Operation, Maintenance, and Repair of Land-Based Gas Turbines

Operation, Maintenance, and Repair of Land-Based Gas Turbines

1st Edition - June 16, 2021

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  • Author: Hiyam Farhat
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128218358
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128218341

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Operation, Maintenance, and Repair of Land-Based Gas Turbines provides a toolkit for practitioners seeking to make technoeconomic decisions on life extension of power turbine equipment. The work describes essential degradation modes affecting critical components and proven methods of restoration. Sections discuss key elements of life extensions for aging units and components, together with critical reviews of available methodologies. Coverage includes advanced nondestructive testing methods essential for effective life extension programs, including lessons learned from firsthand experience working with multiple machine designs, classes and operating conditions. The final sections cover a body of solutions intended to refocus ORM processes on overcoming the shortfalls caused by volatilities and system restructuring.

Key Features

  • Reviews best practices for practitioners seeking to make decisions on gas turbine maintenance, repair and operations
  • Analyzes components and major sections in terms of functionality, critical features, residual properties and service caused damages
  • Explains the applicability and limitations of special processes and advanced non-destructive testing methods


Practitioners at utility companies and power and desalination plants involved in maintenance, repair, overhaul and upgrades, supplier and contractor control, setup of risk management tools, owner procedures and manuals. Operators and subcontracting companies in charge of EPC, MRO, and other services involved in developing effective MRO procedures, optimizing unit and components life cycle, improving the efficiency, performance, and reliability of units, and integrating best practices across the business and technical processes. Related primary audiences include maintenance, repair and overhaul providers, auditors, equipment manufacturers, suppliers, contractors, consultants (e.g. failure investigators) and students. Energy sector regulators, Policy makers and Insurance companies. Graduate and early career researchers in mechanical engineering, materials, and energy sciences

