Oh's Intensive Care Manual

Oh's Intensive Care Manual

8th Edition - August 15, 2018

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  • Authors: Andrew Bersten, Jonathan M. Handy
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780702072215
  • eBook ISBN: 9780702076060

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Description

For nearly 40 years, Oh’s Intensive Care Manual has been the quick reference of choice for ICU physicians at all levels of experience. The revised 8th edition maintains this tradition of excellence, providing fast access to practical information needed every day in today’s intensive care unit. This bestselling manual covers all aspects of intensive care in sufficient detail for daily practice while keeping you up to date with the latest innovations in the field.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Part One Organisation Aspects
  • Introduction
  • 1 Design and organisation of intensive care units
  • Classification and Role Delineation of an Intensive Care Unit
  • Type and Size of an Intensive Care Unit
  • Design of an Intensive Care Unit,,
  • Intensive Care Unit Organisation
  • The Future
  • References
  • 2 Critical care outreach and rapid response systems
  • Key Principles Include
  • Background
  • Outreach, Medical Emergency and Rapid Response Teams
  • Recognising Critical Illness
  • Abnormal Physiology and Adverse Outcome
  • Measuring Outcome
  • Setting Up an Outreach Service
  • The Future – and Technology to Mitigate Human Factors
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 3 Severity scoring and outcome prediction
  • Introduction
  • Application of Severity Scores
  • Mortality Prediction Models, Severity Scores, Risk of Death and Scoring Systems: What's the Difference?
  • Principles of Mortality Prediction and Severity Scores
  • Commonly Used Factors in Severity Scores and Mortality Prediction Models
  • Severity Scoring Systems in Common Use
  • Scores for Special Populations
  • References
  • 4 Transport of critically ill patients
  • IntraHospital Transport
  • InterHospital Transport
  • References
  • 5 Physiotherapy in intensive care
  • Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy
  • Long-Term Tracheostomy Management and Weaning
  • Speaking and Swallowing Valves
  • Decannulation
  • Critical Care Rehabilitation
  • Physiotherapy Rehabilitation
  • Functional Assessment in Intensive Care Unit
  • Summary
  • References
  • 6 Critical care nursing
  • Nature and Function of Critical Care Nursing
  • A Systematic Approach to Care
  • Nursing and Patient Safety
  • Evolving Roles of Critical Care Nurses
  • New Nursing Roles in Critical Care
  • Critical Care Nursing Beyond the ICU: Critical Care Outreach
  • Nursing in the Multidisciplinary Team
  • Quality of Care and Quality Improvement
  • Critical Care Nursing Research
  • References
  • 7 Ethics in intensive care
  • Ethical Study
  • What Is the Purpose of Intensive Care?
  • Futility
  • Withholding/Withdrawing Treatment
  • Religious Beliefs Surrounding End-of-Life Care
  • Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide
  • The Role of DNACPR – Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
  • Consent/Advanced Directives/Proxy Decision Makers
  • References
  • 8 Common problems after intensive care unit
  • Post-Intensive Care Syndrome
  • Post-Intensive Care Unit Discharge
  • Post-Hospital Discharge
  • Setting Up a Follow-Up Service
  • Peer Support Groups and Online Resources
  • Measuring Outcome After Critical Illness
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 9 Clinical information systems
  • Context
  • Critical Care Clinical Information System Requirements
  • Implementation
  • Impact
  • Summary
  • References
  • 10 Trials
  • Randomised Clinical Trials
  • Observational Studies
  • Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
  • References
  • 11 Palliative care
  • Pre-Admission to Intensive Care Unit
  • Patients on Intensive Care Unit Who Are Dying
  • Decision Making for Patients at the End of Life
  • Withholding and Withdrawal of Treatment
  • Symptom Control
  • SUPPORT for Families and Staff
  • Organ Donation
  • Care Plans to SUPPORT End-of-Life Care on Intensive Care Unit
  • Stepping Down From Intensive Care Unit
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 12 Intensive care and the elderly
  • Definitions
  • Demographics
  • The Ageing Process
  • The Organ Systems
  • Special Considerations
  • Surgical Outcome
  • Intensive Care Unit Outcome
  • Assessment for Admission
  • Treatment Intensity
  • Expectations and Preferences
  • End of Life
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 13 Team-based health care delivery
  • What Is a Team?
