Optical Interconnects for Data Centers

Optical Interconnects for Data Centers

1st Edition - November 1, 2016

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  • Editors: Tolga Tekin, Nikos Pleros, Richard Pitwon, Andreas Hakansson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081005132

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Current data centre networks, based on electronic packet switches, are experiencing an exponential increase in network traffic due to developments such as cloud computing. Optical interconnects have emerged as a promising alternative offering high throughput and reduced power consumption. Optical Interconnects for Data Centers reviews key developments in the use of optical interconnects in data centres and the current state of the art in transforming this technology into a reality. The book discusses developments in optical materials and components (such as single and multi-mode waveguides), circuit boards and ways the technology can be deployed in data centres. Optical Interconnects for Data Centers is a key reference text for electronics designers, optical engineers, communications engineers and R&D managers working in the communications and electronics industries as well as postgraduate researchers.

Key Features

  • Summarizes the state-of-the-art in this emerging field
  • Presents a comprehensive review of all the key aspects of deploying optical interconnects in data centers, from materials and components, to circuit boards and methods for integration
  • Contains contributions that are drawn from leading international experts on the topic


Electronics designers, optical engineers, communications engineers and R&D managers working in the communications and electronics industries. Academics and researchers working in the fields of communications, electronics, photonics and data quality

Table of Contents

    • List of contributors
    • Biography
    • Preface
    • Woodhead publishing series in electronic and optical materials
    • Part I: Introduction
      • 1. Data center architectures
        • Abstract
        • 1.1 Introduction
        • 1.2 Data center environment considerations
        • 1.3 Data center classifications
        • 1.4 Application architectures
        • 1.5 Cloud data center architectures
        • 1.6 Physical architecture
        • 1.7 Data center design considerations
        • 1.8 Next generation data center architectures
        • 1.9 Optical interconnects for data centers
        • References
      • 2. Optical interconnects: Fundamentals
        • Abstract
        • 2.1 Optical interconnects: the driver behind future data centers
        • 2.2 Classes of optical interconnects in data centers
        • 2.3 Current status and future trends of optical interconnects systems
        • 2.4 Overview of photonic key enabling technologies
        • 2.5 Summary and practical conclusions
        • References
      • 3. Key requirements for optical interconnects within data centers
        • Abstract
        • 3.1 An explosion of data
        • 3.2 What are data centers?
        • 3.3 Data communication requirements
        • 3.4 Optical interconnect: a solution to energy and bandwidth requirements?
        • 3.5 Conclusion
        • References
    • Part II: Materials and Components
      • 4. Indium phosphide (InP) for optical interconnects
        • Abstract
        • 4.1 Introduction
        • 4.2 InP photonic integration platforms
        • 4.3 State-of-the-art in InP photonic integrated circuits (PICs) for data centers
        • 4.4 Future trends
        • References
      • 5. Photonic crystal cavities for optical interconnects
        • Abstract
        • 5.1 Photonic crystal background
        • 5.2 Mass production
        • 5.3 Light emission
        • 5.4 The fiber coupling problem and its solution
        • 5.5 Optical modulation
        • 5.6 Photo-detection
        • 5.7 Outlook
        • References
      • 6. Types and performance of high performing multi-mode polymer waveguides for optical interconnects
        • Abstract
        • 6.1 Introduction
        • 6.2 Polynorbornene
        • 6.3 Silicones
        • 6.4 Connectors and coupling
        • 6.5 Conclusions
        • References
      • 7. Design and fabrication of multimode polymer waveguides for optical interconnects
        • Abstract
        • 7.1 Introduction
        • 7.2 Structure of multimode polymer optical waveguide
        • 7.3 Fabrication method
        • 7.4 Characterization
        • 7.5 Polymer optical waveguide circuit for optical PCB
        • 7.6 Summary
        • References
      • 8. Silicon photonics for multi-mode transmission
        • Abstract
        • 8.1 Expectations for optical interconnection
        • 8.2 Multi-mode wiring for silicon photonics technology
        • 8.3 Chip-scale silicon photonics transceiver “optical I/O core”
        • 8.4 Evaluation
        • 8.5 Application
        • References
      • 9. Scalable three-dimensional optical interconnects for data centers
        • Abstract
        • 9.1 Introduction
        • 9.2 Photonic and three-dimensional interconnects
        • 9.3 Optical architecture: three-dimensional-NoC
        • 9.4 Reconfiguration
        • 9.5 Performance evaluation
        • 9.6 Conclusions and future directions
        • References
      • 10. Electronic drivers/TIAs for optical interconnects
        • Abstract
        • Editors
        • Rationale
        • 10.1 Co-design and co-simulation of electronics and photonics
        • 10.2 Electronic drivers
        • 10.3 Transimpedance amplifiers
        • References
    • Part III: Circuit Boards
      • 11. Electrical and photonic off-chip interconnection and system integration
        • Abstract
        • 11.1 Introduction
        • 11.2 Emerging electrical and photonic interconnects
        • 11.3 Large-scale interconnected system using a “silicon bridging” concept
        • 11.4 Conclusion
        • References
      • 12. Electro-optical circuit boards with single- or multi-mode optical interconnects
        • Abstract
        • 12.1 Motivation and classification of optical interconnects at the board level
        • 12.2 Manufacturing of integrated planar polymer waveguides
        • 12.3 Integrated glass waveguide based EOCBs
        • 12.4 Mass production and reliability
        • References
      • 13. International and industrial standardization of optical circuit board technologies
        • Abstract
        • 13.1 Introduction
        • 13.2 Industrial manufacturing processes for OPCBs
        • 13.3 International standardization of OPCBs
        • 13.4 OPCB measurement
        • 13.5 Conclusion
        • References
      • 14. Requirements for process automation of optical interconnect technologies
        • Abstract
        • 14.1 An introduction and a list of issues
        • 14.2 Positional accuracy and the debate on passive/active alignment
        • 14.3 Machine “ingredients” and machine technologies
        • 14.4 Machine vision
        • 14.5 The role of software and HMI in the optimization of new processes
        • 14.6 Test and measurement instrumentation
        • 14.7 Design for automated assembly/testing and standardization
        • 14.8 Automated testing
        • 14.9 Conclusions
        • References
    • Part IV: Using Optical Interconnects to Improve Network Architectures in Data Centers
      • 15. The role of optical interconnects in the design of data center architectures
        • Abstract
        • 15.1 Introduction
        • 15.2 Overview of optical interconnects technologies
        • 15.3 Applications of optical interconnects in the individual layers of the packaging hierarchy
        • 15.4 On-optical printed circuit boards (OPCB) layout strategies
        • 15.5 Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 428
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2016
  • Published: November 1, 2016
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081005132

