Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124078697, 9780124079342

Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity

1st Edition

Editors: Ronald Ross Watson
eBook ISBN: 9780124079342
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124078697
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th March 2014
Page Count: 560
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Description

Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity focuses on the important roles that exercise, dietary changes, and foods play in promoting as well as reducing visceral fat. Nutritionists, dieticians, and healthcare providers seeking to address the abdominal obesity epidemic will use this comprehensive resource as a tool in their long-term goal of preventing chronic diseases, especially heart, vascular, and diabetic diseases.

Experts from a broad range of disciplines are involved in dealing with the consequences of excessive abdominal fat: cardiology, diabetes research, studies of lipids, endocrinology and metabolism, nutrition, obesity, and exercise physiology. They have contributed chapters that define a range of dietary approaches to reducing risk and associated chronic diseases. They begin by defining visceral obesity and its major outcomes; they also discuss the importance and the challenges of dietary approaches to reduce abdominal obesity, as compared to clinical approaches, with major costs and risks.

Key Features

  • Offers detailed, well-documented reviews outlining the various dietary approaches to visceral obesity with their benefits and failures
  • Includes chapters on types of foods, exercise, and supplements in reducing obesity and its chronic clinical companions, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease
  • Helps nutritionists, dieticians, and healthcare providers approach patients in making decision about nutritional therapies and clinical treatments for abdominal obesity, from an evidence-based perspective

Readership

Academic, government, and corporate researchers in nutrition, diet, and endocrinology; graduate students in nutrition, epidemiology and public health; and practicing nutritionists, dietitians, and endocrinologists.

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

Contributors

1: Epidemiology and Clinical Management of Visceral Obesity

A: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Abdominal Obesity

1: Diet and Irritable Bowel Syndrome, with a Focus on Appetite-Regulating Gut Hormones

Introduction

Diet Intake in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients

The Role of Diet in the Development of IBS Symptoms

Abnormalities in the Endocrine System of the Gut in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Appetite-Regulating Gut Hormones

Effect of Dietary Guidance

Conclusion

2: Work and Abdominal Obesity Risk

Occupational Status

Job Strain

Occupational Physical Activity

Shift Work

Unemployment

Conclusion

3: Effects of Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity on the Establishment of Abdominal Obesity in Adolescents

Abdominal Obesity in Adolescents

Meal Patterns, Foods, and Abdominal Obesity in Adolescents

Physical Activity and Abdominal Obesity in Adolescents

Conclusions

4: Lifestyle Factors Affecting Abdominal Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Risks and Benefits

Introduction

Physical Activity and Abdominal Obesity

Sedentary Activities

Sleep Duration

Nutrition

Alcohol Consumption

Smoking

Conclusion

5: Female Cancer Survivorship and Obesity

Obesity and Female Cancer

Female Cancer Survivorship

Physical Activity

Diet Considerations

Future Directions

6: Evaluation of Visceral Fat in Massive Obesity

Anthropometric Assessments

Physical Methods to Assess Massive Abdominal Obesity

Biological Parameters

Histological Markers in Adipose Tissue

Other Methods Used to Assess Abdominal Fat Repartition

Conclusion

7: Beyond Nutrition Is There Any Role for Physical Activity in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Therapy?

Introduction

The Measurement of Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue

Physical Activity

The Influence of Physical Activity on Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue

Age and Gender Differences in the Response of Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue to Physical Activity

Physiological Effect of Exercise on Obesity and Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Physical Activity, and Adipose Tissue

Concluding Remarks

8: Abdominal Fat and African-Americans: Incidence and Relationship to Disease

Introduction

Incidence of Abdominal Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk: African-American Adults

Incidence of Abdominal Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk: African-American Children and Adolescents

Intervention Strategies

Conclusions

B: Abdominal Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

9: Visceral Fat and Hypertension: Sex Differences

Overview

Sex Differences in Quantity and Distribution of Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