  • Types of Team
  • Specific Team-Based Interventions and Innovations
  • Summary
  • References
  • 14 Genetics and sepsis
  • Introduction
  • Basic Definitions and Glossary of Terms
  • Family Studies
  • Candidate Gene Studies
  • Genome-Wide Association Studies
  • Gene Expression Studies
  • RNA-Seq
  • Epigenetics
  • Future Studies
  • Summary
  • Glossary
  • References
  • Part Two Shock
  • Introduction
  • 15 Overview of shock
  • Definition
  • Circulatory Physiology
  • ‘Types’ of Shock
  • Clinical Signs
  • Management
  • References
  • 16 Haemodynamic monitoring
  • Introduction
  • Clinical Observation and Evaluation
  • Pressure-Based Cardiovascular Monitoring
  • Cardiac Output Monitoring
  • Functional Haemodynamic Monitoring
  • Monitoring the Microcirculation
  • References
  • 17 Multiorgan dysfunction syndrome
  • History
  • Definition
  • Aetiology of MultiOrgan Dysfunction Syndrome
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Features of MultiOrgan Dysfunction Syndrome
  • Therapies for MODS
  • Outcomes
  • References
  • 18 Monitoring oxygenation
  • Roles of Oxygen in Aerobic Organisms
  • Hypoxia
  • Dysoxia
  • The Oxygen Cascade
  • References
  • 19 Hyperlactataemia in critical illness
  • Lactate Physiology
  • Classification of Lactic Acidosis
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Management
  • Lactate as a Treatment
  • References
  • Part Three Acute Coronary Care
  • Introduction
  • 20 Acute cardiac syndromes, investigations and interventions
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • Complications of Myocardial Infarction
  • Management of Unstable Angina and NSTEMI (NSTEACS),,
  • Ongoing and Discharge Care of Acute Coronary Syndromes (Secondary Prevention) (Fig. 20.12)
  • Myocardial Infarction in the Intensive Care Unit,,–
  • Outcome After Myocardial Infarction
  • References
  • 21 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (including defibrillation)
  • Prevalence and Outcomes of Cardiac Arrests
  • International Review Process
  • Basic Life Support
  • Defibrillation
  • Advanced Life Support
  • Post-Resuscitation Care
  • Prognostication
  • Maintenance of ALS Skills
  • Summary
  • References
  • 22 Cardiac arrhythmias (combine with drugs)
  • Cardiac Electrophysiology
  • Genetic Basis to Arrhythmia
  • Molecular Basis to Arrhythmia
  • Arrhythmogenic Mechanisms–
  • Management of the Patient With a Cardiac Arrhythmia
  • Management of Specific Arrhythmias
  • Myocardial Infarction and Arrhythmia
  • Cardiothoracic Surgery and Arrhythmia
  • Long-QT Syndrome,
  • Sudden Cardiac Death
  • Classification of Antiarrhythmic Drugs
  • Antiarrhythmic Drugs
  • Direct Current Cardioversion
  • References
  • 23 Cardiac pacing
  • Pacing Sites
  • Permanent Pacing
  • Specific Pacing Modes
  • Haemodynamics of Cardiac Pacing and the Atrioventricular Interval
  • Temporary Pacing
  • Pacemaker Programming
  • Noise and Electromagnetic Interference
  • Cardioversion/Defibrillation in Patients With a Permanent Pacemaker (or Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators)
  • Diathermy
  • Cardiac Pacing in Tachyarrhythmias
  • Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators
  • Complications
  • References
  • 24 Acute heart failure and pulmonary hypertension
  • Acute Heart Failure
  • Diagnosis of Acute Heart Failure
  • Echocardiography
  • Measurement of Natriuretic Peptides and Cardiac Troponins
  • Circulatory Failure or ‘Shock’
  • Assessment of Ventricular Function
  • Heart Rate and Rhythm
  • Assessment of Myocardial Function
  • Key Points When Assessing Cardiac Function
  • Pulmonary Artery Catheterisation
  • Assessment of Intravascular Volume Status
  • Management of Cardiac Function in the Critically Ill
  • Correction of Metabolic Factors
  • Selection of Appropriate Vasoactive Agents
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Summary
  • References
  • 25 Valvular and congenital heart disease and infective endocarditis
  • Valvular Heart Disease
  • Adult Congenital Heart Disease
  • Key Clinical Scenarios and Syndromes
  • Infective Endocarditis
  • References
  • 26 Postoperative cardiac intensive care
  • Organisation
  • Immediate PostOperative Management Principles
  • Haemodynamic Complications and Management
  • Other Complications
  • Specific Procedures and Problems
  • References
  • 27 Echocardiography in intensive care
  • Components of Intensive Care Echocardiography
  • Clinical Situations
  • References
  • Part Four Respiratory Failure
  • Introduction
  • 28 Oxygen therapy
  • Physiology of Oxygen Delivery
  • Diagnosis and Monitoring of
  • Oxygen Therapy Apparatus and Devices
  • Management of Oxygen Therapy
  • Hazards of Oxygen Therapy
  • Hyperoxic and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • 29 Airway management and acute airway obstruction
  • Airway Management Techniques
  • The Difficult Airway
  • Upper Airway Obstruction
  • References
  • 30 Acute respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Aetiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Chronic Bronchitis or Emphysema?
  • Precipitants of Acute Respiratory Failure
  • Diagnosis and Assessment
  • Management of Respiratory Failure
  • Post Intensive Unit Care
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • 31 Mechanical ventilator support
  • A Physiological Approach
  • Modes of Ventilation
  • Indications and Objectives of Mechanical Ventilation
  • Complications of Mechanical Ventilation
  • Withdrawal (Weaning) From Mechanical Ventilation
  • References
  • 32 Humidifiers and inhalation therapy
  • Physical Principles
  • Physiology
  • Clinical Applications of Humidification
  • References
  • 33 Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Definitions
  • Epidemiology
  • Patients at Risk for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Management of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • References
  • 34 Pulmonary embolism
  • Introduction
  • Aetiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Investigations
  • Management
  • Prevention
  • References
  • 35 Acute severe asthma
  • Clinical Definition
  • Aetiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Features and Assessment of Severity
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Ventilation in Asthma
  • Mortality, Long-Term Outcome and Follow-Up
  • References
  • 36 Pneumonia
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia
  • Tuberculosis
  • Pneumonia in the Immunocompromised
  • Parapneumonic Effusion
  • Empyema
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • 37 Non-invasive ventilation
  • Physiology of Non-Invasive Ventilation
  • Non-Invasive Ventilation Equipment
  • Complications and Assessment of Efficacy
  • Non-Invasive Ventilation and Acute Respiratory Failure
  • Non-Invasive Ventilation and Chronic Respiratory Disease
  • References
  • 38 Respiratory monitoring
  • Monitoring Gas Exchange
  • Lung Volume and Capacities
  • Measurement of Lung Mechanics
  • Measurement of Intrinsic Positive End-Expiratory Pressure
  • Patient–Ventilator Asynchrony
  • Monitoring Neuromuscular Function
  • References
  • 39 Chest imaging
  • Radiological Techniques
  • Normal Radiographic Anatomy
  • Positioning of Tubes and Lines
  • Radiographic Signs of Pathology
  • Trauma and the Intensive Care Unit Patient
  • The Postoperative Chest
  • References
  • 40 Ultrasound in the intensive care unit
  • Equipment
  • Chest Ultrasound
  • Abdominal Ultrasound
  • Ultrasound-Guided Vascular Cannulation
  • Optic Nerve Ultrasound
  • References
  • 41 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac failure
  • References
  • Part Five Gastroenterological Emergencies
  • Introduction
  • 42 Acute gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Introduction
  • Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
  • Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding
  • References
  • 43 Acute pancreatitis
  • Aetiology
  • The Management of Severe Pancreatitis
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 44 Liver failure
  • 44.1 Acute hepatic failure
  • 44.2 Cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver disease
  • References
  • 45 Abdominal surgical catastrophes
  • Vascular Catastrophes
  • Complications
  • Enterocutaneous Fistulas – Intestinal, Biliary and Pancreatic
  • References
  • 46 Implications of solid tumours for intensive care
  • Cancer Treatments
  • Specific Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicities
  • Radiotherapy
  • Disease-Related Admissions
  • Use of Chemotherapy in the Intensive Care Unit Setting
  • The Effect of Critical Care on Cancer
  • Outcomes for Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit With Solid Tumours
  • Return to Intended Oncological Therapy
  • Quality of Life and Long-Term Outcomes
  • References
  • Part Six Acute Renal Failure
  • Introduction
  • 47 Acute kidney injury
  • Introduction
  • Assessment of Renal Function
  • Diagnosis and Clinical Classification
  • Pathogenesis of Acute Kidney Injury
  • The Clinical Picture
  • Preventing Acute Kidney Injury
  • Diagnostic Investigations
  • Management of Established Acute Kidney Injury
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • 48 Renal replacement therapy
  • Introduction
  • Principles
  • Indications for RENAL Replacement Therapy
  • Modality of RENAL Replacement Therapy
  • Continuous RENAL Replacement Therapy
  • Continuous RENAL Replacement Therapy Technology
