Optical Thin Films and Coatings

Optical Thin Films and Coatings

From Materials to Applications

1st Edition - August 31, 2013

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  • Editors: Angela Piegari, Francois Flory
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857097316

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Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings and includes chapters on organic optical coatings, surface multiplasmonics and optical thin films containing quantum dots. Finally, applications of optical coatings, including laser components, solar cells, displays and lighting, and architectural and automotive glass, are reviewed in part four.Optical thin films and coatings is a technical resource for researchers and engineers working with optical thin films and coatings, professionals in the security, automotive, space and other industries requiring an understanding of these topics, and academics interested in the field.

Key Features

  • An overview of the materials, properties, design and manufacture of thin films
  • Special attention is given to the unconventional features and novel materials of optical thin films
  • Reviews applications of optical coatings including laser components, solar cells, glasing, displays and lighting


Graduate students, postdoctoral students, professors, and researchers in industrial and government laboratories who are interested in the use of thin films as optical coatings, in waveguide technology, and as a protection against oxidation, among other applications; Optical engineers and physicists in research and development of coatings and optics

Table of Contents

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    Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials


    Part I: Design and manufacturing of optical thin films and coatings

    Chapter 1: Recent developments in deposition techniques for optical thin films and coatings


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Early processes for the deposition of optical coatings

    1.3 The energetic processes

    1.4 Cathodic arc evaporation

    1.5 Pulsed laser deposition

    1.6 Chemical vapor deposition

    1.7 Atomic layer deposition

    1.8 Sol–gel processes

    1.9 Etching

    1.10 Other techniques

    1.11 Conclusion

    Chapter 2: Design of complex optical coatings


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Modern numerical thin film synthesis techniques

    2.3 Manufacturability issues

    2.4 Hybrid design

    2.5 Conclusion

    2.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 3: Optical monitoring strategies for optical coating manufacturing


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Classification of optical monitoring strategies

    3.3 Turning point optical monitoring and error self-compensation effect

    3.4 Level monitoring: passive and active monochromatic monitoring strategies

    3.5 Direct broad band optical monitoring

    3.6 Indirect optical monitoring strategies

    3.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 4: Production strategies for high-precision optical coatings


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Basic concept of deterministic production

    4.3 Optical broad band monitoring

    4.4 Virtual deposition system

    4.5 Direct on-line correction tools

    4.6 Design stability in production processes

    4.7 Deposition control of coating systems with continuous refractive index variation

    4.8 Conclusion

    Part II: Unconventional features of optical thin films and coatings

    Chapter 5: Complex materials with plasmonic effects for optical thin film applications


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Physics of some classes of novel materials for plasmonic applications

    5.3 Ceramic matrix with embedded metal nanostructures

    5.4 Searching for alternative plasmonic materials

    5.5 Characterization of novel materials with plasmonic effects

    5.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 6: Scattering properties of random structures in thin films


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Numerical solution of reduced Rayleigh equations for scattering of light from dielectric films with one-dimensional rough surfaces

    6.3 Reduced Rayleigh equations for the scattering of p- and s-polarized light from, and its transmission through, a film with two one-dimensional rough surfaces

    6.4 Numerical solution of the reduced Rayleigh equation for the scattering of light from a two-dimensional randomly rough penetrable surface

    6.5 Scattering of light from a dielectric film with a two-dimensional randomly rough surface deposited on a planar metal substrate

    6.6 Analytical methods for the scattering from a three-dimensional film with randomly rough surfaces

    6.7 Theoretical methods for the scattering of

    6.8 Applications

    6.9 Conclusion

    6.11 Appendices

    Appendix 6.11.2 Mueller Matrix and Tensor

    Chapter 7: Optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Material behaviour over the spectrum

    7.3 Reflection and transmission in absorbing materials

    7.4 The optical constants of materials at short wavelengths

    7.5 Link between n and k: Kramers-Kronig analysis

    7.6 Experimental determination of optical constants

    7.7 Specifics of optical coatings at short wavelengths

    7.8 Conclusion

    7.9 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 8: Controlling thermal radiation from surfaces


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Blackbody radiation

    8.3 Emissivity

    8.4 Optically selective coatings

    8.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 9: Color in optical coatings


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 The development of the understanding of interference color

