Nutrition of Grazing Ruminants in Warm Climates

Nutrition of Grazing Ruminants in Warm Climates

1st Edition - November 14, 1985

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  • Editor: Lee McDowell
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138871

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@from:From the PrefaceThe objective of this book is to review the basic knowledge and methodology of feeding grazing ruminants in tropical and semitropical countries. It is hoped this information will be of use to farmers, research specialists, teachers, students, extension specialists, feed manufacturers, and others throughout the world concerned with the nutrition of grazing ruminants. A unique feature is the identification of nutritional limitations of grazing ruminants in the tropics, which will be beneficial for increasing animal production efficiency through the application of improved nutrition. A large number of photographs illustrate nutritional deficiencies and conditions in tropical countries.This book contains 18 chapters concerned with the nutrition of grazing ruminants. The first chapter deals with the contributions, locations, and various types of ruminants and their importance to human welfare in the tropics and subtropics. Chapters 2 - 4 progress through nutrient requirements of grazing ruminants in warm climates, the effects of tropical heat on these requirements, and water requirements for ruminant species. Chapters 5 - 7 discuss grass and legume forage species suitable for tropical regions, pasture management procedures, and energy-protein supplementation programs needed during the extensive dry periods. The importance of tropical forages and soils toward meeting mineral requirements is discussed in Chapter 8. Chapters 9 -14 contain concise, up-to-date summaries of minerals emphasizing mineral status, incidence of mineral deficiencies and excesses in tropical regions, and benefits and methods of mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants are discussed in Chapters 15 - 17. Chapter 18 reviews vitamin nutrition considerations for ruminants consuming tropical forages.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors



    1 The Role of Ruminants in Warm Climates

    1. Introduction

    II. What Are the Ruminants?

    III. Contributions of Domestic Ruminants to Human Welfare

    IV. Improving the Efficiency of Tropical Ruminants


    2 Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants

    I. General Requirements

    II. Energy-Protein Requirements

    III. Factors Influencing Mineral Requirements

    IV. Nutritional Relationships to Diseases and Parasites

    V. Environment and Stress

    VI. Nonnutrient Factors Affecting Requirements


    3 Water Requirements for Grazing Ruminants and Water as a Source of Minerals

    I. Introduction

    11. Water Turnover in Ruminants

    III. Voluntary Intake of Water

    IV. Effect of Dry Matter Intake on Water Consumption

    V. Effect of Water Deprivation on Feed Intake and Utilization

    VI. Effect of Temperature on Water Intake and Digestibility of Nutrients

    VII. Effect of Salinity on Water Consumption

    VIII. Water and Electrolyte Metabolism

    IX. Nutrient Elements in Water

    X. Toxic Elements and Substances in Drinking Water

    XI. Summary


    4 Thermal Stress as a Factor Associated with Nutrient Requirements and Interrelationships

    I. Introduction

    II. Physiological Responses of Ruminants to Thermal Stress

    III. Metabolic and Hormonal Responses to Thermal Stress

    IV. Effects of Thermal Stress on Nutrient Requirements


    5 Forages for Grazing Systems in Warm Climates

    I. Introduction

    II. Selected Warm-Climate Perennial Grass Types

    III. Selected Warm-Climate Perennial Legumes


    6 Pasture Management for Optimum Ruminant Production

    I. Pasture Maintenance and Renovation

    II. Pasture Type and Grazing Management

    III. Grass-Legume Mixtures

    IV. Grazing Management Systems

    V. Herbage Quality

    VI. Pasture Use for Animal Production


    7 Providing Energy-Proteni Supplementatnio During the Dry Season

    I. Development of the Production System

    II. Improving Ruminant Production Potential of Dry-Season Forage

    III. Sources of Supplemental Crude Protein or Energy

    IV. Management for Forage Conservation and Efficient Dry-Season Feeding


    8 Contribution of Tropical Forages and Soil Toward Meeting Mineral Requirement s of Grazing Ruminants

    I. Introduction

    II. Tropical Forages as Sources of Minerals

    III. Soils as Sources of Minerals


    9 Calcium, Phosphorous, and Fluorine

    I. General

    II. Calcium and Phosphorus

    III. Fluorine


    10 Common Salt (Sodium and Chlorine), Magnesium, and Potassium

    I. General

    II. Common Salt (Sodium and Chlorine)

    III. Magnesium

    IV. Potassium


    11 Copper, Molybdenum, and Sulfur

    I. Introduction

    II. Metabolism of Copper and Molybdenum

    III. Copper and Molybdenum Requirements

    IV. Copper Deficiency

    V. Prevention and Control of Copper Deficiency

    VI. Toxicity of Copper and Molybdenum

    VII. Sulfur


    12 Cobalt, Iodine, and Selenium

    I. General

    II. Cobalt

    III. Iodine

    IV. Selenium


    13 Iron, Manganese, and Zinc

    I. General

    II. Iron

    III. Manganese

    IV. Zinc


    14 Newly Discovered and Toxic Elements

    I. Introduction

    II. Toxic Elements

    III. Newly Discovered Trace Elements

    IV. Significance of Newly Discovered and Toxic Elements for Grazing Livestock


    15 Detection of Mineral Status of Grazing Ruminants

    I. Introduction

    II. Clinical and Pathological Evaluation

    III. Analysis of Water, Soil, and Forage

    IV. Examination of Tissues and Fluids

    V. Response to Supplementation

    VI. Analyses Most Indicative of Mineral Status

    VII. A Mapping Technique for Determining Mineral Deficiencies and Toxicities


    16 Incidence of Nutrient Deficiencies and Excesses in Tropical Regions and Beneficial Results of Mineral Supplementatnio

    I. Introduction

    II. Geographical Distribution of Nutritional Deficiencies and Toxicities

    III. Energy-Protein Deficiencies in Ruminants

    IV. Incidence of Mineral Deficiencies and Toxicities

    V. Mineral Supplementation Results

    VI. Disease Conditions Related to Minerals

    VII. Seasonal Needs for Supplemental Minerals

    VIII. Economic Benefits from Mineral Supplementation


    17 Free-Choiec Mineral Supplementatino and Methods of Mineral Evaluation

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods of Providing Minerals to Grazing Livestock

    III. Free-Choice Mineral Supplementation

    IV. Factors Affecting Mineral Consumption

    V. Selecting a Free-Choice Mineral Supplement

    VI. Information Required for Mineral Supplement Formulation

    VII. Calculations Required for Mineral Supplement Formulation

    VIII. Mineral Supplement Evaluation


    18 Vitamin Nutrition for Ruminants

    I. Introduction

    II. Vitamin A

    III. Vitamin D

    IV. Vitamin Ε

    V. Vitamin Κ

    VI. B-Complex Vitamins

    VII. Providing Vitamin Supplements




Product details

  • No. of pages: 443
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: November 14, 1985
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138871

About the Series Volume Editor

Lee McDowell

Dr. Lee R. McDowell is a distinguished scientist in animal nutrition. He is also editor on Nutrition of Grazing Ruminants in Warm Climates (Academic Press, 1985). For the past 23 years, he has been working on animal nutrition studies at the University of Florida and with numerous collaborating animal scientists in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and other areas. He has lectured throughout the world and has collected research data, photographs, and other materials of value for this book. Contact with many of the world’s leading nutrition scientists has greatly enriched his expertise.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Florida, Gainesville, U.S.A.

About the Series Editor

Tony Cunha

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A. and California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, U.S.A.

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