Preface. 1. Major physical phenomena in the optical orientation and alignment in semiconductors (V.I. Perel and B.P. Zakharchenya). 2. Theory of optical spin orientation of electrons and nuclei in semiconductors (M.I. Dyakonov and V.I. Perel). 3. Spin relaxation under optical orientation in semiconductors (G.E. Pikus and A.N. Titkov). 4. Optical alignment of electron momenta in GaAs-type semiconductors (D.N. Mirlin). 5. Optical orientation of the coupled electron-nuclear spin system of a semiconductor (V.G. Fleisher and I.A. Merkulov). 6. Applications of polarized electron sources utilizing optical orientation in solids (D.T. Pierce and R.J. Celotta). 7. Spin polarized photoemission by optical orientation (F. Meier and D. Pescia). 8. Optical orientation of excitons (R. Planel and C. Benoit à la Guillaume). 9. Optical investigation of the hyperfine coupling between electronic and nuclear spins (D. Paget and V.L. Berkovits). 10. Spin-polarized photoelectrons and crystal symmetry (M. Wöhlecke and G. Borstel). 11. Optical detection of conduction electron spin resonance in semi-conductors and its application to k.p perturbation theory (C. Hermann and C. Weisbuch). Author index. Subject index.