2.1. Dropping Electrode

2.2. Reference Electrode

2.3. Electrolysis Vessels

2.4. The Polarograph

2.5. Derivative and Subtractive Methods

2.6. Auxiliary Methods

2.6.1. Estimation of Reversibility

2.6.2. Proof of the Character of Polarographic Processes

2.6.3. Determination of the Number of Electrons Transferred in the Electrode Reaction

2.6.4. Identification of the Product of Electrode Processes

III. Experimental Techniques in Organic Polarography

3.1. Supporting Electrolyte

3.2. Removal of Oxygen

3.3. Recording of Polarographic Curves

3.4. The Measurement of the Limiting Current

3.5. Evaluation of the Wave-Height: Calibration Curve and Standard Addition Methods

3.6. Sensitivity and Accuracy of the Method

3.7. Measurement of Half-Wave Potentials

IV. Classification of Polarographic Methods for the Analyses of Organic Substances

4.1. Polarographically Active Substances

4.2. Surface Active Substances

4.3. Direct and Indirect Methods of Analysis

4.4. Elemental Analysis

4.5. Functional Analysis

V. Direct Methods of Polarographic Analysis

5.1. Examination of a Compound Not Previously Studied

5.2. Simultaneous Determination of Several Substances

VI. Indirect Methods

6.1. Transformations into Electroactive Form

6.1.1. Nitration

6.1.2. Nitrosation

6.1.3. Condensations

6.1.4. Additions

6.1.5. Substitutions

6.1.6. Oxidations

6.1.7. Complex Formation

6.1.8. Other Reactions

6.2. Concentration Change of Polarographically Active Substances

6.2.1. Condensations

6.2.2. Additions

6.2.3. Oxidations

6.2.4. Complex Formation

6.3. Polarometric (Amperometric) Titrations of Organic Compounds

6.3.1. Precipitation Reactions

6.3.2. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

6.3.3. Coupling Reactions

6.3.4. Addition and Substitution Reactions

6.3.5. Soluble Complex Reactions

6.3.6. Condensations

VII. Separation Techniques

7.1. Precipitation and Complex Formation

7.2. Extraction

7.3. Distillation and Steam Distillation

7.4. Dialysis

7.5. Electrolysis

7.6. Chromatography

VIII. Practical Applications

8.1. Pharmacy

8.2. Medicine and Biochemistry

8.3. Agricultural and Food Chemistry

8.4. Purity of Technical Products

8.5. Petroleum and Fuels

8.6. Plastics

8.6.1. Monomers

8.6.2. Catalysts and Other Substances Present in Polymers

8.6.3. Polymers

8.6.4. Identification of Polymers

8.7. Explosives

8.8. Textile Industry

8.8.1. Cellulosic Fibers

8.8.2. Protein-Based Fibers

8.8.3. Dyeing Process

8.8.4. Auxiliary Materials

IX. Polarography in Organic Syntheses and Isolation of Natural Products

9.1. Preparative Electrochemistry

9.2. Applications in Organic Synthesis

9.3. Applications in the Isolation of Natural Products

X. Polarographic Analysis in the Study of Reaction Rates and Equilibria

10.1. Equilibrium Constants

10.2. Homogeneous Reactions in Solutions

10.3. Fast Reactions Accompanying the Electrode Process and Rates of Electrode Process Proper

XI. Effects of Structure; Polarography as a Tool in The Analysis of Structures of Organic Substances

11.1. Effects of Structure on Half-Wave Potentials

11.2. Structural Effects and Other Factors

11.3. Polarography as a Tool in the Analysis of the Structure of Organic Substances

11.4. Detection of Reactive Forms and Intermediates

11.4.1. Reactions in the Bulk of Solution

11.4.2. Chemical Reactions Accompanying the Electrode Process

11.4.3. Electrochemical Reactions

Literature Concerned with Organic Polarographic Analysis

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
324
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1964
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483152271

About the Author

Petr Zuman

About the Editor

R. Belcher

L. Gordon