Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity

Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity

1st Edition - February 26, 2014

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  • Editor: Ronald Watson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124079342
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124078697

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Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity focuses on the important roles that exercise, dietary changes, and foods play in promoting as well as reducing visceral fat. Nutritionists, dieticians, and healthcare providers seeking to address the abdominal obesity epidemic will use this comprehensive resource as a tool in their long-term goal of preventing chronic diseases, especially heart, vascular, and diabetic diseases. Experts from a broad range of disciplines are involved in dealing with the consequences of excessive abdominal fat: cardiology, diabetes research, studies of lipids, endocrinology and metabolism, nutrition, obesity, and exercise physiology. They have contributed chapters that define a range of dietary approaches to reducing risk and associated chronic diseases. They begin by defining visceral obesity and its major outcomes; they also discuss the importance and the challenges of dietary approaches to reduce abdominal obesity, as compared to clinical approaches, with major costs and risks.

Key Features

  • Offers detailed, well-documented reviews outlining the various dietary approaches to visceral obesity with their benefits and failures
  • Includes chapters on types of foods, exercise, and supplements in reducing obesity and its chronic clinical companions, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease
  • Helps nutritionists, dieticians, and healthcare providers approach patients in making decision about nutritional therapies and clinical treatments for abdominal obesity, from an evidence-based perspective


Academic, government, and corporate researchers in nutrition, diet, and endocrinology; graduate students in nutrition, epidemiology and public health; and practicing nutritionists, dietitians, and endocrinologists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface



    1: Epidemiology and Clinical Management of Visceral Obesity

    A: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Abdominal Obesity

    1: Diet and Irritable Bowel Syndrome, with a Focus on Appetite-Regulating Gut Hormones


    Diet Intake in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients

    The Role of Diet in the Development of IBS Symptoms

    Abnormalities in the Endocrine System of the Gut in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Appetite-Regulating Gut Hormones

    Effect of Dietary Guidance


    2: Work and Abdominal Obesity Risk

    Occupational Status

    Job Strain

    Occupational Physical Activity

    Shift Work



    3: Effects of Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity on the Establishment of Abdominal Obesity in Adolescents

    Abdominal Obesity in Adolescents

    Meal Patterns, Foods, and Abdominal Obesity in Adolescents

    Physical Activity and Abdominal Obesity in Adolescents


    4: Lifestyle Factors Affecting Abdominal Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Risks and Benefits


    Physical Activity and Abdominal Obesity

    Sedentary Activities

    Sleep Duration


    Alcohol Consumption



    5: Female Cancer Survivorship and Obesity

    Obesity and Female Cancer

    Female Cancer Survivorship

    Physical Activity

    Diet Considerations

    Future Directions

    6: Evaluation of Visceral Fat in Massive Obesity

    Anthropometric Assessments

    Physical Methods to Assess Massive Abdominal Obesity

    Biological Parameters

    Histological Markers in Adipose Tissue

    Other Methods Used to Assess Abdominal Fat Repartition


    7: Beyond Nutrition Is There Any Role for Physical Activity in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Therapy?


    The Measurement of Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue

    Physical Activity

    The Influence of Physical Activity on Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue

    Age and Gender Differences in the Response of Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue to Physical Activity

    Physiological Effect of Exercise on Obesity and Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Physical Activity, and Adipose Tissue

    Concluding Remarks

    8: Abdominal Fat and African-Americans: Incidence and Relationship to Disease


    Incidence of Abdominal Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk: African-American Adults

    Incidence of Abdominal Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk: African-American Children and Adolescents

    Intervention Strategies


    B: Abdominal Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    9: Visceral Fat and Hypertension: Sex Differences


    Sex Differences in Quantity and Distribution of Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    Sex Differences in Cellularity and Secretory Profiles of Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    Sex Differences in Obesity-Induced Hypertension


    10: Remission of Metabolic Syndrome After Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Lipid Profile

    Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Hypertension

    Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Cortisol Levels

    11: Serum Magnesium and Abdominal Obesity and its Consequences


    Magnesium Deficiency and its Health-Associated Consequences

    Abdominal Obesity

    Mechanism of Magnesium Deficiency in Obesity

    Magnesium and Abdominal Obesity


    C: Nutrition, abdominal obesity, and type 2 diabetes

    12: Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Ethnicity


    Abdominal Adipose Tissue

    Defining Ethnicity

    Ethnicity and Insulin Resistance

    Ethnicity and Abdominal Adiposity

    Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance


    13: Visceral Fat Predicts Ectopic Fat Accumulation Mechanisms and Health Consequences


    Predictors of Ectopic Fat Deposition

    Weight Loss, Visceral Fat, and Ectopic Fat Deposition

    Health Consequences of Visceral Adipose Tissue and Ectopic Fat Deposition

    14: Blood Pressure Regulation in Abdominal Obesity


    Obesity: A Definition

    Systemic Hypertension: A Definition

    Which Adiposity Index is the Best for Explaining the Link between Systemic Hypertension Risk and Obesity?

