Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Brain and Neurological Health - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124105270, 9780124105478

Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Brain and Neurological Health

1st Edition

Editors: Ronald Ross Watson
eBook ISBN: 9780124105478
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124105270
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st June 2014
Page Count: 496
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Description

Research has clearly established a link between omega-3 fatty acids and general health, particularly cardiovascular health. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Brain and Neurological Health is the first book to focus exclusively on the role of omega-3 fatty acids on general brain health. The articles in this collection illustrate omega-3 fatty acids' importance in longevity, cognitive impairment, and structure and function of the brain's neurons.

Research has established links between omega-3 fatty acids and the developing brain, aging, dementia, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. This book encompasses some of the most recent research, including the role of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on hippocampal neurogenesis, substantia nigra modulation, migraine headaches, the developing brain in animals, sleep, and neurodegenerative diseases. This collection helps to push research forward toward a complete understanding of omega-3 fatty acids' relationship to brain and neurological health.

Key Features

  • The first book-length collection of original research on the connection between omega-3 fatty acids and the brain
  • Provides a comprehensive introduction to the state of research on omega-3 fatty acids and the brain and directions for future research
  • A foundational collection for neuroscience, neurology, and nutrition research

Readership

Neuroscience/neurology research, nutrition research

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    • Fatty Acids and the Brain
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Structural and Functional Neurological Changes
    • Fatty Acids and Neurological Outcomes
    • Contaminants and their Removal from Fish Oils
  • List of Contributors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1. Enhanced Longevity and Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Introduction
    • Longevity
    • Food Restriction for Enhanced Longevity
    • Calorie Restriction for Longevity
    • Smoking and Reduced Longevity
    • Genetics, a Key Modifier of Longevity
    • Genetic Diseases and Longevity
    • Genomics
    • Environmental Factors and Longevity
    • Animal Tests and Longevity
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Longevity
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 2. Molecular Gerontology: Principles and Perspectives for Interventions
    • Introduction
    • Molecular Basis of Aging
    • Genetics, Post-Genetics, and Epigenetics of Aging
    • Aging Interventions
    • Hormetics, Hormesis, and Hormetins
    • References
  • Chapter 3. Peroxisomal Pathways, their Role in Neurodegenerative Disorders and Therapeutic Strategies
    • Peroxisomes
    • Peroxisomal Pathologies
    • Leukodystrophies
    • Therapeutic Strategies
    • Demyelination and Other Leukodystrophies
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 4. Unregulated Lipid Peroxidation in Neurological Dysfunction
    • Introduction
    • Lipid Oxidation Biomarkers for Neurological Dysfunction
    • Lipid Peroxidation Products from Linoleic Acid
    • Lipid Peroxidation Products from AA
    • Neurological Dysfunction Associated with Lipid Peroxidation
    • Mechanisms of Free Radical Production in Neurological Disorders
    • References
    • Additional References
  • Chapter 5. Obesity, Western Diet Intake, and Cognitive Impairment
    • Obesity and Cognitive Impairment
    • Western Diet Intake and Cognitive Impairment
    • Summary
    • References
  • Chapter 6. Genetic Risk Factors for Diabetic Neuropathy
    • Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications
    • Diabetic Neuropathy: General Characteristics
    • Risk Factors for Diabetic Neuropathy and pathophysiological Mechanisms
    • Genetic Risk Factors for Diabetic Neuropathy
    • Potential Use of Genetic Risk Factors in Clinical Practice
    • References
  • Chapter 7. n-3 Fatty Acid-Derived Lipid Mediators against Neurological Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation
    • Overview
    • DHA in the Brain
    • EPA-Derived Lipid Mediators in the Brain
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 8. The Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Quality of Life
    • Introduction
    • Assessment of QoL
    • Current Evidence on Omega-3 Fatty Acids and QoL
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion and Recommendations
    • References
  • Chapter 9. Mammalian Fatty Acid Amides of the Brain and CNS
    • Introduction
    • The Relevance of the Fatty Acid Amides to Neurological Disease
    • Acknowledgements
    • References
  • Chapter 10. Low Omega-3 Fatty Acids Diet and the Impact on the Development of Visual Connections and Critical Periods of Plasticity
