Orban's Oral Histology & Embryology

Orban's Oral Histology & Embryology

13th Edition - May 20, 2011

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  • Author: G. S. Kumar
  • eBook ISBN: 9788131238011

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Description

First published in 1944, Orban's Oral Histology and Embryology has become the classic text for successive generations of dental students. This thirteenth edition, while retaining the same fundamentals and lucid writing style, reflects upon the recent advances and latest curriculum offered in Indian universities.

Key Features

New to this Edition

  • All chapters have been extensively revised and updated
  • Incorporates Summary and Review Questions at the end of each chapter for the benefit of the students
  • All line illustrations have been modified and poor photographs have been replaced with improved ones for better understanding of the subject
  • New chapter on Lymphoid Tissue and Lymphatics in Orofacial Region
  • Preparation of Specimens for Histologic Study upgraded as a chapter

Salient Features

  • Incorporates all relevant changes especially in the field of molecular biology
  • Discusses molecular biological aspects of oral tissues
  • Emphasizes clinical relevance of oral histological aspects

Table of Contents

  • 1. An Overview of Oral Tissues 1

    2. Development of Face and Oral Cavity 5

    Origin of Facial Tissues 5

    Development of Facial Prominences 9

    Development of the frontonasal region:

    olfactory placode, primary palate, and nose 9

    Development of maxillary prominences

    and secondary palate 10

    Development of visceral arches and tongue 11

    Final Differentiation of Facial Tissues 13

    Clinical Considerations 15

     Facial clefts 15

     Hemifacial microsomia 18

     Treacher Collins’ syndrome 18

     Labial pits 19

     Lingual anomalies 19

     Developmental cysts 19

    Summary 21

    3. Development and Growth of Teeth 24

    Dental Lamina 25

     Fate of dental lamina 25

     Vestibular lamina 26

    Tooth Development 26

    Developmental Stages 27

     Bud stage 27

     Cap stage 28

    Outer and inner enamel epithelium 28

    Stellate reticulum 29

    Dental papilla 30

    Dental sac (dental follicle) 30

     Bell stage 31

    Inner enamel epithelium 32

    Stratum intermedium 32

    Stellate reticulum 33

    Outer enamel epithelium 33

    Dental lamina 33

    Dental papilla 33

    Dental sac 35

    Advanced bell stage 35

     Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath and

    root formation 35

    Histophysiology 37

     Initiation 37

     Proliferation 38

     Histodifferentiation 38

     Morphodifferentiation 38

     Apposition 38

    Molecular Insights in Tooth Morphogenesis 38

     Tooth initiation potential 39

     Establishment of oral–aboral axis 40

     Control of tooth germ position 41

     Functional redundancy and their complexities 41

     Patterning of dentition 42

     Regulation of ectodermal boundaries 43

     Stomodeal thickening stage—Dental

    lamina stage (E11.5–E12.5) 44

     Bud stage (E12.5–E13.5) 44

     Bud stage–Cap stage (E13.5–E14.5) 44

     Enamel knot–Signaling center for tooth

    morphogenesis 45

    Clinical Considerations 46

    Summary 46

    4. Enamel 50

    Histology 50

     Physical characteristics 50

     Chemical properties 51

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    xvi Brief Contents

     Structure 53

    Rods 53

    Ultrastructure 53

    Striations 54

    Direction of rods 54

    Hunter–Schreger bands 57

    Incremental lines of Retzius 57

    Surface structures 58

    Enamel cuticle 60

    Enamel lamellae 61

    Enamel tufts 62

    Dentinoenamel junction 64

    Odontoblast processes and enamel spindles 65

     Age changes 65

    Clinical Considerations 66

    Development 68

     Epithelial enamel organ 68

    Outer enamel epithelium 69

    Stellate reticulum 69

    Stratum intermedium 71

    Inner enamel epithelium 71

    Cervical loop 71

     Life cycle of the ameloblasts 72

    Morphogenic stage 72

    Organizing stage 74

    Formative stage 74

    Maturative stage 75

    Protective stage 75

    Desmolytic stage 75