    Abdominal Obesity and its Impact on Blood Pressure

    Hemodynamic Pattern: Mechanisms

    Abdominal Obesity and Exercised-Induced Hypertension


    Metabolic Syndrome: a Combination of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Including High Blood Pressure

    Management of Systemic Hypertension in Obesity: Benefits from Weight Reduction

    A Discovery Emerging from Aggressive Diet and Exercise Therapy in Abdominal Obesity


    2: Diet, Supplements, and Foods in the Management of Visceral Obesity

    D: Mechanisms of Altering Abdominal Obesity

    15: Effect of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists on Visceral Fat Adiposity, Appetite, and Food Preference


    Central and Peripheral Actions of GLP-1 on Appetite and Food Intake

    Effects on Body Weight

    Effects on Body Fat Composition

    Effects on Food Preference and Eating Behavior


    16: Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy on Calcium Metabolism

    Changes in Nutritional Status

    Effects on Calcium Levels

    Effects on Vitamin D Levels

    Effects on Parathyroid Hormone Levels

    Effects on Bone Mineral Density

    17: Intermittent Versus Daily Calorie Restriction in Visceral Fat Loss





    Conflicts of Interest

    18: Stress-Induced Eating Dampens Physiological and Behavioral Stress Responses


    Glucocorticoids and Insulin Promote Stress-Induced Eating

    Glucocorticoids and Insulin Promote Visceral Fat Accumulation

    Stress-Induced Eating Dampens Physiological and Behavioral Stress Responses

    Reinforcement of Stress-Induced Eating via Affective Responses, the Reward System, and Enhanced Memory

    Role of Glucocorticoids and Visceral Fat in Dampening Stress Responses

    Conclusion and Future Directions

    19: Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia: A Review




    20: Impact of Sex and Lifestyle of Adolescents and Their Parents on Obesity






    21: Physical Activity, Inflammatory Cytokines, Endothelial Dysfunction, and Risk of Coronary Artery Diseases in Visceral Obesity


    Disturbances to Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Inflammatory Pathways in Visceral Obesity

    Physical Activity Preserves Endothelial Dysfunction and Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects


    E: Dietary Foods and Visceral Fat Accumulation and Removal

    22: Fermented Soypastes, Doenjang and Cheonggukjang, and Obesity

    Soybean and Fermented Soypaste

    Antiobesity Effects of Isoflavones

    Mechanisms Involved in Fermented Soypaste Antiobesity Activity

    Antiobesity Effects of Fermented Soypastes in Rodents

    Antiobesity Effects of Fermented Soypastes in Humans

    Conclusion and Future Research Perspectives

    23: Alcohol Intake and Hormonal Dysregulation of Food Intake in Visceral Fat Accumulation


    Alcohol Metabolism

    Alcohol Intake and Appetite Control

    Alcohol Consumption and Hormonal Deregulation

    Effects of Alcohol Consumption and Abstinence on Appetite Regulation


    24: Coffee Intake and Obesity

    Obesity, Coffee Consumption, and Active Compounds

    Coffee and Reduction of Obesity Risk: A Vision from Epidemiological Studies

    Coffee and its Components

    Coffee and the Mechanisms that Underlie its Protective Effects Against Obesity

    Potential Adverse Effects of Coffee


    25: Bread Intake and Abdominal Fat


    Scientific Evidence

    Cross-Sectional Studies

    Longitudinal Studies

    Intervention Studies

    Summary of The Scientific Evidence about the Influence of Bread Consumption on Abdominal Obesity

    Influence of Bread Consumption on Abdominal Obesity Prevention

    Influence of Bread Consumption on Abdominal Obesity Treatment

    Effects of Low-Carbohydrate vs. Low-Fat Diets

    Hypotheses on the Mechanism of Action by Which Bread Consumption Influences Abdominal Obesity

    Energy Density

    Glycemic Index

    Dietary Fiber

    Gut Microbiota


    26: Role of the Immune System in Obesity-Associated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance


    Inflammatory Changes in Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Inflammatory Changes of Adipocytes and Immune Cells in the Adipose Tissue Microenvironment

    Signaling Molecules that Induce or Reduce Obesity-Associated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance


    Immunotherapy for Insulin Resistance

    Concluding Remarks

    27: Metabolic Effects of Abdominal Fats in Animal Models and Humans


    Adipose Tissue: Body Fat

    Body Size, Function, and Health

    Abdominal Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Adipose Tissue and Inflammation

    Intra-Abdominal Obesity and Diabetes

    Abdominal Obesity and Cancer

    Abdominal Obesity and Aging


    28: Appetite and Reward Signals in the Brain: Sugar Intake Effects on Brain Activity as Measured by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging


    Taste and Reward


    F: Dietary Supplements and Visceral Obesity

    29: Flaxseed Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside and Visceral Obesity

