Op Amps for Everyone

Op Amps for Everyone

4th Edition - December 31, 2012

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  • Author: Bruce Carter
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780123914958
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123944061

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Description

Op Amps for Everyone is an indispensable guide and reference for designing circuits that are reliable, have low power consumption, and are as small and low-cost as possible. Operational amplifiers are essential in modern electronics design, and are used in medical devices, communications technology, optical networks, and sensor interfacing. This book is informed by the authors' years of experience, wisdom and expertise, giving engineers all the methods, techniques and tricks that they need to optimize their analog electronic designs. With this book you will learn: Single op amp designs that get the most out of every amplifier Which specifications are of most importance to your design, enabling you to narrow down the list of amplifiers to those few that are most suitable Strategies for making simple "tweaks" to the design – changes that are often apparent once a prototype has been constructed How to design for hostile environments – extreme temperatures, high levels of shock, vibration, and radiation – by knowing what circuit parameters are likely to degrade and how to counteract that degradation New to this edition: Unified design procedures for gain and offset circuits, and filter circuits Techniques for voltage regulator design Inclusion of design utilities for filter design, gain and offset, and voltage regulation Analysis of manufacturer design aids Companion website with downloadable material

Key Features

  • A complete, cookbook-style guide for designing and building analog circuits
  • A multitude of workable designs that are ready to use, based on real-world component values from leading manufacturers using readily available components
  • A treasure trove of practical wisdom: strategies to tweak a design; guidelines for developing the entire signal chain; designing for hostile environments, and more

Readership

Electronic engineers and designers, electronics technicians, engineering students and electronics hobbyists.

Table of Contents

  • List of Figures

    List of Tables

    List of Abbreviations

    Chapter 1. The Op Amp’s Place in the World

    1.1 An Unbounded Gain Problem

    1.2 The Solution

    1.3 The Birth of the Op Amp as a Component

    Reference

    Chapter 2. Review of Op Amp Basics

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Basic Concepts

    2.3 Basic Op Amp Circuits

    2.4 Not So Fast!

    Chapter 3. Separating and Managing AC and DC Gain

    3.1 A Small Complication

    3.2 Single Supply versus Dual Supply

    3.3 Simultaneous Equations

    3.4 So, Where to Now?

    3.5 A Design Procedure, and a Design Aid

    3.6 Summary

    Chapter 4. Different Types of Op Amps

    4.1 Voltage Feedback Op Amps

    4.2 Uncompensated/Undercompensated Voltage Feedback Op Amps

    4.3 Current Feedback Op Amps

    4.4 Fully Differential Op Amps

    4.5 Instrumentation Amplifier

    4.6 Difference Amplifier

    4.7 Buffer Amplifiers

    4.8 Other Types of Op Amps

    Chapter 5. Interfacing a Transducer to an Analog-to-Digital Converter

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 System Information

    5.3 Power Supply Information

    5.4 Input Signal Characteristics

    5.5 Analog-to-Digital Converter Characteristics

    5.6 Interface Characteristics

    5.7 Architectural Decisions

    5.8 Conclusions

    Chapter 6. Active Filter Design Techniques

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 The Transfer Equation Method

    6.3 Fast, Practical Filter Design

    6.4 High-Speed Filter Design

    6.5 Getting the Most Out of a Single Op Amp

    6.6 Biquad Filters

    6.7 Design Aids

    6.8 Summary

    Chapter 7. Using Op Amps for Radio frequency Design

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Voltage Feedback or Current Feedback?

