# Operational Amplifier Noise

## 1st Edition

### Techniques and Tips for Analyzing and Reducing Noise

**Authors:**Art Kay

**Hardcover ISBN:**9780750685252

**eBook ISBN:**9780080942438

**Imprint:**Newnes

**Published Date:**13th January 2012

**Page Count:**248

## Description

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. Introduction and Review of Statistics

1.1 Time Domain View of Noise

1.2 Statistical View of Noise

1.3 Frequency Domain View of Noise

1.4 Converting Spectral Density to RMS Noise

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 2. Introduction to Op-Amp Noise

2.1 Op-Amp Noise Analysis Technique

2.2 Introducing the Op-Amp Noise Model

2.3 Noise Bandwidth

2.4 Broadband RMS Noise Calculation

2.5 1/f RMS Noise Calculation

2.6 Combining Flicker and Broadband Noise

2.7 Noise Model for Example Circuit

2.8 Noise Gain

2.9 Converting Current Noise to Voltage Noise

2.10 Including the Effect of Thermal Noise

2.11 Combining All the Noise Sources and Computing Peak-to-Peak Output Noise

2.12 Derivation of Key Noise Formulas

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Op-Amp Noise Example Calculations

3.1 Example Calculation #1: OPA627 Noninverting Amplifier

3.2 Compute the Noise Bandwidth

3.3 Get Key Noise Specifications from the Data Sheet

3.4 Compute Total Op-Amp Voltage Noise Contribution

3.5 Compute Total Thermal Noise Contribution

3.6 Combine All the Noise Sources and Compute Peak-to-Peak Output

3.7 Example Calculation #2: Two-Stage Amplifier

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 4. Introduction to Spice Noise Analysis

4.1 Running a Noise Analysis in TINA Spice

4.2 Test the Op-Amp Model Noise Accuracy

4.3 Build Your Own Noise Model

4.4 Use TINA to Analyze the Circuit Given in Chapter 3

4.5 Feedback Capacitor Simulation Example

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 5. Introduction to Noise Measurement

5.1 Equipment for Measuring Noise: True RMS DMM

5.2 Equipment for Measuring Noise: Oscilloscope

5.3 Equipment for Measuring Noise: Spectrum Analyzer

5.4 Shielding

5.5 Verify the Noise Floor

5.6 Account for the Noise Floor

5.7 Measure Example Circuit #1 Using a True RMS Meter

5.8 Measure Example Circuit #1 Using an Oscilloscope

5.9 Measure Example Circuit #1 Using a Spectrum Analyzer

5.10 Measure Low Frequency Noise for the OPA227

5.11 Offset Temperature Drift vs. 1/f Noise in Low-Frequency Noise Measurement

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 6. Noise Inside the Amplifier

6.1 Five Rules of Thumb for Worst-Case Noise Analysis and Design

6.2 Detailed Mathematics for Bipolar Noise

6.3 Detailed Mathematics for FET Noise

6.4 Simplified Physical Connection Inside Amplifier

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 7. Popcorn Noise

7.1 Review of 1/f and Broadband Noise

7.2 What Is Popcorn Noise

7.3 What Causes Popcorn Noise?

7.4 How Common Is the Problem?

7.5 Popcorn Noise—Current or Voltage Noise?

7.6 Bench and Production Test for Voltage Popcorn Noise

7.7 Bench and Production Test for Current Popcorn Noise

7.8 Analyzing the Popcorn Noise Data

7.9 Setting Limits to a Popcorn Noise Test

7.10 When Is Popcorn Noise a Concern?

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 8. 1/f Noise and Zero-Drift Amplifiers

8.1 Zero-Drift Amplifiers

8.2 Zero-Drift Amplifier Spectral Density Curve

8.3 Low-Frequency Noise

8.4 Measuring Low-Frequency Noise

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 9. Instrumentation Amplifier Noise