    30: Carotenoids as a Nutraceutical Therapy for Visceral Obesity



    Antiobesity Effect of Fucoxanthin

    Accumulation of Fucoxanthin Metabolites in Abdominal White Adipose Tissue

    UCP 1 Induction in Abdominal White Adipose Tissue by Fucoxanthin

    Downregulation of Insulin Resistance-Inducing Adipocytokines in Abdominal White Adipose Tissue by Fucoxanthin

    Fucoxanthin Upregulates GLUT4 in Skeletal Muscle

    Fucoxanthin Intake Improves Glucose Level and Has in Vivo Antioxidant Activity


    31: Nutritional Deficiencies in Obese Sleeve Gastrectomy Patients


    Sleeve Gastrectomy: Dietary Restriction and Associated Mechanisms

    Preoperative Nutritional Deficiencies in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Postoperative Nutritional Deficiencies After Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Micronutrient Supplementation

    Recommendations for Nutrition Care After Sleeve Gastrectomy

    G: Macromolecules in Foods and Diets and Abdominal Obesity

    32: Dairy Whey Proteins and Obesity


    Whey Proteins and Health

    Metabolic Effects of Whey Proteins


    33: Probiotics to Treat Visceral Obesity and Related Liver Disease


    Metabolic Syndrome

    Obesity Pathogenesis

    Intestinal Microbiota and the Gut-Liver Axis

    Microbiota, Gut-Liver Axis, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Fructose, Obesity, and Liver Involvement

    Intestinal MicRObiota and Gut-Liver Axis Manipulation by Probiotics

    Probiotics, Obesity, and Visceral Fat Disorders

    Probiotics Use in Fatty Liver Disease


    34: Beta-Cryptoxanthin, a Novel Carotenoid Derived from Satsuma Mandarin, Prevents Abdominal Obesity


    Epidemiology of beta-cryptoxanthin

    Industrial production of beta-cryptoxanthin

    Beta-cryptoxanthin and obesity

    Beta-cryptoxanthin reduces the visceral fat in mildly obese humans

    The mechanism of beta-cryptoxanthin-dependent obesity prevention


    35: A Diet with Carbohydrates Eaten Primarily at Dinner: an Innovative, Nutritional Approach to End the Vicious Cycle of Abdominal Obesity

    The Vicious Cycle of Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Fat Tissue as an Endocrine Organ and Its Influence on Food Intake and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Studies in Muslim Populations during Ramadan

    The Effect of a Diet with Carbohydrates Eaten Primarily at Dinner on Abdominal Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and the Metabolic Syndrome: Basic Research

    Future Research: Understanding the Physiological Mechanisms

    Dietary Alternatives to Replace Medications: “Nutrition Targeting”

    Interim Conclusions

    H: Micromolecules and Nutrients as Modulators of Visceral Fat

    36: Effects of Different Dietary Fatty Acids on Human Energy Balance, Body Weight, Fat Mass, and Abdominal Fat


    Dietary Fat and Human Energy Balance

    Physiological Effects of Different Dietary Fat Subtypes

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    37: Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Human Health Effects on Weight Control


    Discovery and Origins of Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Antiobesity Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Other Health Benefits of Conjugated Linoleic Acid


    38: Essential Amino Acid Supplementation for the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity

    Macronutrients and Obesity

    Essential Amino Acids and the Control of Satiety

    Amino Acids and the Preservation or Augmentation of Lean Body Mass in Obese Individuals


    Conflict of interest statement

    I: Activity of Adipocytes: Role in Growth and Accumulation of Fat

    39: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 is a Regulator of Energy Metabolism in the Liver and Adipose Tissue


    FGF-21 Structure, Expression, and Receptor Binding

    Paracrine/Autocrine, Endocrine, and Pharmacological Roles of FGF-21

    Expression and Regulation of FGF-21

    Physiological Role of FGF-21

    The Role of FGF-21 in Human Metabolic Diseases

    FGF-21-Targeted Therapy

    Conflict of interest statement

    40: Genetics of Abdominal Obesity



    Monogenic Obesity

    Genome-wide Linkage Study

    Candidate Gene Association Study

    Genome-wide Association Study

    Gene-environment Interactions

    Sexual Dimorphism



    41: The Role of Site-Specific Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Obesity

    Fatty Acid Composition of Adipose Tissue

    Which Factors Determine Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Profile?

    Adipose Tissue Fatty Acids and Obesity

    Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor of Weight Loss


    J: Fiber and Visceral Obesity

    42: Using Psyllium to Prevent and Treat Obesity Comorbidities


    Psyllium and Health

    Body Composition and Appetite

    Blood Sugar Levels and Insulin Regulation

    Blood Lipids

    Vascular Function


    Conflict of Interest Statement

    43: Whole Grains in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity


    Biological Plausibility of Whole Grain-Mediated Effects on Adiposity

    Associations between Whole-Grain Intake and Adiposity in Observational Studies

    Evidence from Clinical Trials of Whole Grain-Mediated Effects on Adiposity



Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: February 26, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124079342
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124078697

About the Editor

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson
Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

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