    7.3 Radio frequency Amplifier Topology

    7.4 Op Amp Parameters for Radio frequency Designers

    7.5 Wireless Systems

    7.6 High-Speed Analog Input Drive Circuits

    7.7 Conclusions

    Chapter 8. Designing Low-Voltage Op Amp Circuits

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Critical Specifications

    8.3 Summary

    Chapter 9. Extreme Applications

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Temperature

    9.3 Packaging

    9.4 When Failure Is Not an Option

    9.5 When It Has to Work for a Really Long Time

    9.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 10. Voltage Regulation

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Regulator Cases

    10.3 Make or Buy?

    10.4 Linear Regulators

    10.5 Switching Power Supplies

    10.6 A Companion Circuit

    10.7 Another Companion Circuit

    10.8 Design Aid

    10.9 Conclusions

    Chapter 11. Other Applications

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Interfacing Digital-to-Analog Converters to Loads

    11.3 Op Amp Oscillators

    11.4 Hybrid Amplifiers and Power Boosters

    11.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 12. Manufacturer Design Aids

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Texas Instruments Tina-TI

    12.3 Texas Instruments Filter Pro

    12.4 National Semiconductor/Texas Instruments Webench

    12.5 Analog Devices Version of NI Multisim

    12.6 Analog Devices OpAmp Error Budget

    12.7 Linear Technology LT Spice

    12.8 Printed Circuit Board Layout

    12.9 Conclusions

    Chapter 13. Common Application Mistakes

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Op Amp Operated at Less Than Unity (or Specified) Gain

    13.3 Op Amp Used as a Comparator

    13.4 Improper Termination of Unused Sections

    13.5 DC Gain

    13.6 Current Feedback Amplifier Mistakes

    13.7 Fully Differential Amplifier Mistakes

    13.8 Improper Decoupling

    13.9 Conclusions

    Appendix A. Understanding Op Amp Parameters

    A.1 Introduction

    A.2 Temperature Coefficient of the Input Offset Current (αIIO)

    A.3 Temperature Coefficient of the Input Offset Voltage (αVIO or αVIO)

    A.4 Differential Gain Error (AD)

    A.5 Gain Margin Parameter (Am)

    A.6 Open-Loop Voltage Gain Parameter (AOL)

    A.7 Large-Signal Voltage Amplification Gain Condition (AV)

    A.8 Differential Large-Signal Voltage Amplification Parameter (AVD)

    A.9 Unity Gain Bandwidth Parameter (B1)

    A.10 Maximum-Output-Swing Bandwidth Parameter (BOM)

    A.11 Bandwidth Condition (BW)

    A.12 Input Capacitance Parameter (Ci)

    A.13 Common-Mode Input Capacitance Parameter (Cic or Ci(c))

    A.14 Differential Input Capacitance Parameter (Cid)

    A.15 Load Capacitance Condition (CL)

    A.16 Supply Voltage Sensitivity (ΔVDD±(or CC±)/ΔVIO, or kSVR, or PSRR)

    A.17 Common-Mode Rejection Ratio Parameter (CMRR or kCMR)

    A.18 Frequency Condition (f)

    A.19 Op Amp Gain Bandwidth Product Parameter (GBW)

    A.20 Supply Current (Shutdown) Parameter (ICC(SHDN) or IDD(SHDN))

    A.21 Supply Current Parameter (ICC or IDD)

    A.22 Input Current Range Parameter (II)

    A.23 Input Bias Current Parameter (IIB)

    A.24 Input Offset Current Parameter (IIO)

    A.25 Input Noise Current Parameter (In)

    A.26 Output Current Parameter (IO)

    A.27 Low-Level Output Current Condition (IOL)

    A.28 Short-Circuit Output Current Parameters (IOS or ISC)

    A.29 Supply Rejection Ratio Parameter (kSVR)

    A.30 Power Dissipation Parameter (PD)

    A.31 Power Supply Rejection Ratio Parameter (PSRR)

    A.32 Junction to Ambient Thermal Resistance Parameter (θJA)

    A.33 Junction to Case Thermal Resistance Parameter (θJC)

    A.34 Input Resistance Parameter (ri)

    A.35 Differential Input Resistance Parameter (rid or ri(d))

    A.36 Load Resistance Condition (RL)

    A.37 Null Resistance Condition (RL)

    A.38 Output Resistance Parameter (ro)

    A.39 Signal Source Condition (RS)

    A.40 Open-Loop Transresistance Parameters (Rt)

    A.41 Op Amp Slew Rate Parameter (SR)

    A.42 Operating Free-Air Temperature Condition (TA)

