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Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128053768, 9780128092996

Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging

1st Edition

Author: Ronald Watson
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128053768
eBook ISBN: 9780128092996
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st February 2017
Page Count: 386
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Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging aims to equip anyone studying geriatric nutrition or working with aging adults with the latest scientific reviews of critical topics. The major objective of this book is to review, in detail, the health problems of the aged and how normal food, lifestyle, or nutritional and dietary supplements can help treat them.

Nutrient requirements for optimum health and function of aging physiological systems are often quite distinct from those required for young people. The special nutrition problems of the aged are intensively researched and tested, especially as the elderly become a larger percentage of the population. Many chronic diseases and cancers are found with higher frequency in the aged, and it is also widely known that many elderly people use foods and nutrients well above the recommended daily allowance, which can be detrimental to optimal health.

Key Features

  • Explains the evidence supporting nutritional interventions relevant to age-related diseases
  • Reviews the macro- and micro-nutrient requirements of aging adults and their variables
  • Describes how alcohol, drugs, and caffeine can impact deficiencies, also exploring functional food and dietary supplements that can be used for prevention and treatment


Nutrition researchers and clinicians working with aging populations, students studying geriatric nutrition, functional food developers working on product lines for aging adults

Table of Contents

Part I: Overview Health and Aging

Chapter 1. Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Aging

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Dietary Fiber
  • GI and Gut Microbiota
  • The Role of SCFAs in Health and Disease
  • Ongoing and Future Directions
  • References

Chapter 2. Aging and the Recovery of Skin Function and Appearance

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Skin Aging
  • Diet and Skin Aging
  • The Mediterranean Diet
  • References

Chapter 3. Changes in Nutritional Needs With Aging

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Age-Related Changes Affect Nutrition
  • Changes in Nutritional Needs
  • Using Supplements
  • Assessing Nutritional Status
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 4. Sugars, Glucocorticoids, and the Hypothalamic Controls of Appetite

  • Abstract
  • Overview
  • The Lipogenesis Hypothesis
  • Sugar Solutions and the Hypothalamus
  • Sugars and the Hypothalamus: Evidence from Humans
  • Conclusions and Summary
  • References

Chapter 5. Appetite Regulation in Healthy Aging

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Reduced Appetite and Energy Intake During Aging
  • Less Suppression of Appetite and Energy Intake in Older People
  • Gastrointestinal Regulation of Appetite and Energy Intake
  • Appetite Regulation in Healthy Older Subjects
  • Appetite Regulation in Malnourished Older Subjects
  • Loss of Body Weight During Aging
  • Loss of Muscle Mass During Aging
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 6. Human Microbiome and Aging

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Human Microbiome
  • Microbiome Through the Human Life Cycle
  • Microbiome and the Immune Response
  • Impact of Diet on Microbiota
  • Therapeutic Interventions for Microbial Manipulation
  • Implications for Health and Disease
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Anxiety and Depression
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

Chapter 7. Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Role of Obesity and Nutrients

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology of Fibromyalgia
  • Fibromyalgia and Obesity
  • Symptoms of FMS and Obesity
  • Role of Diet and Micronutrients in Fibromyalgia
  • Summary
  • References

Chapter 8. Aging and Gait

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Mechanics of Changes in Gait
  • Changes in Body Structure and Physiological Functions
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 9. Assessment of Nutritional Status in the Elderly

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Medical History With a Particular Emphasis on the Nutritional History and Physical Examination
  • Anthropometric Tests
  • Biochemical Tests
  • Survey Methods
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 10. Eating Capability Assessments in Elderly Populations

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Eating Capability: Definition and Constituents
  • Hand Force Assessments
  • Actions in the Oral Cavity: Mastication and Swallowing
  • Tongue Capability Assessment
  • Swallowing Capability Assessment
  • Assessing Sensing Capability
  • The Eating Capability Concept in Use
  • Conclusions
  • References

Part II: Nutrients (Vitamins and Minerals) in Health in Aging Adults

Chapter 11. Healthy Food Choice and Dietary Behavior in the Elderly

  • Abstract
  • Why Do We Eat What We Eat?
  • Determinants of Dietary Behavior
  • Design and Methods
  • Discussion and Applications
  • References

Chapter 12. Vitamin D and Diabetes in Elderly People

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Potential Mechanisms and Pathways for an Effect of Vitamin D in Diabetes
  • Epidemiological Evidence of Hypovitaminosis D as a Risk Factor for Diabetes
  • Vitamin D and Diabetes in the Elderly
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 13. Vitamin D and the Elderly Orthopedic Patient

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Vitamin D
  • References

Chapter 14. Vitamins and Minerals in Older Adults: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Deficiency

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Needs
  • Causes of Deficiency
  • Diagnosis of Deficiency
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 15. The Role of B Group Vitamins and Choline in Cognition and Brain Aging

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Role of B Group Vitamins and Choline in Normal Brain Functioning and Neuroprotection
  • The Homocysteine Cycle: Biochemistry and Clinical Implications
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 16. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Vitamin B12 Absorption
  • Vitamin B12 Metabolism and Function
  • Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly
  • Clinical Manifestations of Vitamin B12 Deficiency
  • Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency
  • Vitamin B12 Deficiencies in the Institutionalized Elderly
  • Therapeutic Management
  • Screening for Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly
  • References

Chapter 17. Vitamin E Isoform-Specific Functions in Allergic Inflammation and Asthma