Table of Contents

  • 1 Introduction to Gas Turbines (GT)
    1.1 Background and Application
    1.1.1 GT Operating Principles and Thermodynamic Cycles
    1.1.2 Efficiency and Power Output: Introduction and Improvement Methods
    1.1.3 Open versus Closed Cycles
    1.1.4 Single versus Multiple Shaft GT
    1.1.5 Laws of Thermodynamics
    1.1.6 Cooling and Sealing systems
    1.1.7 Categories of gas turbines
    1.1.8 GT Ratings
    1.1.9 Design and Geometric Scaling
    1.2 Primary Sections: Functions and Characteristics
    1.2.1 Inlet Nozzle/Air Intake
    1.2.2 Compressor Section
    1.2.3 Combustion Section
    1.2.4 Turbine Section
    1.2.5 Rotor Assembly
    2 Critical gas turbine components: vanes and blades
    2.1 Turbine section Vanes
    2.1.1 Vane fit, form and function
    2.1.2 Critical aspects for vane life management
    2.2 Blades
    2.2.1 Introduction to basic principles of lift
    2.2.2 Introduction to the airfoil design process
    2.2.3 Blade fit, form and function
    2.2.4 Critical aspects for blade life management
    3 Materials and Coatings Technologies
    3.1 Cobalt (Co) based Superalloys
    3.2 Nickel (Ni) based Superalloys
    3.3 Iron (Fe) based Superalloys
    3.4 Titanium (Ti) Alloys
    3.5 Aluminum (Al) Alloys
    3.6 Novel Materials
    3.7 Materials: Properties and Testing
    3.7.1 Chemical Properties
    3.7.2 Physical Properties
    3.7.3 Mechanical Properties
    3.7.4 Cyclic Capabilities
    3.7.5 Damage Tolerance
    3.7.6 Environmental Protection Capabilities
    3.7.7 Ease of Processing Properties
    3.8 Coatings: Technologies and Processes
    3.8.1 MCrAlY Coatings
    3.8.2 Diffusion Aluminides Coatings
    3.8.3 Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC)
    3.8.4 Abradable Coatings
    3.8.5 Coating processes Comparison
    4 Maintenance: Availability and Reliability
    4.1 Condition Monitoring
    4.2 Operation Factors
    4.3 Inspection Intervals: Calculation and Extension
    4.4 Strategies
    4.4.1 Reactive
    4.4.2 Preventative
    4.4.3 Condition-based and Prognosis & Health Management
    4.5 Critical Aspects of Rotor Unit Overhaul
    4.5.1 Rotor Balancing
    4.5.2 Run Out Tests
    5 Typical Service Induced Damages and Repair Strategies
    5.1 Fracture Analysis
    5.2 Cyclic Induced Degradation Mechanisms
    5.2.1 High Cycle Fatigue (HCF)
    5.2.2 Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF)
    5.2.3 Thermal Cycle Fatigue (TCF)
    5.2.4 Thermal Mechanical Fatigue (TMF)
    5.3 Time Dependent Degradation Mechanisms
    5.3.1 Wear or Fretting
    5.3.2 Creep
    5.3.3 Erosion
    5.3.4 Coatings degradation
    5.4 Temperature Dependent Degradation Mechanisms
    5.4.1 Hot corrosion
    5.4.2 Material Embrittlement
    5.5 Operating Environment: Contaminants and Reactions
    5.5.1 Corrosion
    5.5.2 Oxidation
    5.6 Other common damages and findings
    6 Repair Processes & Limitations
    6.1 Cleaning
    6.2 Heat Treatment (HT)
    6.3 Joining
    6.3.1 Brazing
    6.3.2 Welding
    6.4 Cutting
    6.5 Material Removal
    6.5.1 Mechanical Abrasive Processes
    6.5.2 Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM)
    6.6 Manufacturing Methods
    6.6.1 Casting
    6.6.2 Plastic Working
    6.6.3 Powder Metallurgy (P.M.)
    6.6.4 Forging
    6.6.5 Advancements in Processing Technologies
    7 NDT Processes: Application and Limitations
    7.1 Penetrant Testing (PT)
    7.2 Radiographic Testing (RT)
    7.3 Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
    7.4 Eddy Current Testing (ET)
    7.5 Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI)
    7.6 Advanced NDT Methods
    7.7 Microstructure Inspection
    8 Lifetime Extension: Assessment and Considerations
    8.1 Creep: Stages and Mechanisms
    8.1.1 Creep and Stress Rupture Testing
    8.1.2 Creep Calculation Methods Comparison
    8.1.3 Residual Life Assessment (RLA) Review
    8.1.4 Blades RLA Investigations
    8.1.5 Rotors RLA Investigations
    9 Failure Analysis
    9.1 Investigation process
    9.2 Types of Failure
    9.3 Tools and Methodologies
    9.4 Fractography and Interpretation
    9.5 Historical Failures Cases
    9.6 Lessons Learned
    10 Systems and Technologies: Evolution and Impact
    10.1 Business and Technical Processes
    10.2 Operations Activities
    10.3 Maintenance Activities
    10.4 Repair and Overhaul (R&O) Activities
    10.5 Strategies for Sustainable Growth
    11 Bibliography

Product details

  • No. of pages: 276
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2021
  • Published: June 16, 2021
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128218358
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128218341

About the Author

Hiyam Farhat

Hiyam Farhat is an Engineering Manager and international energy expert with expertise in gas turbine Maintenance, Repairs and Overhauls (MRO). She holds a master’s degree in mechanical engineering from Wright State University, USA, and has qualifications in Mechanical Design, Non-Destructive Testing (level III) from American Society of Non-destructive testing (ASNT), Radiation Safety, Weld and Brazing inspections from American Welding Society (AWS), and Industrial Controls & Troubleshooting. Her experience in the last two decades has mainly been in the aviation, oil and utilities sectors for industry leaders such as General Electric and Ansaldo Energia where she has contributed to upgrades, repair strategies and reliable life extension methods. She has worked on a vast range of Aero engines, heavy duty, light industrial and aeroderivative gas turbines. Her role as Engineering Manager has consolidated her knowledge in areas of metallurgy, special processes, advanced NDT, failure investigations, effective repair strategies and life extension methods.

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher, Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy

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