     Amelogenesis 76

    Formation of the enamel matrix 76

    Development of Tomes’ processes 77

    Ameloblasts covering maturing enamel 81

    Mineralization and maturation of the

    enamel matrix 82

    Clinical Considerations 86

    Summary 87

    5. Dentin 93

    Physical and Chemical Properties 93

    Structure 94

    Dentinal tubules 94

    Peritubular dentin 95

    Intertubular dentin 96

    Predentin 96

    Odontoblast process 97

    Primary Dentin 98

    Secondary Dentin 100

    Tertiary Dentin 100

    Incremental Lines 100

    Interglobular Dentin 101

    Granular Layer 103

    Innervation of Dentin 104

    Intratubular nerves 104

    Theories of pain transmission through dentin 104

    Permeability of Dentin 106

    Age and Functional Changes 106

    Vitality of dentin 106

    Reparative dentin 107

    Dead tracts 108

    Sclerotic or transparent dentin 108

    Development 110

    Dentinogenesis 110

    Mineralization 112

    Clinical Considerations 115

    Summary 117

    6. Pulp 120

    Anatomy 120

    General features 120

    Coronal pulp 120

    Radicular pulp 121

    Apical foramen 121

    Accessory canals 122

    Structural Features 122

    Intercellular substance 122

    Fibroblasts 124

    Fibers 124

    Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells 125

    Odontoblasts 125

    Defense cells 127

    Pulpal stem cells 130

    Blood vessels 130

    Lymph vessels 135

    Nerves 135

    Nerve endings 135

     Molecular events following pulp injury

    and repair 138

    Functions 139

    Inductive 139

    Formative 139

    Nutritive 139

    Protective 139

    Defensive or reparative 139

    Differences in Primary and Permanent

    Pulp Tissues 139

    Primary pulp 139

    Permanent pulp 140

    Regressive Changes (Aging) 140

    Cell changes 140

    Fibrosis 140

    Vascular changes 141

    Pulp stones (denticles) 141

    Diffuse calcifications 142

    Development 142

    Clinical Considerations 143

    Summary 148

    7. Cementum 151

    Physical Characteristics 151

    Chemical Composition 151

    Cementogenesis 152

     Cementoblasts 152

    xvii

    Cementoid tissue 155

    Structure 156

     Acellular extrinsic fiber cementum 156

     Cellular cementum 157

    Cellular intrinsic fiber cementum (CIFC) 157

    Cellular mixed fiber cementum (CMFC) 157

    Cellular mixed stratified cementum (CMSC) 157

     Differences between cementocytes and

    osteocytes 158

     Differences between AEFC and cellular

    intrinsic fiber cementum (CIFC) 159

    Cementodentinal Junction 160

    Cementoenamel Junction 162

    Functions 163

     Anchorage 163

     Adaptation 163

     Repair 163

    Hypercementosis 164

    Clinical Considerations 166

    Summary 168

    8. Periodontal Ligament 172

    Development 173

     Development of the principal fibers 174

    Development of cells 174

     Periodontal ligament collagen fiber

    attachment to the root surface 175

    Periodontal Ligament Homeostasis 175

    Cell Biology of Normal Periodontium 176

    Cells 178

     Synthetic cells 178

    Osteoblasts 178

    Fibroblast 180

    Fibroblast-matrix adhesion and traction 180

    Functions 181

    Differences between periodontal ligament

    fibroblasts and gingival fibroblasts 181

    Cementoblasts 182

     Resorptive cells 182

    Osteoclasts 182

    Fibroblasts 182

    Intracellular degradation 183

    Cementoclasts 183

     Progenitor cells 184

    Origin of the periodontal stem cells 184

     Relationship between cells 185

     Epithelial rests of Malassez 186

     Defense cells 186

    Mast cells 186

    Macrophages 187

    Eosinophils 188

    Extracellular Substance 188

     Fibers 189

     Collagen 189

     Sharpey’s fibers 190

     Intermediate plexus 191

     Elastic fibers 191

     Reticular fibers 193

     Secondary fibers 193

     Indifferent fiber plexus 193

     Ground substance 193

     Interstitial tissue 193

    Structures Present in Connective Tissue 193

    Blood vessels 194

    Lymphatic drainage 195

    Nerves 195

    Cementicles 196

    Functions 196

    Supportive 196

    Sensory 197

    Nutritive 198

    Homeostatic 198

    Eruptive 198

