Optical Holography - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121810504, 9780323144308

Optical Holography

1st Edition

Authors: Robert Collier
eBook ISBN: 9780323144308
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1971
Page Count: 624
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Optical Holography deals with the use of optical holography to solve technical problems, with emphasis on the properties of holograms formed with visible light. Topics covered include the Fourier transform, propagation and diffraction, pulsed-laser holography, and optical systems with spherical lenses. A geometric analysis of point-source holograms is also presented, and holograms and hologram spatial filters formed with spatially modulated reference waves are described. This book is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to concepts that are basic to understanding holography, from interference patterns and diffraction to hologram formation, basic holography equations, and partial coherence. The next chapter focuses on early developments in holography, paying particular attention to Bragg's X-ray microscope, X-ray holography, and the beginnings of optical holography. The discussion then turns to light sources for hologram formation; analysis of plane holograms; diffraction from volume holograms; and real-image applications of holographic methods. The remaining chapters explore holographic interferometry, color holography, and computer-generated holograms. The final chapter deals with hologram replication, television transmission of holograms, and formation of holograms using spatially incoherent subject light. This monograph will be a useful resource for electron microscopists, electrical engineers, opticists, physicists, chemists, and others interested in optical holography.

Table of Contents

List of Color Plates


1. Introduction to Basic Concepts

1.1 Optical Holography

1.2 Light Waves

1.3 Interference Patterns

1.4 Diffraction

1.5 Hologram Formation

1.6 Wavefront Reconstruction

1.7 Plane and Volume Hologram-Formation Geometries

1.8 Basic Holography Equations

1.9 Partial Coherence


2. Early Holography

2.1 Bragg's X-Ray Microscope

2.2 Holography for Electron Microscopy

2.3 X-Ray Holography

2.4 Beginnings of Optical Holography

2.5 In-Line Holograms

2.6 Off-Axis Holograms


3. Geometric Analysis of Point-Source Holograms

3.1 Computation of Subject-Reference Phase Differences

3.2 Reconstruction with a Point Source

3.3 Characteristics of the Images

3.4 Third-Order Aberrations


4. The Fourier Transform

4.1 Linear Space-Invariant Systems and the Fourier Transform

4.2 Correspondences and Transform Relations

4.3 The Convolution Operation

4.4 Other Operational Correspondences

4.5 Functional Correspondences


5. Propagation and Diffraction

5.1 The Wave Equation and Its Monochromatic Solution

5.2 The Plane Wave Solution

5.3 Diffraction from Periodic Objects

5.4 The General Diffraction Problem

5.5 The Relation to the Fresnel-Kirchhoff Integral


6. Optical Systems with Spherical Lenses

6.1 The Spherical Lens

6.2 A Simple Optical System

6.3 A More General Optical System

6.4 The Effect of Finite Lens Size

6.5 Coherent and Incoherent Transfer Functions


7. Light Sources and Optical Technique

7.1 Light Sources for Hologram Formation

7.2 Fringe Visibility in Hologram Recording

7.3 Illumination with an Expanded Laser Beam

7.4 Division and Attenuation of the Laser Beam

7.5 Mechanical Stability in Hologram Formation

7.6 Light Sources for Hologram Reconstruction

7.7 Simple Holographic Technique


8. Analysis of Plane Holograms

8.1 Off-Axis Holography with Nondiffuse Subject Light

8.2 Off-Axis Holography with a Diffuse Signal

8.3 Hologram-Forming Geometries

8.4 Effects of Resolution and Size of the Recording Medium

8.5 Maximum Efficiency of Plane Holograms


9. Diffraction from Volume Holograms

9.1 Holograms Formed with Two Plane Waves

9.2 Bragg's Law

9.3 Coupled Wave Theory

9.4 The Wave Equation

9.5 Solution of the Wave Equation

9.6 Transmission Holograms

9.7 Reflection Holograms

9.8 Discussion of Volume Hologram Properties


10. Hologram Recording Materials

10.1 Optical Changes in Photosensitive Materials

10.2 Exposure and Sensitivity

10.3 Recording Resolution

10.4 Persistence of the Hologram and Erasability

10.5 Noise and Recording Linearity

10.6 Ideal Wavefront Reconstruction and Ideal Recording Material

10.7 Representative Exposure Characteristics for Real Materials

10.8 Silver Halide Photographic Emulsions

10.9 Dichromated Gelatin Films

10.10 Photoconductor-Thermoplastic Films

10.11 Photochromic Materials

10.12 Ferroelectric Crystals


11. Pulsed-Laser Holography

11.1 The Multimode Ruby Laser

11.2 The Single-Frequency Ruby Laser

11.3 Coherence Length of the Single-Frequency Laser

11.4 The Ruby Amplifier

11.5 Protection of Optical Components

11.6 Arrangements for Forming Pulsed-Laser Holograms

11.7 Maximum Allowable Subject Movement

11.8 Safe Illumination of Human Subjects

11.9 Hologram Recording Materials


12. Nonlinear Recording, Speckle, and Film Grain Noise

12.1 Effects of Nonlinear Recording

12.2 Speckle Pattern

12.3 Film Grain Noise


13. Real-Image Applications

13.1 Microscopy

13.2 Analysis of Aerosol Particles

13.3 Imaging through Phase-Distorting Media

13.4 High-Resolution Projection Imaging

13.5 Multiple Imaging


14. Holograms and Hologram Spatial Filters Formed with Spatially Modulated Reference Waves

14.1 Associative Storage

14.2 The Fourier Transform Hologram with a Spatially Modulated Reference Wave

14.3 Some Experiments with Fourier Transform Holograms

14.4 Character Recognition

14.5 Multiplexing and Coding

14.6 Image Processing


15. Holographic Interferometry

15.1 Real-Time Interferometry

15.2 Double-Exposure Interferometry

15.3 Fringe Localization and Interpretation

15.4 Interferometry of Vibrating Surfaces

15.5 Contour Generation

15.6 Applications and Improvements


16. Information Storage

16.1 Page-Organized Microimage Storage System

16.2 A Standing-Wave Optical Memory

16.3 Holographic Storage in Thick Media

16.4 A Holographic Flying-Spot Store

16.5 Write, Read, and Erase in Situ


17. Color Holography

17.1 Color Mixing with Laser Light

17.2 Recording Materials

17.3 Monochrome Images

17.4 Achromatic Images

17.5 Multicolor Images from Plane Holograms

17.6 Multicolor Images from Volume Holograms


18. Composite Holograms

18.1 Image Resolution and Element Size

18.2 Hologram Information Reduction

18.3 Hyper- and Hypostereoscopic Hologram Images

18.4 Wide-Angle Hologram Images

18.5 3D Image Synthesis from Photographs


19. Computer-Generated Holograms

19.1 The Sampling Theorem

19.2 The Discrete Fourier Transform and the Fast Fourier Transform

19.3 Binary Fourier Transform Holograms

19.4 Applications

19.5 The Kinoform


20. Three Topics in Search of a Chapter: Replication, TV Transmission, and Incoherent-Light Holograms

20.1 Hologram Replication

20.2 Television Transmission of Holograms

20.3 Holograms Formed with Spatially Incoherent Subject Light


Appendix I. Equivalence of the Fresnel-Kirchhoff Integral and the Diffraction Formula in the Spatial Frequency Domain


Appendix II. Complex Representation of the Electric Field


Appendix III. Capacity-Speed Product of an Acoustic Beam Deflector




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© Academic Press 1971
Academic Press
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About the Author

Robert Collier

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