  • Intermittent Haemodialysis
  • Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Other Blood Purification Techniques
  • Blood Purification Technology Outside of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Drug Prescription During Dialytic Therapy
  • Areas of Ongoing Controversy and Clinical Research
  • Summary
  • References
  • Part Seven Neurological Disorders
  • Introduction
  • 49 Disorders of consciousness
  • Neuroanatomy and Physiology of Wakefulness
  • Differential Diagnosis of Coma
  • Clinical Examination of the Comatose Patient
  • Recognition of Brain Herniation–
  • Differentiating True Coma From Pseudocoma
  • Management of the Comatose Patient
  • Care of the Comatose Patient
  • Anoxic Coma/Encephalopathy
  • The Confused/Encephalopathic Patient in the Intensive Care Unit
  • Prognosis in Coma
  • Treatment Options in Disorders of Consciousness
  • References
  • 50 Status epilepticus
  • Status Epilepticus
  • Definition and Classification
  • Pathophysiology
  • Aetiology
  • Convulsive Status Epilepticus
  • Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus With Coma
  • Epileptiform Encephalopathies
  • Investigations
  • Management
  • Drugs for Status Epilepticus
  • Other Treatments for Refractory Status Epilepticus
  • Intensive Care Monitoring
  • Outcome
  • Status Epilepticus in Children
  • References
  • 51 Acute cerebrovascular complications
  • Cerebral Infarction
  • Cerebral Embolism
  • Spontaneous Intracranial Haemorrhage
  • Intracerebral Haemorrhage
  • Subarachnoid Haemorrhage
  • References
  • 52 Cerebral protection
  • Cerebral Physiology and Anatomy
  • Local Control of Cerebral Blood Flow
  • Systemic Control of Cerebral Blood Flow
  • Cerebral Injury
  • Metabolic and Biochemical Processes in Cerebral Injury
  • Cerebral Protective Strategies
  • Intracranial Pressure in Normal and Pathological Conditions
  • References
  • 53 Brain death
  • Brain Death Epidemiology and Pathophysiology
  • Development of Brain Death Criteria
  • Whole Brain and Brainstem Death
  • Variability in Brain Death Practices
  • General Principles for the Clinical Determination of Brain Death
  • Ancillary Tests
  • Diagnosing Brain Death in Special Circumstances
  • Children
  • Brain Death and Organ Donation
  • Summary
  • References
  • 54 Meningitis and encephalomyelitis
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Bacterial Meningitis
  • Cryptococcal Meningitis
  • Viral Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Tuberculous Meningitis
  • Subdural Empyema
  • Brain Abscess
  • Other Diseases
  • Septic Encephalopathy
  • References
  • 55 Tetanus
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Active Immunoprophylaxis–,
  • Clinical Presentation–,,
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Passive Immunisation,,
  • Eradication of the Organism
  • Suppression of Effects of Tetanospasmin
  • Supportive Treatment
  • Complications,,,,,
  • Outcome
  • References
  • 56 Delirium
  • Definition
  • Historical Perspective
  • Intensive Care Unit Incidence, Prevalence and Relevance
  • Pathophysiology
  • Diagnosis and Screening
  • Management of Delirium
  • Haloperidol
  • Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Risperidone
  • Clonidine, Dexmedetomidine
  • Anticholinesterases
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Persistent Delirium
  • Remember the Relatives
  • Summary
  • References
  • 57 Intensive care unit-acquired weakness
  • Definition
  • Clinical Features
  • Diagnostic Criteria
  • Incidence
  • Pathophysiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Clinical Relevance
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Post-Discharge Management
  • References
  • 58 Neuromuscular disorders
  • Guillain–Barré Syndrome and Related Disorders
  • Myasthaenia Gravis
  • Motor Neuron Disease (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's Disease)
  • Rare Causes of Acute Weakness in the Intensive Care Unit
  • References
  • Part Eight Endocrine Disorders
  • Introduction
  • 59 Diabetic emergencies
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Monitoring
  • Complications of Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State
  • Prevention of Hyperglycaemic Emergencies
  • References
  • 60 Diabetes insipidus and other polyuric syndromes
  • Background Physiology and Anatomy
  • Cranial Diabetes Insipidus
  • Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
  • Gestational Diabetes Insipidus
  • Polydipsia (Psychogenic/Neurogenic/Primary)
  • Solute Diuresis
  • The Diagnosis of Polyuric Syndromes
  • References
  • 61 Thyroid emergencies
  • Introduction
  • Basic Physiology
  • Thyroid Crisis (Thyroid Storm)
  • Myxoedema Coma
  • Non-Thyroidal Illness
  • References
  • 62 Adrenocortical insufficiency in critical illness
  • Physiology
  • Classification
  • Steroid Therapy in Critical Illness
  • Side Effects of Steroid Therapy
  • References
  • 63 Acute calcium disorders
  • Hormonal Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis
  • Metabolic Factors Influencing Calcium Homeostasis
  • Measurement of Serum Calcium
  • Hypercalcaemia in Critically Ill Patients
  • Hypocalcaemia
  • References
  • Part Nine Obstetric Emergencies
  • Introduction
  • 64 Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia
  • Aetiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Management of Pre-Eclampsia
  • Antihypertensive Therapy
  • Anticonvulsant Therapy
  • Eclampsia
  • Fluid Balance
  • Cardiovascular Monitoring
  • Postpartum Care
  • HELLP Syndrome and Hepatic Complications
  • Anaesthesia and Analgesia
  • References
  • 65 Obstetric emergencies
  • Pathophysiology
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,
  • Trauma,
  • Burns,
  • Severe Obstetric Haemorrhage
  • Sepsis and Septic Shock,
  • Venous Thromboembolism,
  • Amniotic Fluid Embolism
  • Acute Respiratory Failure
  • Acid Aspiration (Mendelson Syndrome)
  • Tocolytic Therapy and Pulmonary Oedema
  • Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
  • Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome,
  • References
  • 66 Severe cardiac disease in pregnancy
  • Introduction
  • Physiology and Pathophysiology
  • Preconception
  • Antepartum Management
  • Intrapartum Management
  • Postpartum Management
  • Specific Conditions
  • References
  • Part Ten Infections and Immune Disorders
  • Introduction
  • 67 Anaphylaxis
  • Definition and Criteria for Diagnosis
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Pathophysiology of Anaphylaxis
  • Causes of Anaphylaxis
  • Laboratory Tests
  • Grading of Anaphylaxis
  • Treatment of Anaphylaxis
  • References
  • 68 Host defence and immunodeficiency
  • Innate Immunity
  • The Adaptive Immune System
  • Immunodeficiency Disorders
  • References
  • 69 Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and the Intensive Care Unit
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication
  • Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
  • Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
  • Diagnosis
  • Management of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patient
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Induced Immunodeficiency
  • References
  • 70 Sepsis and septic shock
  • Introduction
  • Old and New Definitions
  • Aetiopathogenesis
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Principles of Treatment
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 71 Nosocomial infections
  • Epidemiology
  • Interaction Between Patient, Organism and Environment
  • Sites of Infection
  • Methods of Infection Control
  • Selective Digestive Decontamination or Oropharyngeal Decontamination
  • Websites
  • References
  • 72 Severe soft-tissue infections
  • Pathogenesis
  • Epidemiology
  • Microbiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical Presentations
  • Treatment
  • Future Aspects
  • References
  • 73 Fungal infection
  • Background Mycology
  • Primary Mycoses
  • Opportunistic Mycoses
  • Conclusion and General Considerations
  • References
  • 74 Principles of antibiotic use in the ICU
  • General Principles,
  • Specific Issues
  • References
  • 75 Tropical diseases
  • Malaria
  • Tuberculosis
  • Typhoid Fever
  • Cholera
  • Leptospirosis
  • Dengue Fever
  • HantaVirus
  • Arboviral Encephalitis
  • Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs)
  • Rickettsial Infections
  • References
  • Part Eleven Severe and Multiple Trauma
  • Introduction
  • 76 Severe and multiple injuries
  • Assessment and Priorities
  • Basic Treatment Principles
  • Clinical Evaluation of Injuries (Secondary Survey)
  • Shock in the Trauma Patient
  • Fluid Resuscitation
  • Radiology for Trauma Patients
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (See Chapter 77)
