Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity

2nd Edition - January 27, 2021

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  • Editors: Ramesh Gupta, Rajiv Lall, Ajay Srivastava
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128210383

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Nutraceuticals: Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity, Second Edition, brings together everything that is currently known about nutraceuticals and their potential toxic effects. The book introduces readers to nutraceuticals, herbal medicines, Ayurvedic medicines, prebiotics, probiotics, adaptogens, and their uses and specific applications. This essential reference discusses the mechanism of action for the judicious use of these nutraceuticals and the best tools for their evaluation before detailing the safety and toxicity of nutraceuticals and interactions with other therapeutic drugs. Finally, and crucially, regulatory aspects from around the world are covered. Completely revised and updated, this updated edition provides toxicologists, pharmacologists, pharmaceutical scientists, and those interested in medicinal plants and natural products with a comprehensive overview of the most effective tools upon which to evaluate the safety and toxicity of nutraceuticals, prebiotics, probiotics and alternative medicines.

Key Features

  • Presents a completely revised and updated resource on the impact of nutraceuticals and various disease states such as diabetes and ophthalmic and dermal diseases
  • Grants an overview of the current state-of-the-science of nutraceuticals, their use and applications, and known adverse effects
  • Provides effective tools to evaluate the potential toxicity of any nutraceutical
  • Includes details of regulatory issues as written by international experts


Toxicologists, Pharmacologists, Pharmaceutical Scientists, Pharmacists, Nutritionists, Medicinal and Natural Product Chemists; Practitioners; Companies supplying nutraceuticals to consumers

Table of Contents

  • Section I. Applications of nutraceuticals in common diseases and disorders
    1. Nutraceuticals in central nervous system diseases: potential mechanisms of neuroprotection
    2. Prevention of neurodegenerative disorders by nutraceuticals
    3. Cognitive effects of nutraceuticals
    4. Nutraceuticals in anxiety and stress
    5. Countering cardiovascular diseases with nutraceuticals
    6. Nutraceuticals for diabetes and glucose balance
    7. Role of nutraceuticals in respiratory and allied diseases
    8. Nutraceuticals in hepatic diseases
    9. Nutraceuticals in renal diseases
    10. Nutraceuticals in gastrointestinal disorders
    11. Nutraceuticals in reproductive and developmental disorders
    12. Nutraceuticals in ophthalmic diseases
    13. Nutraceuticals in dermal diseases
    14. Nutraceuticals in arthritis
    15. Nutraceuticals in sports activities and fatigue
    16. Role of nutraceuticals as adaptogens
    17. Nutraceuticals for weight loss
    18. Nutraceuticals in cancer prevention
    19. Application of “nano” nutraceuticals in medicine
    Section II. Models and mechanisms in evaluation of nutraceuticals
    20. The biology of nutrients: genetic and molecular principles
    21. Genomic and proteomic mechanisms and models in toxicity and safety evaluation of nutraceuticals
    22. Transcriptomic profiling for safety and toxicity evaluation of
    23. Target identification and polypharmacology of nutraceuticals
    24. Systems pharmacology investigation of mechanism of action of nutraceuticals
    25. Noninvasive in vivo optical imaging models for safety and toxicity testing
    26. Flow cytometry and light-scattering techniques in evaluation of nutraceuticals
    27. Zebrafish as a model system to evaluate the safety and toxicity of nutraceuticals
    28. Caenorhabditis elegans: an elegant model organism for evaluating the neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic potential of nutraceuticals
    29. Alternative in vitro models for safety and toxicity evaluation of nutraceuticals
    30. Mitochondria as a target for safety and toxicity evaluation of nutraceuticals
    31. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity: antioxidants from nutraceuticals
    Section III. Common nutraceuticals
    32. Caffeine: an evaluation of the safety database
    33. Biological activities and potential nanotechnological delivery of resveratrol
    34. Melatonin: a safe nutraceutical and clinical agent
    35. Standardized turmeric and curcumin
    36. Curcuminoid-metal complexes for oxidative stress
    37. Fenugreek: multiple health benefits
    38. Cannabis sativa: an overview
    39. Cannabidiol safety
    40. St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L)
    41. Green tea
    42. Green coffee beans
    43. Quercetin
    44. German chamomile
    45. Isoflavones: toxicological aspects and efficacy 
    46. Propolis
    47. Bee products as nutraceuticals to nutraceuticals for bees
    48. Ginkgo biloba
    49. Chinese ginseng
    50. Ashwagandha: multiple health benefits
    51. Astaxanthin: health benefits and toxicity
    52. Thymoquinone
    53. Glucosinolates
    54. Organosulfur compounds as nutraceuticals
    55. Arginine and citrulline as nutraceuticals: efficacy and safety in diseases
    56. Neem Extract
    57. Spirulina
    58. Garcinia cambogia
    59. Vitamin E TPGS and its applications in nutraceuticals
    60. Role of transferrin: an iron-binding protein in health and diseases
    61. Glutamine supplementation: hope, hype, or stay tuned?
    62. What to do with placenta after birth: is it a waste?
    63. Chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives
    Section IV. Prebiotics and probiotics
    64. Prebiotics: safety and toxicity considerations
    65. Probiotics: safety and toxicity considerations
    66. Synbiotics: safety and toxicity considerations
    Section V. Nutraceuticals in veterinary medicine
    67. Nutraceuticals in animal health and diseases
    Section VI. Toxicity and toxic interactions
    68. Toxic contamination of nutraceuticals and food ingredients
    69. Nutraceuticals and adverse outcome pathways
    70. Interactions between nutraceuticals/nutrients and nutrients and therapeutic drugs
    71. Genotoxicity evaluation of nutraceuticals
    Section VII. Regulatory aspects
    72. The regulatory framework for nutraceuticals: North America
    73. Evaluation and regulation of food supplements: European perspective
    74. Regulatory guidelines for nutraceuticals in India: an overview
    75. Regulatory aspects of nutraceuticals: Chinese perspective
    76. Uses and regulation of nutraceuticals: Australia and New Zealand
    77. Regulatory aspects of nutraceuticals: Japanese perspective
    78. Nutraceuticals: the Turkish perspective