About the Editors

Tolga Tekin

Tolga Tekin received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and computer science from the Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany, in 2004. He was a Research Scientist with the Optical Signal Processing Department, Fraunhofer HHI, where he was engaged in advanced research on optical signal processing, 3R-regeneration, all-optical switching, clock recovery, and integrated optics. He was a Postdoctoral Researcher on components for O-CDMA and terabit routers with the University of California. He worked at Teles AG on phased-array antennas and their components for skyDSL. At the Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration (IZM) and at Technical University of Berlin, he then led projects on microsystems, 3-D heterogeneous integration, optical interconnects and silicon photonics packaging. He is engaged in photonic integrated system-in-package, millimeter-wave photonics, photonic interconnects and 5G research activities. He is group manager of Photonics and Plasmonics Systems in the System Integration and Interconnection Technologies Department at Fraunhofer IZM. He is coordinator of European flagship project 'PhoxTroT' on optical interconnects for data centers. He is Senior Member of IEEE and co-chair of 'Photonics - Communication, Sensing, Lighting' Technical Committee in the IEEE Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

Photonic & Plasmonic Systems Group Manager, System Integration & Interconnection Technologies Department, Fraunhofer IZM, Germany

Nikos Pleros

Nikos Pleros is a Lecturer at the Department of Informatics (CSD), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Greece, since September 2007 and a collaborative faculty member at the Information Technologies Institute, Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH).

Affiliations and Expertise

Lecturer, Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Richard Pitwon

Richard Pitwon is Leader of Photonics Research and Development group at Seagate Systems responsible for design and development of advanced embedded photonic interconnect solutions for future Cloud and Exascale data centre architectures.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lead Photonics Engineer, Seagate Technology, UK

Andreas Hakansson

Andreas Hakansson is a Researcher at Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration IZM · Department of System Integration and Interconnection Technologies (SIIT) · Photonic & Plasmonic Systems, Germany

Affiliations and Expertise

Project Manager, Fraunhofer IZM, Germany

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