Optics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123955005, 9780323152396

Optics

1st Edition

Authors: Otto Laporte
eBook ISBN: 9780323152396
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 396
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Description

Optics: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume IV focuses on the study of optics, particularly on the refraction and reflection of light. Composed of six chapters, the book focuses first on the historical outline of geometrical, physical, and physiological optics. This discussion is followed by the review of basic principles of ideal and natural light and Fresnel's equations on reflection and refraction of light. The optics of moving media and sources is discussed next. This topic covers Doppler effect, the Michelson experiment, and the quantum theory of light. The theory of dispersion is also presented, as well as the ultraviolet resonance, anomalous dispersion, Normal Zeeman effect, and the wave mechanical theory of dispersion. The next part of the book covers crystal optics, including active crystals and fluids, the problem of double refraction, and the optical symmetry of crystals. The theory of diffraction and related experiments are also noted. Numerical analyses and representations are presented in this consideration. Considering the value of the discussions, the readers, including scholars and readers interested to study the physics involved in optics, will find this book a vital source of data.

Table of Contents


Preface

Translator's Note

Introduction

1. Geometrical, Physical, and Physiological Optics. Historical Chart

Chapter I. Reflection and Refraction of Light

2. Review of Electrodynamics. Basic Principles of Ideal and Natural Light

3. Fresnel's Formula. Transitions from Rarer to Denser Media

A. Electric Vector Perpendicular to Plane of Incidence

B. Magnetic Vector Perpendicular to Plane of Incidence

C. Artificial Suppression of Reflection for Perpendicular Incidence

4. Graphical Discussion of Fresnel's Formula. Brewster's Law

A. Plane of Polarization Parallel to Plane of Incidence

B. Plane of Polarization Perpendicular to Plane of Incidence

C. Practical Production of Polarized Light

D. Brewster's Law from the Point of View of Electron Theory

E. Energy Considerations. Reflecting Power r and Transmissivity d

5. Total Reflection

A. Discussion of Fresnel's Formula

B. Light Penetrating into the Rarer Medium

C. The Tunnel Effect of Wave Mechanics

D. Production of Elliptically and Circularly Polarized Light

6. Metallic Reflection

A. Fresnel's Formula

B. Experiments by Hagen and Rubens

C. Some Remarks on the Color of Metals, Glasses, and Pigments

7. Colors of Thin Membranes and Thick Plates

A. The General Case

B. The Oil Spot on Wet Asphalt

C. Coated (Non-Reflecting) Lenses

D. Soap Bubbles and Newton's Rings

E. Comparison of Methods: Summation or Boundary-Value Treatment

F. The Lummer-Gehrke Plate (1902)

G. The Interferometer of Perot and Fabry (About 1900)

8. Standing Light Waves

A. Monochromatic, Linearly Polarized Light Which Is Incident Perpendicularly upon a Metal Surface

B. Obliquely Incident Light

C. Lippmann's Color Photography

Chapter II. Optics of Moving Media and Sources. Astronomical Topics

9. Measurement of the Velocity of Light

10. Aberration and Parallax

11. The Doppler Effect

12. Fresnel's Coefficient of Drag and Fizeau's Experiment

13. Reflection by a Moving Mirror

14. The Michelson Experiment

15. The Experiments of Harress, Sagnac, and Michelson-Gale

16. The Quantum Theory of Light

Chapter III. Theory of Dispersion

17. Ultraviolet Resonance Oscillations of the Electrons

18. Infrared Resonance Oscillations of the Ions in Addition to Ultraviolet Electron Resonance Oscillations

19. Anomalous Dispersion

20. Magnetic Rotation of the Plane of Polarization

21. The Normal Zeeman Effect and Some Remarks on the Anomalous Zeeman Effect

22. Phase Velocity, Signal Velocity, Group Velocity

A. Fourier Representation of a Bounded Wave Train

B. Propagation of the Wave Front in a Dispersive Medium

C. The Precursors

D. The Signal in its Final Steady State

E. Group Velocity and Energy Transport

23. The Wave Mechanical Theory of Dispersion

A. Comparison of the Older Dispersion Formula with the Wave Mechanical Formula

Chapter IV. Crystal Optics

24. Fresnel's Ellipsoid, Index Ellipsoid, Principal Dielectric Axes

