Organic Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780434984893, 9781483141237

Organic Chemistry

1st Edition

Made Simple

Authors: S. K. Murthy S. S. Nathan
eBook ISBN: 9781483141237
Imprint: Made Simple
Published Date: 1st January 1981
Page Count: 352
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Description

Organic Chemistry: Made Simple provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of organic chemistry. A systematic approach to the subject is adopted with compounds classified according to the functional groups present. A non-mathematical approach is applied to the modern theories of chemical structure and bonding. Each chapter also contains a summary and most conclude with a set of problems. The book is organized into four parts. Part I provides introductory material, including the scope of organic chemistry and the architecture of atoms and molecules. Part II discusses aliphatic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogen derivatives of the paraffins, and alcohols and ethers. Part III covers aromatic compounds including benzene and its derivatives; aromatic amines, diazo compounds, and dyes; and phenols and aromatic alcohols. Part IV deals with heterocyclic compounds, physiologically active compounds, and polymers. This book is written for persons with some knowledge of general or inorganic chemistry who wish to obtain an understanding of organic chemistry. The book more than covers the syllabus for the G.C.E. Advanced Level Chemistry course. It could serve as an organic chemistry textbook or companion reader for students studying for a Teacher's Certificate, Higher National Certificate or Advanced Chemical Technician's Certificate.

Table of Contents


Part I—Introductory Material

1 Introduction

Scope of the Subject

Characteristics of Organic Substances

Organic Chemistry and Modern Living

Practical Work

Summary

2 The Architecture of Atoms and Molecules

Concept of Atoms and Molecules

Structure of Atoms

Valence and Chemical Bond

Different Types of Valence

Electronic Interpretation of Valence

Electrovalence

Covalence

Dative Covalence

The Periodic Table

The Carbon Atom

Polar and Non-polar Molecules

Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds

Quantitative Analysis

Determination of Empirical and Molecular Formula

Isomerism

Homologous Series

Summary

Problem Set No. 1

Part II—Alipathic Compounds

3 Hydrocarbons

Alkanes

Isomerism of Hydrocarbons

Petroleum

Cracking

Petrochemicals

Alkenes

Alkynes or Acetylenes

Summary

Problem Set No. 2

4 Halogen Derivatives of the Paraffins

Alkyl Halides

Polyhalogen Derivatives

Summary

Problem Set No. 3

5 Alcohols and Ethers

Classification of Alcohols

Methanol

Ethanol

Butanol

Dihydric Alcohols

Trihydric Alcohols

Polyhydric Alcohols

Ethers

Summary

Problem Set No. 4

6 Aldehydes and Ketones

Nomenclature

Preparation

Reactions

Oxidation

Reduction

Auto-oxidation and Reduction

Substitution at the Alpha Position

Addition to the >CO Group

Addition of Grignard Reagents to the Carbonyl Group

Condensation reactions

Aldol 'Condensation'

Polymerization

Acetals and Ketals

Summary

Problem Set No. 5

7 Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives

Fatty Acids

Formic Acid

Acetic Acid

Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids

Soaps and Detergents

Dibasic Acids

Malonic Ester

Halogenated Acids

Hydroxy Acids

Lactic Acid

Optical Isomerism

Resolution of Racemic Forms

Aldehydo and Ketonic Acids

Amino Acids, Polypeptides, and Proteins

Unsaturated Acids—Geometrical Isomerism

Summary

Problem Set No. 6

8 Organic Compounds of Nitrogen and Sulphur

Amines

Aliphatic Nitro Compounds

Sulphur Compounds

Summary

Problem Set No. 7

9 Carbohydrates

Classification

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides

Summary

Problem Set No. 8

10 Alicyclic Compounds

Baeyer's Strain Theory

Terpenes

Summary

11 Reactivity and Structure—Some Aspects

Electronic Structure of Carbon and its Covalence

Inductive Effect

Delocalization

Addition to Conjugated Systems

Resonance

Steric Hindrance

Summary

Part III—Aromatic Compounds

12 Benzene and its Derivatives

Coal—Source of Aromatic Compounds

Benzene—Its Structure

Reactions of Benzene

Mechanism of Aromatic Substitution

Bromination

Nitration and Sulphonation

The Friedel-Crafts Reaction

Orientation of Aromatic Substitution

Homologues of Benzene and Polynuclear Hydrocarbons

Aromatic Halogen Compounds

Aromatic Sulphonic Acids

Aromatic Nitro Compounds

Summary

Problem Set No. 9

13 Aromatic Amines, Diazo Compounds, and Dytes

Aniline

Other Common Aromatic Amines

Diazotization

Dyes

Summary

Problem Set No. 10

14 Phenols and Aromatic Alcohols

Preparation

Properties and Reactions of Phenol

Substitution Reactions of Phenol

Other Specific Phenols

Polyhydric Phenols

Aromatic Alcohols

Summary

Problem Set No. 11

15 Aromatic Aldehydes, Ketones, and Quinones

Preparations of Aromatic Aldehydes

Reactions

Ketones

Preparation

Stereochemistry of the Oximes

Beckmann Rearrangement of Ketoximes

Quinones

Summary

Problem Set No. 12

16 Aromatic Carboxylic Acids

Preparation

Properties and Reactions

Other Specific Acids

Dibasic Acids

Acids Containing the Carboxyl Group in the Side Chain

Summary

Problem Set No. 13

Part IV—Heterocyclic Compounds, Physiologically Active Compounds, and Polymers

17 Heterocyclic Compounds and Alkaloids

Preparation of Furan, Pyrrole, Thiophene, and Derivatives

Properties and Reactions

Pyridine

Quinoline and Isoquinoline

Alkaloids

Summary

18 Drugs, Hormones, Vitamins, and Enzymes

Drugs

Hormones, Vitamins, and Enzymes

Summary

19 Giant Molecules or Polymers

Addition Polymerization

Condensation Polymerization

Natural and Synthetic Rubber

Synthetic Fibers

Synthetic Plastics and Resins

Silicones

Summary

Appendix A—Experiments and Preparations

Reactions Requiring Heat

1. Preparation of Hydrocarbons

2. Preparation of Soap

3. Separation of Salt and Benzoic Acid

4. Separation of Aniline from Water

5. Purification of Acetanilide

6. Separation of Cinnamic and Benzoic Acids

7. Purification of p-Quinone

8. Separation of Benzene and Nitrobenzene

9. Fractionation of a Mixture of Petrol and Paraffin

10. Purification of Aniline

11. Calibration of a Thermometer

12. Preparation of Iodoform

13. Preparation of Thiokol (A Synthetic Rubber)

14. Formation of Osazones

Appendix B—Essential Items for Experiments

Appendix C—Suggested Further Readings

Appendix D—Answers to Problem Sets

Appendix E—Glossary of Some Common Organic Compounds

Index


Details

No. of pages:
352
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Made Simple 1981
Published:
Imprint:
Made Simple
eBook ISBN:
9781483141237

About the Author

S. K. Murthy

S. S. Nathan

S. S. Nathan