Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

Materials, Devices and Applications

1st Edition - August 31, 2013

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  • Editor: Alastair Buckley
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857098948

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Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are opening up exciting new applications in the area of lighting and displays. OLEDs are self emissive and by careful materials and device design can generate colours across the visible spectrum. Together with simple monolithic fabrication on a range of different substrates, these diverse material properties give OLEDs key advantages over existing display and lighting technology. This important book summarises key research on materials, engineering and the range of applications of these versatile materials.Part one covers materials for OLEDs. Chapters review conjugated polymers, transparent conducting thin films, iridium complexes and phosphorescent materials. Part two discusses the operation and engineering of OLED devices. Chapters discuss topics such as highly efficient pin-type OLEDs, amorphous organic semiconductors, nanostructuring techniques, light extraction, colour tuning, printing techniques, fluorenone defects and disruptive characteristics as well as durability issues. Part three explores the applications of OLEDs in displays and solid-state lighting. Applications discussed include displays, microdisplays and transparent OLEDs, sensors and large-area OLED lighting panels.Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a standard reference for engineers working in lighting, display technology and the consumer electronics sectors, as well as those researching OLEDs.

Key Features

  • Summarises key research on the materials, engineering and applications of OLEDs
  • Reviews conjugated polymers, transparent conducting thin films
  • Considers nanostructuring OLEDS for increasing levels of efficiency


Materials science, applied physics, applied chemistry graduate students; Industrial and academic researchers studying the chemistry, physics and engineering of materials for organic light emitting devices

Table of Contents

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    Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials

    Part I: Materials for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    Chapter 1: Synthesis of electroluminescent conjugated polymers for OLEDs


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Polyarylenes

    1.3 Poly(arylenevinylene)s

    1.4 Poly(aryleneethynylene)s

    1.5 Conjugated copolymers

    1.6 Coordination polymers

    1.7 Conclusion and future trends

    1.8 Sources of further information

    Chapter 2: Transparent conducting thin films for OLEDs


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Thin film electrodes (TCOs)

    2.3 Semitransparent metal thin film electrodes

    2.4 Carbon-based thin film electrodes

    2.5 Conclusion

    2.6 Sources of further information

    Chapter 3: Iridium and platinum complexes for OLEDs


    3.1 Introduction to triplet-emitting metal complexes in OLEDs

    3.2 Excited states of metal complexes

    3.3 The pre-eminence of cyclometallated iridium(III) and platinum(II) complexes for OLEDs

    3.4 Colour-tuning strategies in cyclometallated complexes

    3.5 Blue-emitting complexes

    3.6 Red- and near infra-red-emitting complexes

    3.7 Complexes for white-light-emitting OLEDs (WOLEDs)

    Chapter 4: Chemical and photophysical properties of materials for OLEDs


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Organic semiconductors

    4.3 Photophysical properties of OLED materials

    4.4 Thermal stability

    4.5 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 5: Phosphorescent OLEDs for solid-state lighting


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Phosphorescent materials

    5.3 Device design and fabrication

    5.4 Conclusion and future trends

    Part II: Operation and engineering of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices

    Chapter 6: Highly efficient pin-type OLEDs


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Highly efficient monochrome OLEDs

    6.3 Highly efficient white OLEDs

    6.4 Degradation of OLEDs

    6.5 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 7: Charge carrier mobility in amorphous organic semiconductors


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Experimental approaches

    7.3 Concepts

    7.4 Representative experimental results

    7.5 Future trends

    7.6 Sources of further information and advice

    7.7 References

    Chapter 8: Nanostructuring OLEDs to increase efficiency


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Routes for enhancing OLED efficiency with nanostructures

    8.3 Coupling guided modes to leaky modes with nanostructures

    8.4 Spontaneous emission engineering with nanostructures

    8.5 Local electric field effects due to nanostructures

    8.6 Fabrication of nanostructured OLEDs

    8.7 Conclusion

    8.8 Future trends

    8.9 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 9: Modelling of light extraction from OLEDs


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Rationale of the approach in terms of the characteristics of the problem

    9.3 Presentation of the emitting layers

    9.4 Theoretical methods in diffraction and scattering

    9.5 Analysis of OLED modes

    Chapter 10: Tuning the colour and efficiency of OLEDs


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Multi-emission by a single phosphor

    10.3 The nature of emissive aggregates: excimer versus dimer

    10.4 Mixing of molecular and bi-molecular emissive states to tune the colour and efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs

    10.5 Conclusion and future trends

    10.6 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 11: Optical characterisation of OLED emitters from radiation pattern analyses


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Optical modelling of OLEDs

    11.3 Experimental

    11.4 Routines for analysing the emitter properties

    11.5 Further applications and optical analyses

    11.6 Conclusion and future trends

    11.7 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 12: Printing techniques for the fabrication of OLEDs


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 The inks for printing OLEDs

    12.3 Printing technology classifications

    12.4 Rotogravure printing

    12.5 Flexography

    12.6 Screen printing

    12.7 Lithography

    12.8 Inkjet printing

    12.9 Coating processes

    12.10 Applications of printing technologies for OLEDs

    12.11 Conclusion

    12.12 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 13: Fluorenone defects in fluorene-based conjugated polymers


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Synthesis of poly(dialkylfluorene)s

    13.3 Polyfluorenes as blue emitting materials

    13.4 The green emission problem

    13.5 Aggregate versus defect

    13.6 Defect emission suppression

    13.7 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 14: Disruptive characteristics and lifetime issues of OLEDs


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Disruptive OLED characteristics

    14.3 Lifetime issues

    Part III: Applications of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in displays and solid-state lighting

    Chapter 15: Active matrix, organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs) for displays


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 OLED display business ecosystem creation

    15.3 Lifetime and burn-in effect

    15.4 Power consumption

    15.5 OLED television

    15.6 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 16: The technology and manufacturing of polymer OLED on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microdisplays


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Device architecture for polymer OLED microdisplays

    16.3 Artifact free images: the role of CMOS and OLED

    16.4 The generation and control of colour

    16.5 Manufacturing issues

    16.6 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 17: Transparent OLED displays


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Transparent OLEDs

    17.3 Thin-film-encapsulation of transparent OLEDs

    17.4 Transparent display driver electronics

    Chapter 18: OLED-based biochemical sensors


    18.1 Introduction to sensors and sensor technology

    18.2 Introduction to organic light-emitting diodes

    18.3 Advantages and limitations of OLEDs

    18.4 Introduction to OLED biosensors

    18.5 Types of OLED-based bio/chemical sensor technologies

    18.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 19: Large-area OLED lighting panels and their applications


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Fabrication of large-area OLED lighting panels

    19.3 Integration of OLED lightings and solar cells

    19.4 Integration of OLED and inorganic LED (ILED) lightings

    19.5 OLED lightings for visible-light communication

    19.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 20: Lifetime determination procedure for OLED lighting panels and proposal for standardisation


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Lifetime measurement setup

    20.3 Accelerated lifetime testing

    20.4 Data analysis and discussions

    20.5 Conclusion


Product details

  • No. of pages: 666
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2013
  • Published: August 31, 2013
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857098948

About the Editor

Alastair Buckley

Alastair Buckley is a Lecturer in the Department of Physics at the University of Sheffield, UK. Dr Buckley is well known for his research in organic semiconductors and thin films.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Sheffield, UK

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