Product details

  • No. of pages: 1396
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: January 27, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128210383

About the Editors

Ramesh Gupta

Ramesh Gupta
Dr. Ramesh C. Gupta, Professor & Head of Toxicology Department at Murray State university, is engaged in experimental brain research in relation to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and pesticide toxicity. He has delivered lectures in Australia, Italy, Japan, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, China, South Korea, and Sweden. He served the panels of NIH, CDC, NIOSH, and NAS. He has >350 publications to his credit, including seven major books with Elsevier: (1) Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds, (2) Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, (3) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, (4) Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, (5) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, (6) Biomarkers in Toxicology and (7) Neutraceuticals. He is recipient of Murray State University's distinguished researcher award of the year-2006. He is a diplomate of American Board of Toxicology, and fellow of American College of Toxicology, American College of Nutrition, and Academy of Toxicological Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Head, Toxicology Department, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY, USA

Rajiv Lall

Mr. Rajiv Lall is the Founder and CEO of ProbioticSmart, LLC, a novel nutraceutical ingredients development company based on research and evidence-based science and Vets Plus, Inc., an international leader in the animal health industry. He graduated with two Masters degrees, the first in Botany from his native country of India, and the second in Pharmacognosy/Medicinal Chemistry from the University of Minnesota. His research focused on identifying, analyzing, and extracting natural ingredients from plants and plant tissue cultures that provide natural health and medicinal properties, as well as on enzymes in relation to cancer cells through animal cell cultures. Mr. Lall started his career in the human health food industry with an emphasis on probiotics. His relentless drive continues to champion both human and animal health through scientific research and the development of nutritional products and pharmaceuticals, and through these efforts he has obtained various patents and developed several hundred products. His company, Vets Plus, Inc. is a research and science-based product development company with a strong quality and manufacturing platform to support partners in Europe and around the world. Recent awards include the Pet Age Icon Award (2015), NASC Visibility Award (2015), and Menomonie Area Chamber of Commerce Business of the Year Award (2015). Vets Plus Inc. was also nominated for Wisconsin Manufacturer of the Year in 2015. In support of the animal health industry, Mr. Lall is now Founder and CEO of Noble Pharma, LLC, a pharmaceutical company in Menomonie, Wisconsin. Mr. Lall and his wife Swati are involved in philanthropic efforts and through that they have developed the Raj and Swati Lall Microbiology Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Stout in support of future scientists and business leaders and the community in Menomonie, Wisconsin.

Affiliations and Expertise

Founder and CEO, ProbioticSmart, LLC and Vets Plus, Inc.

Ajay Srivastava

Dr. Ajay Srivastava is Chief Scientific Officer at Vets Plus Inc. and serves as an adjunct Faculty member at University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, US. He is specialized in preclinical and clinical product development and nutraceutical research. After receiving his BS in Biological Sciences, Dr. Srivastava earned his DVM from the School of Veterinary Medicine at GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, India, before pursuing his MS in Pharmacology. He completed his PhD in Neuropharmacology from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. After his post-doctoral training in preclinical drug development in neurological disorders, Dr. Srivastava became Senior Research Scientist of the Anticonvulsant Drug Development Program at the University of Utah, where he developed a novel animal model of pharmacoresistant epilepsy to screen potential antiepileptic drugs. He is one of the pioneer researchers who discovered the role of nutraceuticals resveratrol and melatonin in epilepsy. Dr. Srivastava has chaired various scientific sessions in AVMA and WVC meetings and has published several research articles in peer reviewed journals. He has contributed chapters in textbooks on epilepsy, toxicology and nutraceuticals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief Scientific Officer, Vets Plus Inc.; Adjunct Faculty Member, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, USA

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