    Physical 198

    Age Changes in Periodontal Ligament 199

    Unique Features of Periodontal Ligament 199

    Clinical Considerations 200

    Summary 201

    9. Bone 205

    Classification of Bones 205

    Composition of Bone 206

    Bone Histology 209

    Bone Cells 211

     Osteoblasts 211

     Osteocytes 213

     Osteoclasts 215

    Bone Formation 216

     Intramembranous ossification 216

     Differences between immature bone and

    mature bone 217

     Intracartilaginous bone formation 217

    Bone Resorption 220

    Bone Remodeling 222

    Alveolar Bone 224

    Development of Alveolar Process 224

    Structure of the Alveolar Bone 225

    Internal Reconstruction of Alveolar Bone 229

    Age Changes 231

    Clinical Considerations 231

    Therapeutic Considerations 233

    Summary 234

    10. Oral Mucous Membrane 238

    Classification of Oral Mucosa 239

    Functions of Oral Mucosa 239

    Defense 239

    Lubrication 239

    Sensory 239

    Protection 239

    Definitions and General Considerations 239

     Comparison of oral mucosa with skin and

    intestinal mucosa 239

     Basement membrane 242

     Lamina propria 242

     Submucosa 243

    Structure of the Oral Epithelium 244

    Cytokeratins 244

     Keratinized epithelium 245

    Stratum basale 246

    Stratum spinosum 248

    Stratum granulosum 249

    Stratum corneum 252

     Keratinocytes and nonkeratinocytes 253

    Keratinocytes 253

    Nonkeratinocytes 253

    Melanocytes 253

    Langerhans cell 254

    Merkel cells 254

     Nonkeratinized epithelium 254

    Subdivisions of Oral Mucosa 255

     Keratinized areas 255

    Masticatory mucosa (gingiva and

    hard palate) 255

    Hard palate 255

    Gingiva 259

    Blood and nerve supply 263

    Vermilion zone 264

     Nonkeratinized areas 265

    Lining mucosa 265

    Lip and cheek 265

    Vestibular fornix and alveolar mucosa 266

    Inferior surface of tongue and floor of

    oral cavity 266

    Soft palate 267

     Specialized mucosa 267

    Dorsal lingual mucosa 267

    Taste buds 270

    Gingival Sulcus and Dentogingival Junction 271

     Gingival sulcus 271

     Dentogingival junction 271

    Development of dentogingival junction 272

    Shift of dentogingival junction 274

    Sulcus and cuticles 277

    Epithelial attachment 277

    Migration of epithelial attachment 278

    Development of Oral Mucosa 281

    Age Changes in Oral Mucosa 281

    Clinical Considerations 282

    Summary 284

    11. Salivary Glands 291

    Structure of Terminal Secretory Units 292

     Serous cells 293

     Mucous cells 294

     Myoepithelial cells 296

     Ducts 297

    Intercalated ducts 297

    Striated ducts 298

    Excretory ducts 300

     Connective tissue elements 300

     Blood supply 302

     Nerve supply and pattern of innervation 302

    Classification and Structure of Human

    Salivary Glands 303

     Major salivary glands 303

    Parotid gland 303

    Submandibular gland 303

    Sublingual gland 304

     Minor salivary glands 304

    Labial and buccal glands 305

    Glossopalatine glands 305

    Palatine glands 305

    Lingual glands 306

    Von Ebner’s glands 306

    Development and Growth 306

    Control of Secretion 307

    Composition of Saliva 308

    Functions of Saliva 309

    Protection of the oral cavity and

    oral environment 309

    Digestion 310

    Mastication and deglutition 310

    Taste perception 310

    Speech 310

    Tissue repair 310

    Excretion 311

    Clinical Considerations 311

    Summary 312

    12. Lymphoid Tissue and Lymphatics in

    Orofacial Region 317

    Introduction to Lymphatic System 317

    Types of Lymphoid Tissues 317

    Development of Lymph Nodes and Lymphatics 318

    Functions of the Lymphatic System 318

    Lymph Nodes 318

     Anatomy 319

     Microscopic structure 319

    Cortical (follicle) area 320

    Paracortex (paracortical area) 321

    Medullary area 322

     Immunohistochemistry 323

     Lymph sinuses 323

     Reticular network 323

    Lymphatic Vessels and Capillaries 324

    Blood Vessels of Lymph Nodes 325

    Clinical Significance of Lymph Nodes 325

    Lymph 325

     Rate of lymph flow 326

