Occupational Neurology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444626271, 9780444626288

Occupational Neurology, Volume 131

1st Edition

Series Volume Editors: Marcello Lotti Margit Bleecker
eBook ISBN: 9780444626288
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444626271
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 23rd November 2015
Page Count: 544
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Table of Contents

  • Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Section 1: Introduction
    • Chapter 1: Principles and practice of occupational neurology: an overview
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Outcome of exposure
      • Establishing causation
      • Monitoring workers at risk
    • Chapter 2: Evaluating suspected work-related neurologic disorders (clinical diagnosis)
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • History
      • Physical examination
      • Laboratory investigations
      • Electrophysiology
      • Imaging
      • Neurobehavioral testing
    • Chapter 3: Neuropsychologic evaluation and exposure to neurotoxicants
      • Abstract
      • Brief history of neuropsychology
      • Clinical assessment of neurotoxicant-affected brain–behavior relationships
      • Neurotoxic exposures in occupational settings
      • Referral questions to the neuropsychologist
      • The neuropsychologic assessment procedure
      • Testing the most relevant neuropsychologic functions in neurotoxicology research
      • Types of test scores, reliability, validity, and cut-off scores
      • Design of neuropsychologic/neurotoxicant research studies
      • Resources of state and federal agencies that address neurotoxicant exposures, health effects, and enforcement of occupational standards
      • Future developments in neuropsychology
    • Chapter 4: Exposure assessment for chemical and physical agents
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • General criteria of risk assessment: definition of exposure limits
      • Exposure routes
      • Assessing the level of exposure
      • Exposure limits
      • Biologic monitoring
      • Exposure assessment in the clinical setting
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 5: The mechanisms of neurotoxicity and the selective vulnerability of nervous system sites
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Metabolic substrates for variability
      • Central nervous system
      • Peripheral nervous system
      • Concluding remarks
  • Section 2: Disorders associated with exposure to neurointoxicants
    • Chapter 6: Occupation and the risk of chronic toxic leukoencephalopathy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • White matter and neurotoxicology
      • Evaluation of leukotoxic syndromes
      • Chronic toxic leukoencephalopathy
      • Occupational leukotoxins
      • What is the risk of CTL in workers?
      • Occupational toxin exposure and alzheimer's disease
      • Summary
      • Future directions
      • Neuroimaging of white-matter microstructure
    • Chapter 7: Neurotoxicity of solvents
      • Abstract
      • Organic solvents
      • Occupational use of solvents
      • Solvent encephalopathy
      • Chronic solvent encephalopathy: recognition of an occupational disease
      • Prevention of solvent-related adverse effects and CSE
    • Chapter 8: Hydrogen sulfide intoxication
      • Abstract
      • Context and introduction
      • Properties
      • Clinical toxidrome
      • Secondary symptoms and signs
      • Chronic effects
      • Chronic effects of lower-level exposure (< 10 ppm)
      • Treatment
      • Toxicokinetics
      • Toxicodynamics
      • Forensics
      • Prevention
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 9: The neurotoxicity of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Organochlorine compounds
      • Pyrethroids
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 10: Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Mechanisms of toxicity
      • Clinical features
      • Diagnosis and investigations
      • Management
      • Mechanisms of toxicity
      • Clinical features
      • Diagnosis and investigations
      • Management
      • Prevention of cholinergic toxicity in occupational exposures to insecticides
    • Chapter 11: Neurotoxicity of metals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Basic principles of metal toxicity
      • Sensitivity of the nervous system to metals
      • Toxicity of selected metals
      • Summary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 12: Carbon monoxide intoxication
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Sources of CO exposure
      • Neuroprotective effects of CO
      • Mechanisms of toxicity
      • Biomarkers of CO exposure
      • Clinical presentation of CO toxicity
      • Delayed neurologic sequelae
      • Neuropsychologic effects
      • Neuroimaging studies following co exposure
      • Neurophysiologic abnormalities with co poisoning
      • Treatment
  • Section 3: Movement disorders (parkinsonism or other movement disorders)
    • Chapter 13: Extrapyramidal system neurotoxicity: animal models
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Extrapyramidal system anatomy
      • Assessment of animal models for extrapyramidal effects
      • Spontaneous toxic secondary parkinsonism in animals
      • Toxic secondary parkinsonism in experimental animals
      • Toxicant-based models for parkinson's disease
      • Neurochemical changes associated with parkinson's disease
      • Animal models for manganese neurotoxicity
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 14: Occupational exposures and parkinsonism
      • Abstract
      • Pesticides
      • Metals
      • Solvents