    • Introduction
    • Nutrition and the Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Brain Development
    • The Development of Visual Topographical Maps
    • Critical Periods for Brain Development
    • Role of Omega-3 on Development of Central Visual Connections
    • References
  • Chapter 11. The Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Maternal and Child Mental Health
    • Introduction
    • The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Neurotransmission
    • DHA and Maternal Mental Health
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Child Mental Health
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 12. Pain as Modified by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
    • Introduction
    • Factors Involved in the Supply and Physiological Function of Fatty Acids in the Brain
    • Involvement of Lipids, Fatty Acids, and Their Metabolites in Pain Regulation
    • Future Prospects
    • References
  • Chapter 13. Fish Oil Supplementation Prevents Age-Related Memory Decline: Involvement of Nuclear Hormone Receptors
    • Introduction
    • Effects of Aging on Incorporation of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Brain Phospholipids
    • Effects of Aging on DHA Biosynthesis
    • Dietary Fish Oil and Prevention of Age-Related Memory Decline
    • DHA Improves Synaptic Plasticity During Aging: Involvement of Retinoid X Receptors and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
    • Summary and Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 14. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Brain and Neurological Health with Special Reference to Clinical Depression
    • Introduction
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Status of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Clinical Depression
    • Neurological Alterations in Depression
    • Possible Mechanisms for Links Between Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression
    • Impact of Diet on AHN
    • Clinical Trials Supporting the Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in MDD
    • Conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA from Flax Seed Oil
    • Probable Mode of Action of Flax Seed Oil in Depression
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 15. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for Major Depression with Chronic Disease
    • Introduction
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Summary
    • References
  • Chapter 16. The Effectiveness of Fish Oil as a Treatment for ADHD
    • A Review of the Literature
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 17. Fatty Acids and the Aging Brain
    • Introduction
    • Physiologic Brain Aging
    • Fatty Acids and Brain Aging
    • Function of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Brain
    • Sources of Omega Fatty Acids
    • Omega Fatty Acid Metabolism
    • Pathological Brain Aging
    • Protective Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids against Dementia
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 18. Cerebrovascular Changes: The Role of Fat and Obesity
    • Introduction
    • Vascularization of the Brain
    • Effects of a High Fat Diet and Obesity on Overall Health and Proposed Mechanisms
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 19. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Introduction
    • Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acid: a Role in Alzheimer’s Disease?
    • References
  • Chapter 20. Substantia Nigra Modulation by Essential Fatty Acids
    • Importance of Essential Fatty Acids as Neuroprotectors During Brain Development and Aging
    • Substantia Nigra Vulnerability to Neurodegeneration
    • Substantia Nigra Dopamine Cell Populations Display Differential Vulnerability to Lesions
    • Repercussion of EFA Deficiency or Supplementation on Midbrain Dopaminergic Systems
    • Potential Mechanisms Involved in Substantia Nigra Dopamine Cell Loss Induced by EFA Dietary Restriction
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 21. The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Hippocampal Neurogenesis
    • Introduction
    • Measurement of Neurogenesis (Markers of Proliferation)
    • Developmental Neurogenesis
    • Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis
    • References
  • Chapter 22. Imaging Brain DHA Metabolism in Vivo, in Animals, and Humans
    • Introduction
    • Quantitative Imaging of Brain DHA Metabolism in Rodents
    • Summary and Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 23. Obesity and Migraine in Children
    • Introduction
    • Epidemiological Relationship Between Migraine and Obesity
    • Proposed Mechanism for the Relationship Between Obesity and Migraine
    • Influence of Weight Loss on Chronic Headache in Obese People and Effects of the Preventive Treatment of Migraine on Weight Change
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 24. Dietary Omega-3 Sources during Pregnancy and the Developing Brain: Lessons from Studies in Rats
    • Introduction
    • ALA Supplementation and Brain Fatty Acid Composition
