Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857094254, 9780857098948

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

1st Edition

Materials, Devices and Applications

Editors: Alastair Buckley
eBook ISBN: 9780857098948
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857094254
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 31st August 2013
Page Count: 666
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials

Part I: Materials for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

Chapter 1: Synthesis of electroluminescent conjugated polymers for OLEDs


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Polyarylenes

1.3 Poly(arylenevinylene)s

1.4 Poly(aryleneethynylene)s

1.5 Conjugated copolymers

1.6 Coordination polymers

1.7 Conclusion and future trends

1.8 Sources of further information

Chapter 2: Transparent conducting thin films for OLEDs


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Thin film electrodes (TCOs)

2.3 Semitransparent metal thin film electrodes

2.4 Carbon-based thin film electrodes

2.5 Conclusion

2.6 Sources of further information

Chapter 3: Iridium and platinum complexes for OLEDs


3.1 Introduction to triplet-emitting metal complexes in OLEDs

3.2 Excited states of metal complexes

3.3 The pre-eminence of cyclometallated iridium(III) and platinum(II) complexes for OLEDs

3.4 Colour-tuning strategies in cyclometallated complexes

3.5 Blue-emitting complexes

3.6 Red- and near infra-red-emitting complexes

3.7 Complexes for white-light-emitting OLEDs (WOLEDs)

Chapter 4: Chemical and photophysical properties of materials for OLEDs


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Organic semiconductors

4.3 Photophysical properties of OLED materials

4.4 Thermal stability

4.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 5: Phosphorescent OLEDs for solid-state lighting


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Phosphorescent materials

5.3 Device design and fabrication

5.4 Conclusion and future trends

Part II: Operation and engineering of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices

Chapter 6: Highly efficient pin-type OLEDs


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Highly efficient monochrome OLEDs

6.3 Highly efficient white OLEDs

6.4 Degradation of OLEDs

6.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 7: Charge carrier mobility in amorphous organic semiconductors


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Experimental approaches

7.3 Concepts

7.4 Representative experimental results

7.5 Future trends

7.6 Sources of further information and advice

7.7 References

Chapter 8: Nanostructuring OLEDs to increase efficiency


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Routes for enhancing OLED efficiency with nanostructures

8.3 Coupling guided modes to leaky modes with nanostructures

8.4 Spontaneous emission engineering with nanostructures

8.5 Local electric field effects due to nanostructures

8.6 Fabrication of nanostructured OLEDs

8.7 Conclusion

8.8 Future trends

8.9 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 9: Modelling of light extraction from OLEDs


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Rationale of the approach in terms of the characteristics of the problem

9.3 Presentation of the emitting layers

9.4 Theoretical methods in diffraction and scattering

9.5 Analysis of OLED modes

Chapter 10: Tuning the colour and efficiency of OLEDs


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Multi-emission by a single phosphor

10.3 The nature of emissive aggregates: excimer versus dimer

10.4 Mixing of molecular and bi-molecular emissive states to tune the colour and efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs

10.5 Conclusion and future trends

10.6 Acknowledgments

Chapter 11: Optical characterisation of OLED emitters from radiation pattern analyses


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Optical modelling of OLEDs

11.3 Experimental

11.4 Routines for analysing the emitter properties

11.5 Further applications and optical analyses

11.6 Conclusion and future trends

11.7 Acknowledgments

Chapter 12: Printing techniques for the fabrication of OLEDs


12.1 Introduction

12.2 The inks for printing OLEDs

12.3 Printing technology classifications

12.4 Rotogravure printing

12.5 Flexography

12.6 Screen printing

12.7 Lithography

12.8 Inkjet printing

12.9 Coating processes

12.10 Applications of printing technologies for OLEDs

12.11 Conclusion

12.12 Acknowledgments

Chapter 13: Fluorenone defects in fluorene-based conjugated polymers


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Synthesis of poly(dialkylfluorene)s

13.3 Polyfluorenes as blue emitting materials

13.4 The green emission problem

13.5 Aggregate versus defect

13.6 Defect emission suppression

13.7 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 14: Disruptive characteristics and lifetime issues of OLEDs


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Disruptive OLED characteristics

14.3 Lifetime issues

Part III: Applications of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in displays and solid-state lighting

Chapter 15: Active matrix, organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs) for displays


15.1 Introduction

15.2 OLED display business ecosystem creation

15.3 Lifetime and burn-in effect

15.4 Power consumption

15.5 OLED television

15.6 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 16: The technology and manufacturing of polymer OLED on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microdisplays


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Device architecture for polymer OLED microdisplays

16.3 Artifact free images: the role of CMOS and OLED

16.4 The generation and control of colour

16.5 Manufacturing issues

16.6 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 17: Transparent OLED displays


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Transparent OLEDs

17.3 Thin-film-encapsulation of transparent OLEDs

17.4 Transparent display driver electronics

Chapter 18: OLED-based biochemical sensors


18.1 Introduction to sensors and sensor technology

18.2 Introduction to organic light-emitting diodes

18.3 Advantages and limitations of OLEDs

18.4 Introduction to OLED biosensors

18.5 Types of OLED-based bio/chemical sensor technologies

18.6 Conclusion

Chapter 19: Large-area OLED lighting panels and their applications


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Fabrication of large-area OLED lighting panels

19.3 Integration of OLED lightings and solar cells

19.4 Integration of OLED and inorganic LED (ILED) lightings

19.5 OLED lightings for visible-light communication

19.6 Conclusion

Chapter 20: Lifetime determination procedure for OLED lighting panels and proposal for standardisation


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Lifetime measurement setup

20.3 Accelerated lifetime testing

20.4 Data analysis and discussions

20.5 Conclusion



Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are opening up exciting new applications in the area of lighting and displays. OLEDs are self emissive and by careful materials and device design can generate colours across the visible spectrum. Together with simple monolithic fabrication on a range of different substrates, these diverse material properties give OLEDs key advantages over existing display and lighting technology. This important book summarises key research on materials, engineering and the range of applications of these versatile materials.

Part one covers materials for OLEDs. Chapters review conjugated polymers, transparent conducting thin films, iridium complexes and phosphorescent materials. Part two discusses the operation and engineering of OLED devices. Chapters discuss topics such as highly efficient pin-type OLEDs, amorphous organic semiconductors, nanostructuring techniques, light extraction, colour tuning, printing techniques, fluorenone defects and disruptive characteristics as well as durability issues. Part three explores the applications of OLEDs in displays and solid-state lighting. Applications discussed include displays, microdisplays and transparent OLEDs, sensors and large-area OLED lighting panels.

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a standard reference for engineers working in lighting, display technology and the consumer electronics sectors, as well as those researching OLEDs.

Key Features

  • Summarises key research on the materials, engineering and applications of OLEDs
  • Reviews conjugated polymers, transparent conducting thin films
  • Considers nanostructuring OLEDS for increasing levels of efficiency


Materials science, applied physics, applied chemistry graduate students; Industrial and academic researchers studying the chemistry, physics and engineering of materials for organic light emitting devices


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:


"Materials scientists and chemists consider in turn the three aspects of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Among the topics are transparent conducting thin films for OLEDs, iridium and platinum complexes for OLEDs, phosphorescent OLEDs for solid-state lighting, charge carrier mobility in amorphous organic semiconductors,…", March 2014

About the Editors

Alastair Buckley Editor

Alastair Buckley is a Lecturer in the Department of Physics at the University of Sheffield, UK. Dr Buckley is well known for his research in organic semiconductors and thin films.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Sheffield, UK