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: Tremor secondary to neurotoxic exposure: mercury, lead, solvents, pesticides
      • Abstract
      • Tremors
      • Lead and tremor
      • Mercury and tremor
      • Solvents and tremor
      • Pesticides and tremor
      • Diagnosing tremor
      • Treatment of tremor
      • Summary and conclusion
  • Section 4: Toxic neuropathies
    • Chapter 16: Clinical description of toxic neuropathies
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Evaluation
      • Clinical examination
      • Electrodiagnostic evaluation
      • Electrodiagnostic classification of neuropathy
      • Further testing
      • Establishing causality
      • Examples of toxic neuropathies
      • Summary
  • Section 5: Special sensory organ systems
    • Chapter 17: Neurotoxic exposure and impairment of the chemical senses of taste and smell
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Anatomy and physiology
      • Quantitative testing of smell and taste function
      • Olfactory dysfunction from environmental chemical exposures
      • The multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome
      • Mechanisms of toxin-induced olfactory loss
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 18: Retinal and visual system: occupational and environmental toxicology
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Organic solvents
      • Toxicants as risk factors for late-onset retinal diseases
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 19: Hearing
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Acoustics and psychoacoustics
      • Physiology of hearing
      • Pathophysiology of noise-induced hearing loss
      • Pathophysiology of organic solvent-induced hearing loss
      • Methods of hearing assessment
      • Clinical aspects of noise-induced hearing loss
      • Auditory and otoneurologic effects of organic solvents
      • Heavy metals
      • Other chemicals
      • Noise regulation
  • Section 6: Musculoskeletal disorders
    • Chapter 20: Mechanical stress
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Work-related musculoskeletal disorders
      • Physical risk factors
      • Mechanical stressor quantification
      • Job assessment
    • Chapter 21: Low-back pain
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definition and attributes of low-back pain
      • Epidemiology of low-back pain
      • Pathophysiology of work-related low-back pain and disc disease
      • Diagnosis of work-related low-back pain
      • Management of work-related low-back pain
    • Chapter 22: Occupational mononeuropathies in industry
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Upper-limb entrapment neuropathies
      • Lower-limb entrapment neuropathies
      • Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 23: Upper-extremity and neck disorders associated with keyboard and mouse use
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Methods
      • Results
      • Concluding remarks
      • Appendix 1 Search strings
  • Section 7: Other neurologic disorders and work restriction/accommodation
    • Chapter 24: Sleep deprivation due to shift work
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Chronobiologic aspects
      • Sleep deprivation and psychoneurotic troubles
      • Sleepiness, errors, and accidents
      • Other effects on health
      • Health surveillance and assessment of fitness to work
      • Interindividual differences in tolerance
      • Preventive and corrective actions
    • Chapter 25: Headache and migraine: a leading cause of absenteeism
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Migraine: prevalence and incidence
      • Chronic migraine: prevalence and incidence
      • Prevalence and incidence of TTH
      • Headache progression and remission
      • The impact of headache
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 26: Considerations for return to work following traumatic brain injury
      • Abstract
      • Traumatic brain injury
      • Mechanisms of TBI
      • Pathophysiology of TBI
      • Neurobehavioral outcomes following TBI
      • Chronic posttraumatic headache
      • Nonheadache-related chronic pain
      • Long-term considerations following TBI
      • Re-entry to the workforce
      • Interventions for return to work
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 27: The complex regional pain syndrome
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and nomenclature
      • Clinical symptoms
      • Diagnostic testing
      • Differential diagnosis
      • Pathophysiologic basis of symptoms
      • Evidence-based treatment
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 28: Accommodation of workers with chronic neurologic disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Signs and symptoms
      • Cognitive impairments
      • Motor impairment
      • Pain
      • Treatment
      • Summary of the ADA and the ADAAA of 2008 (http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/regulations/ada_qa_final_rule.cfm)
      • Benefits and privileges of employment
      • Request for reasonable accommodations by employee
      • Employer responsibility
      • Sensory organs
      • Special considerations

  • Description

    Occupational Neurology a volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology Series, provides a comprehensive overview of the science, clinical diagnosis, and treatment for neurotoxin related neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    This timely collection provides not only a complete scientific reference on the chemical origin of this class of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but also a practical guide to diagnosis and treatment challenges and best practices.