  • Severity and Morbidity of Trauma
  • Epidemiology of Injuries
  • Organisation of Trauma Care
  • References
  • 77 Severe head injuries
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Resuscitation
  • Imaging
  • InterHospital Transfer
  • Intensive Care Management
  • Outcome and Prognosis
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 78 Maxillofacial and upper-airway injuries
  • Maxillofacial Injuries
  • Injuries to the Larynx and Trachea
  • References
  • 79 Chest injuries
  • Immediate Management
  • Specific Injuries
  • Complications and Intensive Care Unit Management
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • 80 Spinal injuries
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Initial Assessment and Management
  • Imaging
  • Intensive Care Management of Spinal Cord Injury
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • 81 Abdominal and pelvic injuries
  • Mechanisms of Injury
  • Initial Treatment and Investigations
  • Specific Injuries
  • Complications
  • References
  • Part Twelve Environmental Injuries
  • Introduction
  • 82 Submersion
  • Definitions
  • Pathophysiology
  • Management
  • Assessment
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • 83 Burns
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Management
  • Inhalation Injury
  • Future Prospects
  • References
  • 84 Thermal disorders
  • Normal Temperature Regulation
  • Fever and Hyperthermia
  • Hyperthermias
  • Hypothermia
  • Management of Patients With Abnormal Core Temperature
  • Temperature Management and Control
  • Therapeutic Hypothermia and Targeted Temperature Management
  • References
  • 85 Electrical safety and injuries
  • Physical Concepts
  • Electrophysiological Considerations
  • Electrocution
  • Macro- and Microshock
  • High-Tension and Lightning Strike Injuries
  • Management of Electrical Injuries
  • Electrical Hazards in the Intensive Care Unit
  • Measures to Protect Staff and Patients
  • Electrical Safety Standards
  • References
  • 86 Envenomation
  • Introduction
  • Snakes
  • Spiders
  • Australian Box Jellyfish
  • Irukandji Syndrome
  • Australian Paralysis Tick
  • Bees, Wasps and Ants
  • Blue-Ringed Octopuses
  • Stinging Fish
  • Venomous Cone Shells
  • References
  • 87 Blast and ballistic trauma
  • Epidemiology of Blast and Ballistic Trauma
  • Blast Trauma
  • Ballistic Trauma
  • Special Cases of Ballistic Trauma
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • 88 Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear exposure management
  • Chemical Agents
  • Biological Agents
  • Radiation and Nuclear Hazards
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Part Thirteen Pharmacologic Considerations
  • Introduction
  • 89 Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug monitoring in acute illness
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Practical Applications
  • Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • 90 Poisoning and drug intoxication
  • General Principles
  • Gut Decontamination
  • Enhancing Drug Elimination
  • Lipid Emulsion Therapy
  • Continued Supportive Therapy
  • Specific Therapy of Some Common or Difficult Overdoses
  • References
  • 91 Sedation and pain management in intensive care
  • Sedation
  • Analgesia
  • Sleep
  • The Future
  • References
  • 92 Inotropes and vasopressors
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • The Failing Circulation
  • Classification
  • Catecholamines
  • Selective Vasopressors
  • Vasoregulatory Agents
  • Clinical Uses
  • References
  • 93 Vasodilators and antihypertensives
  • Physiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Direct-Acting Vasodilators
  • Alpha-Adrenergic Antagonists
  • Inodilators
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
  • Centrally Acting Agents
  • Other Antihypertensive Agents
  • Drug Selection
  • Specific Situations
  • References
  • Part Fourteen Metabolic Homeostasis
  • Introduction
  • 94 Acid–base balance and disorders
  • Water
  • Water Dissociation
  • Isolated Changes in Strong Ion Difference and Atot
  • How Acid–Base Disturbances Affect The Relationship
  • Temperature Correction of Blood Gas Data – ‘Alpha-Stat’ Versus ‘pH-Stat’ Approaches
  • Renal Participation in Acid–Base
  • Acid–Base Assessment
  • Quantifying Metabolic Acid–Base Status – the Two ‘Schools’