25. The Structure of the Plane Wave and Its Polarization

26. Dual Relations, Ray Surface and Normal Surface, Optic Axes

A. Discussion of the Ray Surface

B. The Optic Axes

27. The Problem of Double Refraction

A. Double Refraction According to Huygens* Principle

B. The Law of Refraction as a Boundary Value Problem

C. The Amplitudes of Reflected and Refracted Rays

28. The Optical Symmetry of Crystals

29. Optically Active Crystals and Fluids

A. The Gyration Vector of Solenoidal Crystal Structures

B. The Rotation of the Plane of Polarization in Quartz

C. Optically Active Fluids

30. Nicol's Prism, Quarter Wave Plate, Tourmaline Tongs, and Dichroism

A. Nicol's Prism

B. The Quarter Wave Plate and the Babinet Compensator

C. Tourmaline and the Polarization Filter

31. Interference Phenomena due to Crystal Plates in Parallel and in Converging Polarized Light

A. Parallel Light

B. Converging Light

Chapter V. The Theory of Diffraction

32. Theory of Gratings

A. Line Gratings

B. Cross Gratings

C. Space Gratings

33. Diffraction Arising from Many Randomly Distributed Particles

34. Huygens' Principle

A. The Spherical Wave

B. Green's Theorem and Kirchhoff's Formulation of Huygens' Principle

C. Green's Function, Simplified Formulation of Huygens' Principle

D. Fraunhofer and Fresnel Diffraction

E. Babinet's Principle

F. Black or Reflecting Screen

G. Two Generalizations

35. The Problem of the Shadow in Geometrical and in Wave Optics

A. The Eikonal

B. The Origin of the Shadow According to Wave Optics

C. Diffraction Behind a Circular Disc

D. The Circular Opening and Fresnel Zones

E. The Similarity Law of Diffraction

36. Fraunhofer Diffraction by Rectangles and Circles

A. Diffraction by a Rectangle

B. Diffraction by a Slit

C. The Circular Aperture

D. Phase Gratings

E. Supplement to Section 35 B. Light Fans Arising from Polygonally Bounded Apertures

37. Fresnel Diffraction by a Slit

A. Fresnel's Integrals

B. Discussion of the Diffraction Pattern

C. Diffraction by a Straight Edge

38. Rigorous Solutions of Certain Diffraction Problems

A. The Problem of the Straight Edge

B. Construction of Branched Solutions

C. Representation of U by a Fresnel Integral

D. The Diffraction Field of the Straight-Edge

E. Generalization

F. Basic Remarks on Branched Solutions

Chapter VI. Addenda, Chiefly to the Theory of Diffraction

39. Diffraction by a Very Narrow Slit

A. The Boundary Value Problem of the Slit

B. Solution of the Integral Equations (10) and (12)

C. Discussion

40. The Resolving Power of Optical Instruments

A. The Resolving Power of Line Gratings

B. Echelon Gratings and Interference Spectroscopy

41. The Prism. Basic Theory of Resolving Power

A. General Considerations Regarding Resolving Power

B. Applications to Gratings and Interference Spectroscopes

42. The Telescope and the Eye. Michelson's Measurements of the Sizes of Fixed Stars

43. The Microscope

A. Abbe's Theory of the Microscope

B. Significance of Phase Gratings in Microscopy

44. On Young's Interpretation of Diffraction

A. Reformulation of Kirchhoff's Solution of the Problem of Diffraction

B. Reduction of the Surface Integral over the Cone to a Line Integral over the Boundary of the Diffraction Opening. Sharpening of Young's Theory

C. Discussion of the Contour Integral

45. Diffraction Near FoCal Points

A. The Hypothesis of Debye

B. The Diffraction Field in the Neighborhood of the Focal Point

C. Amplitude and Phase Along and Near the Axis of the Light Cone

D. The Cylindrical Wave and Its Phase Jump

46. The Huygens' Principle of the Electromagnetic Vector Problem

47. Cerenkov Radiation

A. The Field of the Cerenkov Electron

B. The Radiation of the Cerenkov Electron

C. Cerenkov Radiation with Dispersion Taken into Account

D. A Final Critical Remark

48. Supplement on Geometrical Optics, Curved Light Rays, Sine Condition, Lens Formula, Rainbow

A. The Curvature of Light Rays

B. Abbe's Sine Condition

C. On the Structure of Rectilinear Ray Bundles

D. On the Lens Formula

E. Production of Curved Light Rays by Diffusion and a Remark on the Theory of the Rainbow

49. On the Nature of White Light. Photon Theory and Complementarity

Problems for Chapter I

Problems for Chapter III

Problems for Chapter IV

Solutions to Problems

Index




Details

No. of pages:
396
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1964
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323152396

About the Author

Otto Laporte