    Tonsils 326

     Lingual tonsils 326

     Palatine tonsils 326

     Pharyngeal tonsils 327

     Development of tonsils 327

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    Brief Contents xix

     Functions 327

     Clinical significance of tonsils 327

    Lymphatic Drainage of Head and Neck 327

    Summary 329

    13. Tooth Eruption 332

    Pattern of Tooth Movement 332

    Pre-eruptive tooth movement 332

    Eruptive tooth movement 334

    Posteruptive tooth movement 335

     Animal experimental studies in eruption 335

    Histology of Tooth Movement 335

    Pre-eruptive phase 335

    Eruptive phase 335

    Posteruptive phase 338

    Mechanism of Tooth Movement

    (Theories of Tooth Eruption) 339

    Bone remodeling theory 339

    Root formation theory 339

    Vascular pressure theory 339

    Periodontal ligament traction theory 340

    Posteruptive tooth movement 340

     Cellular and molecular events in eruption 341

    Clinical Considerations 344

    Summary 345

    14. Shedding of Deciduous Teeth 348

    Definition 348

    Pattern of Shedding 348

    Histology of Shedding 351

    Mechanism of Resorption and Shedding 355

    Clinical Considerations 356

    Remnants of deciduous teeth 356

    Retained deciduous teeth 356

    Submerged deciduous teeth 357

    Summary 358

    15. Temporomandibular Joint 359

    Gross Anatomy 359

    Development of the Joint 361

    Histology 362

     Bony structures 362

     Articular fibrous covering 363

     Articular disk 364

     Synovial membrane 365

    Clinical Considerations 365

    Summary 367

    16. Maxillary Sinus 369

    Definition 369

    Developmental Aspects 369

    Developmental Anomalies 369

    Structure and Variations 370

    Microscopic Features 372

    Functional Importance 375

    Clinical Considerations 376

    Summary 378

    17. Histochemistry of Oral Tissues 380

    Overview of Histochemical Techniques 381

    Structure and Chemical Composition of

    Oral Tissues 382

     Connective tissue 382

     Ground substance 383

    Proteoglycans 383

     Cells and fibers 386

    Fibroblasts 386

     Epithelial tissues and derivatives 386

     Enzymes 386

    Histochemical Techniques 387

     Fixation procedures 387

     Specific histochemical methods 388

    Glycogen, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans 388

    Proteins and lipids 389

    Enzymes 389

    Phosphatases 389

    Immunohistochemistry 390

    Histochemistry of Oral Hard Tissues 390

     Carbohydrates and protein 390

     Lipids 392

     Enzyme histochemistry of hard tissue 393

    Alkaline phosphatase 393

    Adenosine triphosphatase 394

    Acid phosphatase 394

    Esterase 395

    Aminopeptidase 396

    Cytochrome oxidase 396

    Succinate dehydrogenase 397

    Citric acid cycle in osteoblasts and

    osteoclasts 397

    Calcium-binding sites in enamel organ 397

    Summary 397

    Histochemistry of Oral Soft Tissues 397

     Polysaccharides, proteins, and mucins 397

    Polysaccharides 397

     Proteins and protein groups 398

     Lipids 398

     Mucins 398

     Enzyme histochemistry 399

    Alkaline phosphatase 399

    Acid phosphatase 399

    Esterase 399

    Aminopeptidase 399

    β-Glucuronidase 399

    Cytochrome oxidase 400

    Succinate dehydrogenase and glucose

    6-phosphate dehydrogenase 401

    Enzyme histochemical detection of

    lymphatic capillaries 401

    Angiogenic factor in inflamed gingiva 402

    Laminin-5 402

    Clinical Considerations 402

    Summary 403

    18. Preparation of Specimens for Histologic Study 410

    Preparation of Sections of Paraffin-Embedded

    Specimens 411

    Infiltration of the specimen with paraffin 411

    Preparation of Sections of Parlodion-Embedded

    Specimens 413

    Preparation of Ground Sections of Teeth or Bone 414

    Preparation of Frozen Sections 415

    Types of Microscopy 415

    Summary 415

    Index 417

Product details

  • No. of pages: 448
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier India 2011
  • Published: May 20, 2011
  • Imprint: Elsevier India
  • eBook ISBN: 9788131238011

About the Author

G. S. Kumar

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