    Handbook of Clinical Neurology Series

    The first volume of the Handbook of Clinical Neurology under the editorship of George Bruyn and Pierre Vinken was published in 1968. In 1982, the series was brought to an interim conclusion with the publication of the cumulative index volume (Volume 44). By that stage, the Handbook had come to represent one of the largest scientific works ever published. It enjoys a high reputation in specialist media circles throughout the world.

    After the series was concluded in 1982, it was realized that an update of the material was imperative. Accordingly, a revised series was planned and published over the following years, concluding with the publication of another cumulative index to both series (Volume 76-78) in 2002. Since then, George Bruyn has passed away and Pierre Vinken has retired, but the need for a further new series, incorporating advances in the field, again become necessary.

    Professors Michael J. Aminoff, François Boller and Dick F. Swaab have with enthusiasm taken on the responsibility of supervising the preparation of a third series, the first volumes of which were published in 2003. Now, more than 130 volumes after the first published, the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series continues to have an unparalleled reputation for providing the latest foundational research, diagnosis, and treatment protocols essential for both basic neuroscience research and clinical neurology.

    Key Features

    • Provides comprehensive coverage of neurotoxins, especially in the workplace
    • Details the latest science as the foundation for neurotoxicity diagnosis and treatment
    • Presents coverage of the diagnosis and treatment essential for clinical neurologists and occupational medicine specialists


    Neuroscience researchers, clinical neurologists, clinical psychologists, occupational neurologists and occupational medicine specialists.


    No. of pages:
    © Elsevier 2015
    eBook ISBN:
    Hardcover ISBN:

    Ratings and Reviews

    About the Series Volume Editors

    Marcello Lotti Series Volume Editor

    Marcello Lotti MD is a Professor in the Department of Cardiac Thoracic and Vascular Sciences at the University of Padua Medical School in Italy and the director of the Occupational Medicine Clinic. He received his MD at the University of Padua where he specialized in Occupational Medicine. He worked for several years at the Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit in Carshalton UK and at the University of California San Francisco Medical School, USA. Besides his clinical activities, the focus of his research is on the biochemical mechanisms of neurotoxic disorders occurring at work places and elsewhere, and on environmental pollution. He is the author of more than 200 publications. He was a consultant for several governments and national and international organizations.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Dipartimento di Medicina Ambientale e Sanità Pubblica, University of Padua, Padua, Italy

    Margit Bleecker Series Volume Editor

    Dr. Margit L. Bleecker is a recognized leader in the area of Occupational Neurology. She is editor and an author of the textbook, Occupational Neurology and Clinical Neurotoxicology and has published numerous articles covering outcomes with a variety of neurotoxic exposure and disorders associated with mechanical stress in the workplace. Dr. Bleecker has a PhD degree from the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center and a MD degree from the University of California, San Francisco. Following her neurology residency at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, she joined the faculty of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and remained for 11 years before becoming Director of the Center for Occupational and Environmental Neurology (COEN). At COEN, workers with a variety of neurotoxic exposures including heavy metals, solvents, carbon monoxide, and pesticides are evaluated. Another group of work-related disorders examined are those related to mechanical stress involving upper extremity/neck or low back. Other categories frequently seen are workers with post concussion syndrome or traumatic brain injury and complex regional pain syndrome from workplace injury.

    Epidemiological studies have focused on the effects of chronic solvent exposure in the paint manufacturing industry and chronic lead exposure in smelter workers. She has developed programs for detection and intervention of upper extremity/neck disorders associated with mechanical stress in the meat packing and newspaper industries. These medical management programs are tightly integrated with ergonomic interventions to serve as models for prevention, identification and treatment of work related illnesses/injuries associated with ergonomic stressors. She has served on a variety of committees with the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council examining neurobehavioral outcomes with exposure to neurotoxic agents.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Director, Center for Occupational and Environmental Neurology, Baltimore, MD, USA