Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers

2nd Edition - January 1, 1979

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  • Author: G B Clayton
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483135557

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Operational Amplifiers, Second Edition, provides a more comprehensive coverage of known modes of operational amplifier action. Greater emphasis is given to the factors influencing the performance limitations of practical circuits to make the book immediately useful to the ever increasing number of operational amplifier users. The book begins with a preliminary introduction to the capabilities of operational amplifiers. It then explains the significance of the performance parameters of practical amplifiers and describes amplifier testing procedures. Separate chapters illustrate the commonly used modes of operation for an operational amplifier. These include applications in basic scaling circuits, nonlinear circuits, and integrators and differentiators. The final chapter provides a resume and an overview of the practical considerations which the designer must take into account in order to exploit fully the operational amplifier approach to electronic instrumentation. This book is intended for both the user and the potential user of operational amplifiers and as such it should prove equally valuable to both the undergraduate student and the practicing engineer in the measurement sciences.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Fundamentals

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 The Ideal Operational Amplifier. Operational Feedback

    1.3 More Examples of the Ideal Amplifier at Work

    1.4 Integrated Circuit Operational Amplifiers


    Chapter 2 Understanding Operational Amplifier Performance Parameters

    2.1 Amplifier Output and Input Limitations

    2.2 Gain Terminology. Feedback Principles

    2.3 Summary of some of the Effects of Negative Feedback

    2.4 Frequency Response Characteristics

    2.5 Small Signal Closed Loop Frequency Response

    2.6 Closed Loop Stability Considerations

    2.7 Frequency Compensation (Phase Compensation)

    2.8 Transient Response Characteristics

    2.9 Full Power Response

    2.10 Offsets, Bias Current and Drift

    2.11 Common Mode Rejection

    2.12 Amplifier Impedances

    2.13 Noise in Operational Amplifier Circuits


    Chapter 3 Amplifier Testing. Measurement of Parameters

    3.1 Measurement of Bias Current, Input Difference Current, Input Offset Voltage and Their Drift Coefficients

    3.2 Amplifier Noise

    3.3 Measurement of Input Impedances

    3.4 Maximum Common Mode Voltage

    3.5 Measurement of Open Loop Voltage Gain and Output Dynamic Range

    3.6 Anomalies in d.c. Open Loop Gain Values Revealed by Open Loop Transfer Curves

    3.7 Input/output Transfer Curves Allow the Measurement of Amplifier d.c. Parameters

    3.8 Dynamic Response Measurements

    3.9 Large Signal Response Measurements

    Chapter 4 Applications. Baste Scaling Circuits

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Voltage Sealers and Impedance Conversion

    4.3 Voltage Summation

    4.4 Differential Input Amplifier Configurations (Voltage Subtractors)

    4.5 Current Scaling

    4.6 Voltage to Current Conversion

    4.7 A.C. Amplifiers


    Chapter 5 Nonlinear Circuits

    5.1 Amplifiers with Defined Nonlinearity

    5.2 Synthesized Nonlinear Response

    5.3 Logarithmic Conversion with an Inherently Logarithmic Device

    5.4 Log Amplifiers; Practical Design Considerations

    5.5 Some Practical Log and Antilog Circuit Configurations

    5.6 Log Antilog Circuits for Computation

    5.7 A Variable Transconductance Four Quadrant Multiplier


    Chapter 6 Integrators and Differentiators

    6.1 The Basic Integrator

    6.2 Integrator Run, Set and Hold Modes

    6.3 Integrator Errors

    6.4 Extensions to a Basic Integrator

    6.5 Integrator Reset

    6.6 A.C. Integrators

    6.7 Differentiators

    6.8 Practical Considerations in Differentiator Design

    6.9 Modifications to the Basic Differentiator

    6.10 Analogue Computation

    6.11 A Simple Analogue Computer


    Chapter 7 Switching and Positive Feedback Circuits

    7.1 Comparators

    7.2 Multivibrators

    7.3 Sine Wave Oscillators

    7.4 Waveform Generators


    Chapter 8 Further Measurement and Processing Applications

    8.1 Transducer Amplifiers

    8.2 Resistance Measurement

    8.3 Capacitance Measurement

    8.4 Hot Wire Anemometer with Constant Temperature Operation

    8.5 Chemical Measurements

    8.6 Active Filters

    8.7 Phase Shifting Circuit (All Pass Filter)

    8.8 Capacitance Multipliers

    8.9 Averaging

    8.10 Precise Diode Circuits

    8.11 Sample Hold Circuits

    8.12 Circuit with Switched Gain Polarity

    8.13 Voltage to Frequency Conversion

    8.14 Frequency to Voltage Conversion

    8.15 Modulation


    Chapter 9 Practical Considerations

    9.1 Amplifier Selection, Design Specification

    9.2 Selection Processes

    9.3 Attention to External Circuit Details

    9.4 Avoiding Unwanted Signals

    9.5 Ensure Closed Loop Stability

    9.6 Offset Nulling Techniques

    9.7 Importance of External Passive Components

    9.8 Avoiding Fault Conditions

    9.9 Modifying an Amplifier's Output Capability

    9.10 Speeding up a Low Drift Amplifier

    9.11 Single Power Supply Operation for Operational Amplifiers

    9.12 Quad Operational Amplifiers



    Answers to Exercises


Product details

  • No. of pages: 416
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1986
  • Published: January 1, 1979
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483135557

About the Author

G B Clayton

Affiliations and Expertise

John Moore's University, Liverpool, UK

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