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Offshore Electrical Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750611404, 9781483163260

Offshore Electrical Engineering

1st Edition

Author: Geoff MacAngus-Gerrard
eBook ISBN: 9781483163260
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 6th July 1992
Page Count: 306
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Offshore Electrical Engineering is written based on the author's 20 years electrical engineering experience of electrical North Sea oil endeavor. The book has 14 chapters and five important appendices. The book starts with designing for electrical power offshore application, especially with aspects that are different from land based structures, such as space and weight limitations, safety hazards at sea, and corrosive marine environment. The criteria for selecting prime movers and generators, for example, gas turbines and reciprocating engines, depending on the type of applications, are examined. The machinery drives are then discussed whereby the different offshore electric motor ratings are considered. As in any electrical system, the use of ergonomically designed controls is important. Distribution switchgear, transformers, and cables are described. The book also explains the environmental considerations, power system disturbances, and protection. In an offshore structure, lighting requirements and subsea power supplies, diving life support system, and equipment protection are emphasized. A reliability analysis is also included to ensure continuance of service from the equipment. A general checklist to be used when preparing commissioning workscopes is included, and due to space and weight limitations on offshore installation, the rationale of maintenance and logistics options are explained. The appendices can be used as guides to descriptions offshore installations, typical commissioning test sheets, computerized calculations program, and a comparison of world hazardous area equipment. The text is a suitable reading for offshore personnel, oil-rig administrators, and for readers from all walks of life interested in some technical aspects of offshore structures.

Table of Contents



1 Introduction: Offshore Power Requirements

1.1 Hazards Offshore

1.2 Electrical System Design Criteria

1.3 Main Prime Movers

1.4 Key Services or Submain Generators

1.5 Medium-Voltage Distribution

1.6 Low-Voltage Distribution

1.7 Emergency or Basic Services Switchboard

1.8 Fire Pumps

1.9 Secure AC and DC Power Supplies

1.10 Drilling Supplies

2 Electrical System General Requirements

2.1 Safety

2.2 Isolated Situation

2.3 Environment

2.4 Water Hazards

2.5 Hydrocarbon Hazards

2.6 Distribution Configuration

2.7 Modular Construction

2.8 Subsea Cable Versus Onboard Generation

3 Prime Mover and Generator Selection

3.1 Gas Turbines

3.2 Gas Turbine Application

3.3 Reciprocating Engines

3.4 Load Profiles

3.5 Choice of Fuel

3.6 Main Generation

3.7 Cooling Systems

3.8 Lube Oil Systems

3.9 Governors

3.10 Alternators and Excitation Systems

3.11 Neutral Earthing

3.12 Starting Requirements

3.13 Emergency Generation

3.14 Key Services Generation

4 Process Drives and Starting Requirements

4.1 Voltage Levels

4.2 Starting

4.3 Speed

4.4 Pole Configuration

4.5 Cooling and Ingress Protection

4.6 Special Applications

5 Control and Monitoring Systems

5.1 Generator Controls

5.2 Load Sharing Systems

5.3 Load Shedding Systems

5.4 Power Management Systems

5.5 Fire and Gas Considerations

5.6 Process Shutdown Considerations

5.7 Effects of ESD System On Electrical Systems

5.8 Uninterruptible and Secure Power Supplies

5.9 DC Supplies

5.10 AC Supplies

5.11 Selection of Voltage Tolerances

5.12 Batteries

6 Generation and Distribution Switchgear and Transformers

6.1 General Requirements

6.2 The Mechanism of Short-Circuit Current Interruption

6.3 Types of Interrupter

6.4 Switchboard Construction

6.5 Drilling Supplies

6.6 Living Quarters Supplies

6.7 Process Area Distribution

6.8 Transformers

7 Cabling Systems and Equipment Installation

7.1 Technical Organization of the Design Programme

7.2 Material and Equipment Handling and Storage

7.3 Erection Procedure

7.4 Switchgear and Motor Control Centers

7.5 Distribution Transformers

7.6 Motors and Generators

7.7 Lighting and Small Power

7.8 Secure Power Supply Systems

7.9 Communications

7.10 Cable Support Systems

7.11 Cables

7.12 Bus Ducting

7.13 Control Stations, Junction Boxes and Distribution Boards

7.14 Earthing

7.15 Installation In Hazardous Areas

8 Environmental Topics

8.1 Weather and Sea Protection

8.2 Enclosure Ingress Protection

8.3 Hazardous Area Applications

8.4 Ventilation

8.5 Logic of Area Classification

8.6 Selection of Motors

8.7 Selection of Other Equipment

8.8 Structural Considerations

8.9 Noise Control

9 Power System Disturbances: Prediction and Protection

9.1 Alternator Faults and Protection Devices

9.2 Transformer Faults and Protection Devices

9.3 Motor Faults and Protection

9.4 Busbar Protection

9.5 Feeder Protection

9.6 Sizing of Conductors

9.7 Worked Example: Fault Calculation

9.8 Worked Example: Relay Setting of Typical MV Platform Scheme

9.9 Worked Example: Setting Voltage Controlled Overcurrent Relays

10 Offshore Lighting

10.1 Lighting Calculations

10.2 Calculation Procedure

10.3 Floodlighting

10.4 Accommodation Lighting

10.5 Process Area Lighting

10.6 Drilling Areas

10.7 Laydown Areas

10.8 Helidecks

10.9 Jacket and Leg Lighting

10.10 Navigational Lighting

10.11 Walkways, Catwalks and Stairways

10.12 Emergency Access Lighting

10.13 Routine Maintenance

11 Subsea Supplies

11.1 Subsea Power Supplies

11.2 Diver's Life Support Equipment

11.3 Diving Chambers

11.4 Inductive Couplers

11.5 Subsea Umbilicals and Power Cables

11.6 Cathodic Protection

11.7 Types of System

11.8 Cathodic Protection Calculations

12 Reliability

12.1 Duplication and Redundancy

12.2 Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)

12.3 Fault Trees

12.4 Reliability Block Diagrams

12.5 Confidence Limits

13 Commissioning

13.1 Generators

13.2 Switchgear

13.3 Protection Schemes: General Procedures

13.4 Voltage Transformers

13.5 Current Transformers

13.6 Protection Relays

13.7 Motor Commissioning Tests

14 Maintenance and Logistics

14.1 Rationalization of Spares

14.2 Accessibility and Communications

14.3 Maintenance Intervals and Equipment Specification

14.4 Scaffolding

14.5 Transport, Accommodation and POB Problems

Appendix A Guide To Offshore Installations

Appendix B Typical Commissioning Test Sheets

Appendix C Simple Three-Phase Fault Calculation Program

Appendix D Commercial Programs for Load Flow, Fault and Transient Stability

Appendix E Comparison of World Hazardous Area Equipment




No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1992
6th July 1992
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Geoff MacAngus-Gerrard

Geoff MacAngus-Gerrard is currently on the Supply Lecturer Register for the University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI), Scotland. He was a chartered electrical engineer who is particularly experienced in conceptual design of electrical power systems and the solving of problems associated with reliability and safety related to the security and survivability of power systems on offshore and petrochemical installations. He has worked primarily on offshore-related projects for the last 24 years, at a marine consultancy for 3 years and in various petrochemical projects for 5 years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Supply Lecturer Register, University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI), Scotland, UK

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