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Vitamin E Isoforms, Sources, and Functions
  • Asthma and Allergic Lung Inflammation
  • Clinical Studies of Asthma and Tocopherol Isoforms
  • Comparing Tocopherol Doses in Humans and Preclinical Mouse Studies
  • Alpha-Tocopherol and Gamma-Tocopherol Regulate Allergic Inflammation and Airway Hyper-Responsiveness in Preclinical Adult Animal Studies
  • Tocopherol Regulation of Leukocyte Recruitment
  • Maternal Tocopherols and Offspring Development of Allergy
  • Alpha-Tocopherol and Gamma-Tocopherol: Opposing Functions in Other Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
  • Conclusions
  • References

Part III: Dietary Supplements and Herbs, Functional Foods, in Health in Aging Adults

Chapter 18. Polyphenols and Intestinal Health

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Role of Gut Microbiota in Intestinal and Systemic Health
  • Classes, Subclasses, Examples, and Sources of Dietary Polyphenols
  • Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Properties of Polyphenols
  • Influence of Polyphenols on Macro- and Micronutrient Bioavailability
  • Polyphenol Digestion, Absorption, and Utilization
  • Polyphenol–Microbe Interactions
  • Intestinal Health Benefits of Polyphenols
  • Conclusions and Implications
  • References

Chapter 19. Nootropics, Functional Foods, and Dietary Patterns for Prevention of Cognitive Decline

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Dietary Patterns and Complete Nutritional Plans With Cognitive Implications
  • Micronutrients With Possible Effects on Cognition
  • Foods, Herbs, Spices, and Dietary Complements With Functional Properties in Terms of Neuroprotection and Possible Cognitive Enhancement
  • Medical Foods
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 20. Chalcones Target the Tumor Necrosis Factor–Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Signaling Pathway for Cancer Chemoprevention

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics of TRAIL and Apoptosis Induced by TRAIL
  • Characteristics of Chalcones
  • Chalcone Potential for Enhancing TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis in Cancer Cells
  • References

Chapter 21. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Ingredients, Medicinal Plants, and Herbs Exert Beneficial Health Effects in Aging

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Renal Function
  • Cognitive Function
  • Conclusion
  • Conflict of Interest
  • References

Chapter 22. Calorie Restriction Mimetics From Functional Foods: Impact on Promoting a Healthy Life Span

  • Abstract
  • Introduction: Calorie Restriction
  • CRMS in Mediating Metabolic Pathways of Calorie Restriction
  • Targeting SIRT-1 for CRM Discovery and Development
  • Concluding Remarks and Perspectives
  • References

Chapter 23. Nutraceuticals for Healthy Skin Aging

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Beta-Carotene
  • Biotin
  • Coenzyme Q10 or Ubiquinone
  • Citrulline–Arginine
  • Isoflavone Soy Beans
  • L-carnosine
  • Lycopene
  • Lutein
  • Melatonin
  • Omega-3
  • Polyphenols
  • Prebiotics
  • Probiotics
  • Selenium
  • Silicon
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Zinc
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Further Reading

Chapter 24. Effects of Resveratrol on Cognitive Functions

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Background: Sources and Pharmacokinetics of Resveratrol
  • Animal Studies
  • Human Studies
  • Mechanisms
  • Limitations and Challenges for Future Studies
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 25. North American Natural Health Products and Sexual Function in Aging Adults

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Kingdom Bacteria
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Part IV: Protein and Energy in Health and Growth of Elderly

Chapter 26. Physiological Aspects of Coenzyme Q10 in Plasma in Relationship with Exercise and Aging

  • Abstract
  • Overview
  • Do Levels of CoQ Decrease During Aging?
  • Importance of CoQ in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
  • CoQ10 Levels Can Be Modified by Physical Activity and Lifestyle
  • Plasma CoQ10 and Obesity
  • Regulation of CoQ10 Levels in Plasma
  • Effect of Statins on CoQ10 Levels
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Chapter 27. Cellular and Physiological Effects of Arginine in Seniors

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Sources of Arginine
  • Biochemistry of Arginine
  • Arginine Physiology and Biological Importance
  • Arginine Dosing and Supplementation
  • References

Chapter 28. Late-Onset Caloric Restriction Alters Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Mechanisms from Animal and Human Studies

  • Abstract
  • Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
  • Skeletal Muscle Metabolism Changes with Aging
  • Impacts of the Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
  • Mechanisms of Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
  • Caloric Restriction Alters Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
  • Mechanisms of the CR-Induced Alteration in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 29. Healthy Foods for Healthy Aging: The Case for Protein

  • Abstract
  • Recommendations: An Instruction Manual for Eating to Achieve Healthy Aging
  • Dietary Protein: The Foundation of a Healthy Body and Healthy Aging
  • Milk: A Natural Functional Food for a Strong and Healthy Body
  • Eggs: A Nutritious Food with Big Health Benefits
  • Seafood: Powerful Help for Healthy Aging
  • Meat and Poultry: A Juicy Issue
  • Food Choices for the Elderly: Are These Good for Healthy Aging?
  • Social Influences, Values, Attitudes, and Meat: Behind the Scenes of Food Choices
  • Culture, Perceptions of Food Choices, and Eating Habits: Perception Is Reality
  • The Mediterranean Diet: Fast-Food Advice
  • Conclusions
  • References


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2017
1st February 2017
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson

Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

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