    • Long-chain Omega-3 PUFA Supplementation and Brain Fatty Acid Composition
    • Direct Comparison of ALA and Long-chain Omega-3 PUFA Supplementation on Brain Fatty Acid Composition
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 25. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cognitive Behavior
    • Introduction
    • Epidemiological Studies: The Association Between Omega-3 PUFA Intake, Omega-3 PUFA Levels, and Cognitive Decline
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 26. Lipids and Lipid Signaling in Drosophila Models of Neurodegenerative Diseases
    • Introduction
    • Drosophila as a Model System of Neurodegenerative Diseases
    • Effects of Lipids and Lipid Signaling on Drosophila Models of Neurodegenerative Diseases
    • Points to Consider When Drosophila Models are Used for Studying the Role of Lipids
    • Perspective
    • References
  • Chapter 27. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Relation to Sleep Quality and Depression in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome
    • Introduction
    • OSAHS
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 28. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Intellectual Disability, Schizophrenia, Depression, Autism, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    • Introduction
    • Background
    • Plasma Lipids in Adults with Intellectual Disability and the Efficacy of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Plasma Lipids in Schizophrenia and the Efficacy of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Plasma Lipids in Depressive Illness and Efficacy of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Plasma Lipids in Autism and Efficacy of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Plasma Lipids in ADHD and Efficacy of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 29. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Aggression
    • Introduction
    • First Trial of Omega-3 PUFAs and Aggression in Young Adults
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 30. Multiple Sclerosis: Modification by Fish Oil
    • Introduction
    • Overview
    • Cellular Level of Multiple Sclerosis
    • Omega-3 Supplementation of MS Patients
    • Varying Results Amongst Researchers
    • Summary
    • Acknowledgement
    • References
  • Chapter 31. Deuterium Protection of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Lipid Peroxidation: A Novel Approach to Mitigating Mitochondrial Neurological Diseases
    • Introduction
    • PUFAs in Mitochondrial Membranes and Oxidative Stress
    • Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and PD
    • Isotope Protection of PUFAS Against autoxidation
    • Yeast Models Confirm the Non-Linear Protective Effect of D-PUFAs in vivo
    • Isotope Reinforcement of PUFA in Pre-Clinical PD Modeling
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • Chapter 32. Obesity, Cognitive Functioning, and Dementia: A Lifespan Prospective
    • Introduction
    • Weight-Related Variables and Dementia
    • Weight and Cognitive Function: Role of CVD Factors
    • Initial Summary
    • MetS
    • Mechanisms: General
    • Early Influences on Relations between Obesity and Cognition
    • Morbid Obesity and Clinically Important Cognitive Deficit
    • Treatment of Overweight and Obesity
    • Treatment of Obesity with Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Mechanisms for Reducing Weight Loss
    • Methodologies: General Issues
    • Final Summary and Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 33. Dairy Products and Cognitive Functions
    • Introduction
    • Review of the Literature
    • Early Cross-Sectional and Prospective Research Findings in Associations between Dairy and Cognition
    • Discussion
    • Summary
    • Directions for Future Research
    • References
  • Chapter 34. Obesity and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Kinematic Approach
    • Introduction
    • Quantitative Movement Analysis
    • Conclusions
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 35. Fatty Acids and the Hippocampus
    • Introduction
    • Fatty Acids and Memory/Hippocampus
    • Fatty Acids and AD
    • General Discussion
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 36. Fish Oil Supplements, Contaminants, and Excessive Doses
    • Introduction
    • Mercury
    • Lead
    • Selenium
    • Arsenic
    • Cadmium
    • PCBs
    • Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
    • Dieldrin
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgment
    • References
  • Chapter 37. Introduction to Fish Oil Oxidation, Oxidation Prevention, and Oxidation Correction
    • Introduction
    • Oxidation Process
    • Oxidation Indicators
    • Oxidation Correction
    • Summary
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
496
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124105478
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124105270

About the Editor

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA

Reviews

"This unique encyclopedic work is a great resource for anyone interested in this ubiquitous and fascinating fatty acid. I highly recommend it. Score: 79 - 3 Stars"--Doody.com,December 12,2014