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Optical Techniques - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483230474, 9781483282077

Optical Techniques

1st Edition

Editors: Gerald Oster Arthur W. Pollister
eBook ISBN: 9781483282077
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1955
Page Count: 578
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Physical Techniques in Biological Research, Volume I: Optical Techniques focuses on improvements in physical techniques used in biological research on cells and tissues. The selection first discusses photochemistry and luminescence and light scattering, including applications of luminescence, theory of light scattering and its applications, and light scattering apparatus. The text then examines absorption spectroscopy, ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry, and infrared spectrophotometry. Discussions focus on factors involved in data gathering, empirical correlation between molecular structure and absorption spectra, buffers for ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry, instrumentation and techniques, and interpretation of data.
The text ponders on the light microscope and phase and interference microscopy, as well as the optical and mechanical systems of microscopes; wave nature of light and its consequences; purposes of phase and interference microscopy; and principles of phase microscopy. The publication also reviews birefringence and dichroism and electron microscopy.
The selection is highly recommended for students and readers interested in the physical techniques used in biological research.

Table of Contents



Contributors to Volume I

1. Photochemistry and Luminescence

I. Principles of Photochemistry

II. Some Applications of Luminescence

III. Special Experimental Techniques


2. Light Scattering

I. Introduction

II. Theory of Light Scattering and Its Applications

III. Light Scattering Apparatus

IV. Experimental Procedures


3. Absorption Spectroscopy

I. Introduction

II. Factors Involved in Taking Data

III. Applications


4. Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrophotometry

I. Introduction

II. Theory

III. Empirical Correlation between Molecular Structure and Absorption Spectra

IV. Instrumentation

V. Solvents

VI. Buffers for Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrophotometry

VII. Calibration of the Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer

VIII. Literature


5. Infrared Spectrophotometry

I. Introduction

II. Instrumentation and Techniques

III. Interpretation of Data

IV. Applications


6. The Light Microscope

I. The Principle of Lenses and Optical Systems

II. The Eyes and Vision

III. The Wave Nature of Light and Its Consequences

IV. The Optical and Mechanical Systems of Microscopes

V. Practical Manipulations

VI. The Interpretation of the Image


7. Phase and Interference Microscopy

I. Purposes of Phase and Interference Microscopy

II. Principles of Phase Microscopy

III. Useful Quantitative Relations

IV. Particles with Inclusions

V. Use of the Phase Microscope

VI. Systems for Variable Phase Microscopy

VII. Measurement of Small Opaque Particles

VIII. The Phase Vertical Illumination Microscope

IX. Phase Color Contrast

X. Interference Microscopy


8. Birefringence and Dichroism

I. Nature of Polarized Light

II. Production of Polarized Light

III. Origin of Birefringence and of Dichroism

IV. Experimental Techniques


9. Electron Microscopy

I. The Limits of Optical Observation

II. Basic Principles of Electron Microscopy

III. Practical Differences between Optical and Electron Microscopy

IV. Elements of Electron Lenses

V. The Illuminating System

VI. The Imaging System

VII. Recording the Image

VIII. Requirements for High Performance

IX. Specimen Technique: Mounting and Shadowcasting

X. Specimen Technique for Biological Material

XI. Replica Techniques for Biological Material

XII. Artifacts

XIII. Other Electronic Methods of Microscopy


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1955
1st January 1955
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Gerald Oster

Arthur W. Pollister

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