    A.43 Turn-Off Time (Shutdown) Parameter (tDIS or t(off))

    A.44 Turn-On Time (Shutdown) Parameters (tEN)

    A.45 Fall Time Parameter (tf)

    A.46 Total Harmonic Distortion Parameter (THD)

    A.47 Total Harmonic Distortion Plus Noise Parameter (THD+N)

    A.48 Maximum Junction Temperature Parameter (TJ)

    A.49 Rise Time Parameter (tr)

    A.50 Settling Time Parameter (ts)

    A.51 Storage Temperature Parameter (TS or Tstg)

    A.52 Supply Voltage Condition (VCC or VDD)

    A.53 Input Voltage Range Condition or Parameter (VI)

    A.54 Common-Mode Input Voltage Condition (Vic)

    A.55 Common-Mode Input Voltage Range Parameter (VICR)

    A.56 Differential Input Voltage Parameter (VID)

    A.57 Differential Input Voltage Range Parameter (VDIR)

    A.58 Turn-On Voltage (Shutdown) Parameter (VIH-SHDN or V(ON))

    A.59 Turn-Off Voltage (Shutdown) Parameters (VIL-SHDN or V(OFF))

    A.60 Input Voltage Condition (VIN)

    A.61 Input Offset Voltage Parameter (VIO or VOS)

    A.62 Equivalent Input Noise Voltage Parameter (Vn)

    A.63 High-Level Output Voltage Condition or Parameter (VOH)

    A.64 Low-Level Output Voltage Condition or Parameter (VOL)

    A.65 Maximum Peak-to-Peak Output Voltage Swing Parameter (VOM±)

    A.66 Peak-to-Peak Output Voltage Swing Condition or Parameter (VO(PP))

    A.67 Step Voltage Peak-to-Peak Condition (V(STEP)PP)

    A.68 Crosstalk Parameter (XT)

    A.69 Output Impedance Parameter (Zo)

    A.70 Open-Loop Transimpedance Parameter (Zt)

    A.71 Differential Phase Error Parameter (ΦD)

    A.72 Phase Margin Parameter (Φm)

    A.73 Bandwidth for 0.1dB Flatness

    A.74 Case Temperature for 60 Seconds

    A.75 Continuous Total Dissipation Parameter

    A.76 Duration of Short-Circuit Current

    A.77 Input Offset Voltage Long-Term Drift Parameter

    A.78 Lead Temperature for 10 or 60 Seconds

    Appendix B. Op Amp Noise Theory

    B.1 Introduction

    B.2 Characterization

    B.3 Noise Colors

    B.4 Op Amp Noise

    B.5 Putting It All Together

    B.6 Design Aid: Noise Calculation Spreadsheet

    Appendix C. Circuit Board Layout Techniques

    C.1 General Considerations

    C.2 Printed Circuit Board Mechanical Construction

    C.3 Grounding

    C.4 Frequency Characteristics of Passive Components

    C.5 Decoupling

    C.6 Input and Output Isolation

    C.7 Packages

    C.8 Summary

    Appendix D. Op Amp Circuit Collection

    D.1 Introduction

    D.2 Simulated Inductor

    D.3 Constant Current Generator

    D.4 Inverted Voltage Reference

    D.5 Absolute Value

    D.6 Precision Rectifier

    D.7 AC to DC Converter

    D.8 Full Wave Rectifier

    D.9 Tone Control

    D.10 Curve-Fitting Filters

Product details

  • No. of pages: 304
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Newnes 2013
  • Published: December 31, 2012
  • Imprint: Newnes
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780123914958
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123944061

About the Author

Bruce Carter

Bruce Carter
Bruce Carter holds dual degrees, Engineering Physics from Texas Tech University, and Electrical Engineering at the University of Texas. He has over 30 years of experience in analog design for military and oil field service companies. He was an applications engineer at Texas Instruments for 9 years, where he authored application notes, contributed articles, and knowledge base FAQ's.

Affiliations and Expertise

Analog Signal Chain and Power Supply Specialist, Weatherford International, Texas, USA

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