Sex Differences in Cellularity and Secretory Profiles of Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

Sex Differences in Obesity-Induced Hypertension

Conclusion

10: Remission of Metabolic Syndrome After Sleeve Gastrectomy

Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Lipid Profile

Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Hypertension

Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Cortisol Levels

11: Serum Magnesium and Abdominal Obesity and its Consequences

Introduction

Magnesium Deficiency and its Health-Associated Consequences

Abdominal Obesity

Mechanism of Magnesium Deficiency in Obesity

Magnesium and Abdominal Obesity

Conclusion

C: Nutrition, abdominal obesity, and type 2 diabetes

12: Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Ethnicity

Introduction

Abdominal Adipose Tissue

Defining Ethnicity

Ethnicity and Insulin Resistance

Ethnicity and Abdominal Adiposity

Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance

Conclusions

13: Visceral Fat Predicts Ectopic Fat Accumulation Mechanisms and Health Consequences

Introduction

Predictors of Ectopic Fat Deposition

Weight Loss, Visceral Fat, and Ectopic Fat Deposition

Health Consequences of Visceral Adipose Tissue and Ectopic Fat Deposition

14: Blood Pressure Regulation in Abdominal Obesity

Introduction

Obesity: A Definition

Systemic Hypertension: A Definition

Which Adiposity Index is the Best for Explaining the Link between Systemic Hypertension Risk and Obesity?

Abdominal Obesity and its Impact on Blood Pressure

Hemodynamic Pattern: Mechanisms

Abdominal Obesity and Exercised-Induced Hypertension

Adipokines

Metabolic Syndrome: a Combination of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Including High Blood Pressure

Management of Systemic Hypertension in Obesity: Benefits from Weight Reduction

A Discovery Emerging from Aggressive Diet and Exercise Therapy in Abdominal Obesity

Conclusion

2: Diet, Supplements, and Foods in the Management of Visceral Obesity

D: Mechanisms of Altering Abdominal Obesity

15: Effect of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists on Visceral Fat Adiposity, Appetite, and Food Preference

Introduction

Central and Peripheral Actions of GLP-1 on Appetite and Food Intake

Effects on Body Weight

Effects on Body Fat Composition

Effects on Food Preference and Eating Behavior

Conclusions

16: Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy on Calcium Metabolism

Changes in Nutritional Status

Effects on Calcium Levels

Effects on Vitamin D Levels

Effects on Parathyroid Hormone Levels

Effects on Bone Mineral Density

17: Intermittent Versus Daily Calorie Restriction in Visceral Fat Loss

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conflicts of Interest

18: Stress-Induced Eating Dampens Physiological and Behavioral Stress Responses

Introduction

Glucocorticoids and Insulin Promote Stress-Induced Eating

Glucocorticoids and Insulin Promote Visceral Fat Accumulation

Stress-Induced Eating Dampens Physiological and Behavioral Stress Responses

Reinforcement of Stress-Induced Eating via Affective Responses, the Reward System, and Enhanced Memory

Role of Glucocorticoids and Visceral Fat in Dampening Stress Responses

Conclusion and Future Directions

19: Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia: A Review

Introduction

Therapeutics

Summary

20: Impact of Sex and Lifestyle of Adolescents and Their Parents on Obesity

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

21: Physical Activity, Inflammatory Cytokines, Endothelial Dysfunction, and Risk of Coronary Artery Diseases in Visceral Obesity

Introduction

Disturbances to Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Inflammatory Pathways in Visceral Obesity

Physical Activity Preserves Endothelial Dysfunction and Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Conclusion

E: Dietary Foods and Visceral Fat Accumulation and Removal

22: Fermented Soypastes, Doenjang and Cheonggukjang, and Obesity

Soybean and Fermented Soypaste

Antiobesity Effects of Isoflavones

Mechanisms Involved in Fermented Soypaste Antiobesity Activity

Antiobesity Effects of Fermented Soypastes in Rodents

Antiobesity Effects of Fermented Soypastes in Humans

Conclusion and Future Research Perspectives

23: Alcohol Intake and Hormonal Dysregulation of Food Intake in Visceral Fat Accumulation