    9.3 Overview of basic colorimetry

    9.4 Optical coating colorimetry

    9.5 Conclusion

    9.6 Acknowledgements

    Part III: Novel materials for optical thin films and coatings

    Chapter 10: Organic optical coatings


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Specific properties of organic layers

    10.3 Optical coatings with organic layers

    10.4 Deposition techniques

    10.5 Composites

    10.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 11: Surface multiplasmonics with periodically non-homogeneous thin films


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Historical development

    11.3 Periodically non-homogeneous dielectric materials

    11.4 Canonical boundary-value problem

    11.5 Grating-coupled configuration

    11.6 Turbadar–Kretschmann–Raether (TKR) configuration

    11.7 Conclusions

    11.8 Future research

    11.9 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 12: Optical thin films containing quantum dots


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Applications of quantum dots

    12.3 Modelling the electronic properties of multiple quantum wells

    12.4 Numerical results

    12.5 Realization of thin films containing quantum dots

    12.6 Characterization of thin films containing quantum dots

    12.7 Refractive index of layers containing quantum dots and of quantum dots alone

    12.8 Conclusion

    12.9 Acknowledgements

    Part IV: Applications of optical thin films and coatings

    Chapter 13: Optical coatings on plastic for antireflection purposes


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Transparent polymer materials for optics

    13.3 Plastics in vacuum coating processes

    13.4 Antireflection methods

    13.5 Conclusion

    13.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 14: Protective coatings for optical surfaces


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Testing methods

    14.3 Coating design

    14.4 Application examples

    14.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 15: Optical coatings for displays and lighting


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Optical coatings for flat panel display (FPD)

    15.3 Optical coatings for projectors

    15.4 Optical coatings for projectors using light emitting diode (LED) light source

    15.5 Optical coating for automobiles head up display (HUD)

    15.6 Optical coatings for LEDs

    15.7 Conclusion

    15.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 16: Innovative approaches in thin film photovoltaic cells


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Inorganic nanostructures for photovoltaic solar cells

    16.3 Organic thin film solar cells

    16.4 Copper indium gallium diselenide thin film solar cells

    16.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 17: Optical coatings for security and authentication devices


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Basic principles and structures currently applied

    17.3 Specific optical effects suitable for security devices

    17.4 Active devices

    17.5 Film functionality and structurally controlled optical coatings

    17.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 18: Optical coatings for high-intensity femtosecond lasers


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Mirror design approaches

    18.3 The highest possible value of group delay dispersion (GDD)

    18.4 Production of dispersive mirrors

    18.5 Pulse compression with dispersive mirrors

    18.6 Measurement of group delay with white light interferometer

    18.7 Application of dispersive mirrors in high-intensity lasers

    18.8 Conclusion

    Chapter 19: Optical coatings for large facilities


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Domains of applications and major programs

    19.3 Review of technological solutions

    19.4 Thin film uniformity: key problem

    19.5 Focus on large magnetron sputtering facility

    19.6 Highlights on two major programs

    19.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 20: Optical coatings for automotive and building applications


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 The role of thermal control in glazing

    20.3 Window coating types by functionality

    20.4 Glazing types: monolithic, laminated, and multi-cavity glazing designs

    20.5 Coatings on glass substrates

    20.6 Coatings on polymer substrates

    20.7 Special considerations for applications

    20.8 Conclusion

    20.9 Future trends

    20.10 Sources of further information and advice

    20.11 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 21: Transparent conductive thin films


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Conductivity fundamentals

    21.3 Control of optoelectronic properties

    21.4 Beyond optoelectronic properties

    21.5 Traditional applications

    21.6 Recent applications

    21.7 Future applications

    21.8 Conclusion

    Chapter 22: Optical coatings in the space environment


    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 The space environment

    22.3 Contamination

    22.4 Product assurance for space coatings

    22.5 Conclusion

    22.6 Acknowledgements


Product details

  • No. of pages: 864
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2013
  • Published: August 31, 2013
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857097316

About the Editors

Angela Piegari

Dr Angela Piegari is Head of the Optical Coatings Laboratory at ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), Italy.

Affiliations and Expertise

ENEA – Italian National Agency for New Technologies Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Italy

Francois Flory

François Flory is Professor at Ecole Centrale Marseille and performs his research at the Institut Matériaux, Microelectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, France.

Affiliations and Expertise

IM2NP – Institute of Materials, Microelectronics and Nanosciences of Provence, France

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