  • Acid–Base Disorders – Classification
  • Acid–Base ‘Scanning Tools’
  • Practical Considerations
  • Clinical Acid–Base Disorders
  • References
  • 95 Fluid and electrolyte therapy
  • Fluid Compartments (Table 95.1; Fig. 95.1)
  • Water Metabolism
  • Electrolytes
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Replacement Therapy
  • References
  • 96 Enteral and parenteral nutrition
  • Nutritional Assessment
  • Patient Selection and Timing of Support
  • Nutritional Requirements of the Critically Ill
  • Route of Nutrition
  • Enteral Nutrition
  • Parenteral Nutrition
  • Nutrition and Specific Diseases
  • Adjunctive Nutrition
  • References
  • Part Fifteen Haematological Management
  • Introduction
  • 97 Blood transfusion and patient blood management
  • Blood Storage and the Storage Lesions
  • Clinical Guidelines for Blood Component Therapy
  • Potential Adverse Effects of Allogeneic Transfusion
  • Critical Bleeding and Massive Blood Transfusion
  • Basic Immunohaematology
  • References
  • 98 Colloids and blood products
  • Gelatins
  • Hydroxyethyl Starches
  • Dextrans
  • Human Albumin Solution
  • References
  • 99 Plasmapheresis, therapeutic plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy
  • Rationale for Plasma Exchange
  • Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Disease
  • Technical Considerations
  • Indications (Box 99.2)
  • Complications
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin
  • References
  • 100 Haemostatic failure
  • Normal Haemostasis
  • Systemic Haemostatic Assessment
  • Congenital Haemostatic Defects
  • Acquired Haemostatic Disorders
  • Summary
  • References
  • 101 Haematological malignancy
  • Introduction
  • Classification of Haematological Malignancies
  • Treatment of Haematological Malignancies
  • Predictors of Mortality in Patients With Haematological Cancer
  • Outcomes of Patients With Haematological Malignancy Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit
  • Quality of Life in Critically Ill Patients With Haematological Malignancies
  • References
  • Part Sixteen Organ Donation and Transplantation
  • Introduction
  • 102 Organ donation
  • Responsibilities of the Intensivist
  • Maintenance of Extracerebral Physiological Stability in Brain Death
  • Aftercare of the Donor Family
  • References
  • 103 Liver transplantation
  • Patient Selection
  • Hepatic Syndromes
  • Extracorporeal Hepatic Support
  • Peri-operative Aspects
  • Postoperative Care
  • Readmission to the Intensive Care Unit/Late Complications
  • Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure
  • Paediatric Liver Transplantation
  • References
  • 104a Heart transplantation
  • Introduction
  • The Potential Heart Donor
  • Selection of Patients for Heart Transplantation
  • Heart Transplant Surgery
  • Post-Transplant Management
  • Complications
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 104b Lung transplantation
  • Introduction
  • Selection of Patients for Lung Transplantation
  • The Potential Lung Donor
  • Lung Transplant Surgery
  • Anaesthetic Considerations
  • PostOperative Management in the Intensive Care Unit
  • Complications
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Part Seventeen Paediatric Intensive Care
  • Introduction
  • 105 The critically ill child
  • Cardiorespiratory Adaptation at Birth
  • Growth and Development
  • Maturation
  • Spectrum of Disease
  • Management of the Critically Ill Child
  • Paediatric Intensive Care Transfer
  • Paediatric Intensive Care
  • Paediatric Monitoring
  • Drug Infusions
  • Pain Relief and Sedation in Children
  • Outcome of Paediatric Intensive Care
  • References
  • 106 Upper airway obstruction in children
  • Anatomical and Developmental Considerations
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Aetiology
  • Anaesthesia for Relief of Upper Airway Obstruction
  • Care of the Secured Airway
  • Tracheostomy
  • Needle Cricothyroidotomy
  • References
  • 107 Acute respiratory distress in children
  • Acute Respiratory Failure in Children
  • Epidemiology,
  • Ventilatory Requirements and Mechanics of Children,
  • Signs and Symptoms of Acute Respiratory Failure
  • Physical Examination
  • Prematurity and Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease–
  • Laryngomalacia/Tracheomalacia/Bronchomalacia,
  • Congenital Heart Disease
  • Complications of Cardiac Surgery
  • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia,
  • Pulmonary Hypoplasia
  • Omphalocele and Gastroschisis
  • Neuromuscular and Skeletal Disorders
  • Acquired Neonatal Diseases
  • Common Acquired Diseases Beyond the Neonatal Period
  • Investigations
  • Therapy for Children With Severe Respiratory Failure
  • References
  • 108 Paediatric fluid and electrolyte therapy
  • Children and Infants Are Different
  • Fluids in Resuscitation
  • Maintenance Fluids
  • Replacement Fluids
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphate
  • Oedema
  • Parenteral Nutrition
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • 109 Sedation and analgesia in children
  • Assessment of Depth of Sedation and Pain
  • Achieving Adequate Sedation
  • Agents for Sedation
  • Evidence Base for Sedation
  • Agents for Analgesia
  • Evidence Base for Analgesia
  • Withdrawal Syndromes
  • Management of Delirium
  • Holistic Approach
  • Summary
  • References
  • 110 Shock and cardiac disease in children
  • Shock
  • Developmental Differences
  • Recognition of Shock
  • Initial Assessment and Investigation
  • Types of Shock
  • Cardiac Disease
  • Cardiogenic Shock
  • Cardiac Failure,
  • An Approach to Congenital Heart Disease
  • Disorders of Cardiac Rhythm, (See Table 110.4 for Drug Doses)
  • References
  • 111 Neurological emergencies in children
  • Pathophysiology of Brain Injuries in Children
  • Undiagnosed Coma
  • Status Epilepticus
  • Bacterial Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis
  • Nontraumatic Intracranial Haemorrhage
  • Hypoxic–Ischaemic Encephalopathy
  • Guillain–Barré Syndrome
  • Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
  • Metabolic Encephalopathy
  • Spinal Injury
  • References
  • 112 Paediatric trauma
  • Opportunities for Intervention
  • The Development of ‘Trauma Teams, Centres and Services’
  • Specific Paediatric Trauma Presentations
  • Summary
  • References
  • 113 Treatment limitation and organ procurement
  • Introduction
  • Background Legalities
  • Clinical Guidelines on Withholding and Withdrawing Treatment
  • Conclusions
  • Organ Procurement
  • References
  • 114 Paediatric poisoning and envenomation
  • Epidemiology
  • Principles of Management
  • Confirmation of Diagnosis
  • Plan of Management
  • Poisoning by Specific Substances
  • Envenomation
  • References
  • 115 Paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Epidemiology
  • Prevention
  • Prognosis
  • Basic Life Support
  • Advanced Life Support
  • Post-Resuscitation Care
  • References
  • Appendix I Respiratory physiology symbols and normal values
  • Symbols
  • Normal Values
  • Appendix II Physiological equations
  • Respiratory Equations
  • Cardiovascular Equations
  • Renal Equations
  • Appendix III Mortality/dysfunction risk scores and models
  • Paediatric Risk of Mortality Score
  • Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment Score
  • Mortality Rate by Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment Score
  • Logistic Organ Dysfunction System
  • MPM II, Mortality Probability Models,
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1480
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2018
  • Published: August 15, 2018
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780702072215
  • eBook ISBN: 9780702076060

About the Authors

Andrew Bersten

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Flinders Medical Centre and School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia

Jonathan M. Handy

Dr Jonathan Handy is a top consultant anaesthetist based at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital and the Royal Marsden and serves as Honorary Senior Lecturer for University College London. He is also Clinical Lead for North West London Critical Care Network. Dr Handy is heavily involved in research, including the molecular physiology of critical illness. He is an editor for the journal 'Anaesthesia’ and has been involved in developing and teaching various educational courses.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant in Intensive Care and Anaesthesia, Honorary Senior Clinical Lecturer, Magill Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Management, Honorary Senior Lecturer, Imperial College Medical School, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London

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