Background

Alcohol Metabolism

Alcohol Intake and Appetite Control

Alcohol Consumption and Hormonal Deregulation

Effects of Alcohol Consumption and Abstinence on Appetite Regulation

Conclusions

24: Coffee Intake and Obesity

Obesity, Coffee Consumption, and Active Compounds

Coffee and Reduction of Obesity Risk: A Vision from Epidemiological Studies

Coffee and its Components

Coffee and the Mechanisms that Underlie its Protective Effects Against Obesity

Potential Adverse Effects of Coffee

Conclusion

25: Bread Intake and Abdominal Fat

Introduction

Scientific Evidence

Cross-Sectional Studies

Longitudinal Studies

Intervention Studies

Summary of The Scientific Evidence about the Influence of Bread Consumption on Abdominal Obesity

Influence of Bread Consumption on Abdominal Obesity Prevention

Influence of Bread Consumption on Abdominal Obesity Treatment

Effects of Low-Carbohydrate vs. Low-Fat Diets

Hypotheses on the Mechanism of Action by Which Bread Consumption Influences Abdominal Obesity

Energy Density

Glycemic Index

Dietary Fiber

Gut Microbiota

Conclusions

26: Role of the Immune System in Obesity-Associated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

Introduction

Inflammatory Changes in Obesity and Insulin Resistance

Inflammatory Changes of Adipocytes and Immune Cells in the Adipose Tissue Microenvironment

Signaling Molecules that Induce or Reduce Obesity-Associated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

GPR120

Immunotherapy for Insulin Resistance

Concluding Remarks

27: Metabolic Effects of Abdominal Fats in Animal Models and Humans

Obesity

Adipose Tissue: Body Fat

Body Size, Function, and Health

Abdominal Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases

Adipose Tissue and Inflammation

Intra-Abdominal Obesity and Diabetes

Abdominal Obesity and Cancer

Abdominal Obesity and Aging

Summary

28: Appetite and Reward Signals in the Brain: Sugar Intake Effects on Brain Activity as Measured by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Introduction

Taste and Reward

Conclusions

F: Dietary Supplements and Visceral Obesity

29: Flaxseed Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside and Visceral Obesity

30: Carotenoids as a Nutraceutical Therapy for Visceral Obesity

Introduction

Carotenoids

Antiobesity Effect of Fucoxanthin

Accumulation of Fucoxanthin Metabolites in Abdominal White Adipose Tissue

UCP 1 Induction in Abdominal White Adipose Tissue by Fucoxanthin

Downregulation of Insulin Resistance-Inducing Adipocytokines in Abdominal White Adipose Tissue by Fucoxanthin

Fucoxanthin Upregulates GLUT4 in Skeletal Muscle

Fucoxanthin Intake Improves Glucose Level and Has in Vivo Antioxidant Activity

Conclusion

31: Nutritional Deficiencies in Obese Sleeve Gastrectomy Patients

Introduction

Sleeve Gastrectomy: Dietary Restriction and Associated Mechanisms

Preoperative Nutritional Deficiencies in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

Postoperative Nutritional Deficiencies After Sleeve Gastrectomy

Micronutrient Supplementation

Recommendations for Nutrition Care After Sleeve Gastrectomy

G: Macromolecules in Foods and Diets and Abdominal Obesity

32: Dairy Whey Proteins and Obesity

Introduction

Whey Proteins and Health

Metabolic Effects of Whey Proteins

Conclusion

33: Probiotics to Treat Visceral Obesity and Related Liver Disease

Introduction

Metabolic Syndrome

Obesity Pathogenesis

Intestinal Microbiota and the Gut-Liver Axis

Microbiota, Gut-Liver Axis, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Fructose, Obesity, and Liver Involvement