9.1 Short Review of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier

9.2 Noise Model of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier

9.3 Hand Analysis of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier

9.4 Simulation of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier

9.5 Reducing Noise with Averaging Circuit

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 10. Photodiode Amplifier Noise

10.1 Introduction to Photodiodes

10.2 The Simple Transimpedance Amplifier

10.3 Photodiode Current Noise

10.4 Thermal Noise from Rf

10.5 Noise from Op-amp Voltage Noise Source

10.6 Total Noise (Op-amp, Diode, and Resistance)

10.7 Stability of Transimpedance Amplifier

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 11. Photodiode Noise Amplifier Example Results

11.1 Photodiode Example Specifications

11.2 Photodiode Current Noise Calculations

11.3 Op-amp Specifications

11.4 Op-amp Voltage Noise Calculations

11.5 Thermal (Resistor) Noise Calculations

11.6 Op-amp Current Noise Calculations

11.7 Total Noise for Example Transimpedance Amplifier

11.8 Spice Analysis of Example Circuit

11.9 Measuring the Noise for the Example Transimpedance Amplifier

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Glossary

Answers to Questions

Index

## Key Features

- Clear, definition-by-example presentation allows for immediate use of techniques introduced
- Tricks and rules-of-thumb, derived from author's decades of experience
- Extreme use of figures for rapid absorption of concepts
- Concise text explains the key points in all figures
- Accessible to all types of readers
- Analysis and design of low-noise circuits using op amps, including design tradeoffs for low-noise
- Desktop reference for designing low-noise op amp circuits for novice to experienced engineers
- Accurate measurement and prediction of intrinsic noise levels, using analysis by hand and SPICE simulation

## Readership

Practicing, professional electrical engineers, specifically analog design engineers, circuit designers, test engineers, applications engineers, or field applications engineers

## Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. Introduction and Review of Statistics

1.1 Time Domain View of Noise

1.2 Statistical View of Noise

1.3 Frequency Domain View of Noise

1.4 Converting Spectral Density to RMS Noise

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 2. Introduction to Op-Amp Noise

2.1 Op-Amp Noise Analysis Technique

2.2 Introducing the Op-Amp Noise Model

2.3 Noise Bandwidth

2.4 Broadband RMS Noise Calculation

2.5 1/f RMS Noise Calculation

2.6 Combining Flicker and Broadband Noise

2.7 Noise Model for Example Circuit

2.8 Noise Gain

2.9 Converting Current Noise to Voltage Noise

2.10 Including the Effect of Thermal Noise

2.11 Combining All the Noise Sources and Computing Peak-to-Peak Output Noise

2.12 Derivation of Key Noise Formulas

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Op-Amp Noise Example Calculations

3.1 Example Calculation #1: OPA627 Noninverting Amplifier

3.2 Compute the Noise Bandwidth

3.3 Get Key Noise Specifications from the Data Sheet

3.4 Compute Total Op-Amp Voltage Noise Contribution

3.5 Compute Total Thermal Noise Contribution

3.6 Combine All the Noise Sources and Compute Peak-to-Peak Output

3.7 Example Calculation #2: Two-Stage Amplifier

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 4. Introduction to Spice Noise Analysis

4.1 Running a Noise Analysis in TINA Spice

4.2 Test the Op-Amp Model Noise Accuracy

4.3 Build Your Own Noise Model

4.4 Use TINA to Analyze the Circuit Given in Chapter 3

4.5 Feedback Capacitor Simulation Example

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 5. Introduction to Noise Measurement

5.1 Equipment for Measuring Noise: True RMS DMM

5.2 Equipment for Measuring Noise: Oscilloscope

5.3 Equipment for Measuring Noise: Spectrum Analyzer

5.4 Shielding

5.5 Verify the Noise Floor

5.6 Account for the Noise Floor

5.7 Measure Example Circuit #1 Using a True RMS Meter

5.8 Measure Example Circuit #1 Using an Oscilloscope

5.9 Measure Example Circuit #1 Using a Spectrum Analyzer

5.10 Measure Low Frequency Noise for the OPA227

5.11 Offset Temperature Drift vs. 1/f Noise in Low-Frequency Noise Measurement

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 6. Noise Inside the Amplifier

6.1 Five Rules of Thumb for Worst-Case Noise Analysis and Design

6.2 Detailed Mathematics for Bipolar Noise

6.3 Detailed Mathematics for FET Noise

6.4 Simplified Physical Connection Inside Amplifier

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 7. Popcorn Noise

7.1 Review of 1/f and Broadband Noise

7.2 What Is Popcorn Noise

7.3 What Causes Popcorn Noise?

7.4 How Common Is the Problem?

7.5 Popcorn Noise—Current or Voltage Noise?

7.6 Bench and Production Test for Voltage Popcorn Noise

7.7 Bench and Production Test for Current Popcorn Noise

7.8 Analyzing the Popcorn Noise Data

7.9 Setting Limits to a Popcorn Noise Test

7.10 When Is Popcorn Noise a Concern?

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 8. 1/f Noise and Zero-Drift Amplifiers

8.1 Zero-Drift Amplifiers

8.2 Zero-Drift Amplifier Spectral Density Curve

8.3 Low-Frequency Noise

8.4 Measuring Low-Frequency Noise

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 9. Instrumentation Amplifier Noise

9.1 Short Review of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier

9.2 Noise Model of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier

9.3 Hand Analysis of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier

9.4 Simulation of Three Amp Instrumentation Amplifier

9.5 Reducing Noise with Averaging Circuit

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 10. Photodiode Amplifier Noise

10.1 Introduction to Photodiodes

10.2 The Simple Transimpedance Amplifier

10.3 Photodiode Current Noise

10.4 Thermal Noise from Rf

10.5 Noise from Op-amp Voltage Noise Source

10.6 Total Noise (Op-amp, Diode, and Resistance)

10.7 Stability of Transimpedance Amplifier

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Chapter 11. Photodiode Noise Amplifier Example Results

11.1 Photodiode Example Specifications

11.2 Photodiode Current Noise Calculations

11.3 Op-amp Specifications

11.4 Op-amp Voltage Noise Calculations

11.5 Thermal (Resistor) Noise Calculations

11.6 Op-amp Current Noise Calculations

11.7 Total Noise for Example Transimpedance Amplifier

11.8 Spice Analysis of Example Circuit

11.9 Measuring the Noise for the Example Transimpedance Amplifier

Chapter Summary

Questions

Further Reading

Glossary

Answers to Questions

Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 248

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Newnes 2012

- Published:
- 13th January 2012

- Imprint:
- Newnes

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780080942438

- Hardcover ISBN:
- 9780750685252

## About the Author

### Art Kay

### Affiliations and Expertise

Texas Instruments, Tucson, AZ, USA

## Reviews

"Operational Amplifier Noise is not a low-cost textbook but that will not stop the buyer who really wants to understand and do something about noise in his designs... The book is rich in figures and that makes layouts very difficult but it is well achieved for the most part although, by necessity perhaps, sizing has been a little arbitrary in some cases. While it's been EN-Genius' privilege to host most of the book’s content on our site as TechNotes, we would be the first to say that just having the text in your hands in hardback form is a great pleasure. We would highly recommend Art’s book and expect it to be a surefire hit for many engineers. I am sure that I will see it on many bookshelves." **--En-Genius.net**

"An engineer with an electronics device company, Kay describes how to predict the level of noise — any unwanted signal — a circuit in an amplifier will produce using calculations and Spice simulations. He also discusses techniques for measuring and reducing noise. Among his topics are example calculations, Spice noise analysis, popcorn noise, instrumentation amplifier noise, and photodiode noise amplifier example results. Chapter-end questions are provided, with answers in the end matter." **--Reference and Research Book News, Inc.**