Intestinal MicRObiota and Gut-Liver Axis Manipulation by Probiotics

Probiotics, Obesity, and Visceral Fat Disorders

Probiotics Use in Fatty Liver Disease

Conclusions

34: Beta-Cryptoxanthin, a Novel Carotenoid Derived from Satsuma Mandarin, Prevents Abdominal Obesity

Introduction

Epidemiology of beta-cryptoxanthin

Industrial production of beta-cryptoxanthin

Beta-cryptoxanthin and obesity

Beta-cryptoxanthin reduces the visceral fat in mildly obese humans

The mechanism of beta-cryptoxanthin-dependent obesity prevention

Conclusion

35: A Diet with Carbohydrates Eaten Primarily at Dinner: an Innovative, Nutritional Approach to End the Vicious Cycle of Abdominal Obesity

The Vicious Cycle of Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome

Fat Tissue as an Endocrine Organ and Its Influence on Food Intake and the Metabolic Syndrome

Studies in Muslim Populations during Ramadan

The Effect of a Diet with Carbohydrates Eaten Primarily at Dinner on Abdominal Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and the Metabolic Syndrome: Basic Research

Future Research: Understanding the Physiological Mechanisms

Dietary Alternatives to Replace Medications: “Nutrition Targeting”

Interim Conclusions

H: Micromolecules and Nutrients as Modulators of Visceral Fat

36: Effects of Different Dietary Fatty Acids on Human Energy Balance, Body Weight, Fat Mass, and Abdominal Fat

Introduction

Dietary Fat and Human Energy Balance

Physiological Effects of Different Dietary Fat Subtypes

Conclusions and Recommendations

37: Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Human Health Effects on Weight Control

Introduction

Discovery and Origins of Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Antiobesity Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Other Health Benefits of Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Conclusion

38: Essential Amino Acid Supplementation for the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity

Macronutrients and Obesity

Essential Amino Acids and the Control of Satiety

Amino Acids and the Preservation or Augmentation of Lean Body Mass in Obese Individuals

Conclusions

Conflict of interest statement

I: Activity of Adipocytes: Role in Growth and Accumulation of Fat

39: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 is a Regulator of Energy Metabolism in the Liver and Adipose Tissue

Background

FGF-21 Structure, Expression, and Receptor Binding

Paracrine/Autocrine, Endocrine, and Pharmacological Roles of FGF-21

Expression and Regulation of FGF-21

Physiological Role of FGF-21

The Role of FGF-21 in Human Metabolic Diseases

FGF-21-Targeted Therapy

Conflict of interest statement

40: Genetics of Abdominal Obesity

Introduction

Heritability

Monogenic Obesity

Genome-wide Linkage Study

Candidate Gene Association Study

Genome-wide Association Study

Gene-environment Interactions

Sexual Dimorphism

Epigenetics

Conclusions

41: The Role of Site-Specific Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Obesity

Fatty Acid Composition of Adipose Tissue

Which Factors Determine Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Profile?

Adipose Tissue Fatty Acids and Obesity

Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor of Weight Loss

Summary

J: Fiber and Visceral Obesity

42: Using Psyllium to Prevent and Treat Obesity Comorbidities

Introduction

Psyllium and Health

Body Composition and Appetite

Blood Sugar Levels and Insulin Regulation

Blood Lipids

Vascular Function

Conclusion

Conflict of Interest Statement

43: Whole Grains in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity

Introduction

Biological Plausibility of Whole Grain-Mediated Effects on Adiposity

Associations between Whole-Grain Intake and Adiposity in Observational Studies

Evidence from Clinical Trials of Whole Grain-Mediated Effects on Adiposity

Conclusion

Index

Details

No. of pages:
560
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124079342
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124078697

About the Editor

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA