Nutraceuticals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128021477, 9780128021651

Nutraceuticals

1st Edition

Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity

Editors: Ramesh C. Gupta
eBook ISBN: 9780128021651
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128021477
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st January 2016
Page Count: 1040
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Description

Nutraceuticals: Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity brings together all current knowledge regarding nutraceuticals and their potential toxic effects as written by the scientists at the forefront of their study. Users will find an introduction to nutraceuticals, herbal medicines, ayurvedic medicines, prebiotics, probiotics, and adaptogens, along with their use and specific applications.

This essential reference then discusses the mechanism of action for the judicious use of these nutraceuticals and the best tools for their evaluation before detailing the safety and toxicity of nutraceuticals and their interactions with other therapeutic drugs.

Finally, and crucially, regulatory aspects from around the world are covered, providing a comprehensive overview of the most effective tools for the evaluation, safety, and toxicity of nutraceuticals, prebiotics, probiotics, and alternative medicines.

Key Features

  • Grants an overview of the current state-of-the-science of nutraceuticals, their use and applications, and known adverse effects
  • Provides effective tools to evaluate the potential toxicity of any nutraceutical
  • Includes details of regulatory issues as written by international experts

Readership

Toxicologists, pharmacologists, pharmaceutical scientists, pharmacists, nutritionists, medicinal and natural product chemists

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • List of Contributors
  • Introduction
    • Introduction
    • References
  • Section I: Applications of Nutraceuticals in Common Diseases and Disorders
    • Chapter 1. Nutraceuticals in CNS Diseases: Potential Mechanisms of Neuroprotection
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Polyphenols
      • Counteracting Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism of Neuroprotection
      • Direct Antioxidant Action of Quercetin
      • Potential Role of Hormesis in Neuroprotection
      • Modulation of the Nrf2-ARE Pathway as a Mechanism of Quercetin Neuroprotection
      • Modulation of Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) as a Potential Novel Mechanism of Quercetin Neuroprotection
      • The Issue of Metabolites
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Prevention of Neurodegenerative Disorders by Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Nutraceuticals for the Prevention and Amelioration of AD
      • Nutraceuticals for the Prevention and Amelioration of PD
      • Nutraceuticals for the Prevention and Amelioration of ASD
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Cognitive Effects of Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Biological Basis of Cognition
      • Nutraceuticals with Potential Cognitive Enhancing Functions
      • Potential Concerns of Cognitive Enhancement
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Nutraceuticals in Cardiovascular Diseases
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Cardiac Dysfunction
      • Therapeutic Response to Heart Disease
      • Phytotherapeutic Strategies
      • Nutraceuticals
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Antiatherosclerotic Efficacy of Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and Possible Points of Therapeutic Intervention
      • Nutraceuticals with Antiatherosclerotic Activity
      • Use of Cellular Models for the Development of Direct Antiatherosclerotic Therapy
      • Antiatherosclerotic Natural Agents
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Nutraceuticals in Respiratory Disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Foods and Nutrients
      • Medicinal Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Nutraceuticals in Hepatic Diseases
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Liver Structure and Function
      • Hepatic Injury and Repair
      • Nutraceuticals and the Liver
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Nutraceuticals in Renal Diseases
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Kidney Functional Anatomy
      • Renal Injury and Repair
      • Nutraceuticals and the Kidney
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Nutraceuticals in Gastrointestinal Disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pharmaceuticals Versus Nutraceuticals
      • Role of Nutraceuticals in Cancer Associated with GI Tract
      • Gastritis and Role of Nutraceuticals in its Treatment
      • Compounds Targeting Adhesin-Mucin Interaction
      • Nutraceuticals in Irritable Bowel Disease (IBD)
      • Nutraceuticals in Peptic Ulcer
      • Nutraceuticals in Chronic or Prolonged Inflammation Like Appendicitis
      • Nutraceuticals in Other GI conditions
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Nutraceuticals in Reproductive and Developmental Disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Causes of Male Infertility
      • Molecular Mechanism in Male Infertility
      • Nutraceuticals in Male Fertility
      • Causes of Female Infertility
      • Nutraceuticals in Female infertility
      • Nutraceuticals in Pregnancy and Lactation
      • Nutraceuticals in Pubertal and Developmental Disorders
      • Efficacy and Guidelines of Using Nutraceuticals
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Nutraceuticals in Cancer Prevention
      • Abstract
      • Introduction: Targeting Hallmarks of Cancer
      • Nutrient Synergy Targets Pathomechanisms of Cancer
      • Defining Anticancer Activities of NM Components
      • Nutrient Mixture Inhibits Tumor Growth and Cancer Cell Proliferation
      • NM Inhibits Chemically Induced Carcinogenesis
      • Induction of Cancer Cell Apoptosis In Vivo and In Vitro by NM
      • Nutrient Mixture Modulates Various Parameters Critical to Metastasis: Secretion of MMPS, uPA, and TIMPs, Cancer Cell Migration, and Matrigel Invasion
      • Nutrient Mixture Inhibits Angiogenesis In Vivo and In Vitro
      • Nutrient Synergy Controls Metastasis
      • Nutrient Synergy Modulates Inflammatory Proteins Cox-2 and iNOS Expression in Cancer Cells
      • Safety of NM
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Nutraceuticals in Glucose Balance and Diabetes
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Cinnamon
      • Fenugreek
      • Bitter Melon (M. charantia)
      • Vitamin D for Diabetes
      • Chromium
      • Ginger (Gingerol and Shogaol)
      • Gymnema sylvestre (Gur-Mar)
      • Others
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Nutraceuticals in Arthritis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pathophysiology of OA
      • Biomarkers of OA
      • Management of OA
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Nutraceuticals in Sports Activities and Fatigue
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Dietary Strategies to Recover from Exercise-Induced Fatigue and Muscle Damage
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Application of “Nano” Nutraceuticals in Medicine
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Liposome-Based Nanoparticles to Deliver Nutraceuticals
      • Regulatory Concerns with Nano-Nutraceuticals
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Nutraceuticals as Adaptogens: Their Role in Health and Disease
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Stress
      • Adaptogens
      • Nutraceuticals and Stress
      • Nutritional Supplements
      • Neurotransmitter or Hormonal Precursors
      • Cortisol Modulators
      • Neurotransmitters and Their Precursors
      • Vitamins: As Neurotransmitter or Cofactors
      • Lycopene
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
  • Section II: Models and Mechanisms in Evaluation of Nutraceuticals
    • Chapter 17. The Biology of Nutrients: Genetic and Molecular Principles
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Nutritional Implications of Interindividual Genetic Differences
      • Membrane Transporters
      • Nutritional Regulation of Cell Signaling, Cell Growth, Proliferation, and Survival
      • Effects of Nutrients on Gene Expression
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Genomic and Proteomic Mechanisms and Models in Toxicity and Safety Evaluation of Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Methods to Analyze Nutraceuticals
      • Application of Advanced Genomics and Proteomic Approaches in Nutrition Science
      • Nutraceuticals Efficacy in Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Adverse Reaction Prediction and Pharmacovigilance of Nutraceuticals: Examples of Computational and Statistical Analysis on Big Data
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Predicting Adverse Reactions of Nutraceuticals with In Vitro Genomic Expression Signatures
      • Pharmacovigilance of Nutraceuticals Based on FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS)
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects of Nutraceuticals Safety Assessment
      • References
    • Chapter 20. Gene Expression Profiling in Evaluating the Safety and Toxicity of Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Ginkgo Biloba
      • Aristolochic Acid
      • Kava
      • Comfrey
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 21. Target Identification and Polypharmacology of Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Polypharmacology and Synergy in the Area of Nutraceuticals
      • Target Identification and Deconvolution Techniques
      • Molecular Targets of Nutraceuticals in the Signaling Networks
      • Identification of the Molecular Targets of Nutraceuticals
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Mechanistic Network Models in Safety and Toxicity Evaluation of Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Systems-Based Toxicology: A Paradigm Shift in Toxicity Testing
      • Systems Toxicology Assessment of Nutraceuticals
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 23. Noninvasive In Vivo Optical Imaging Models for Safety and Toxicity Testing
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Noninvasive Optical Imaging
      • In Vivo Preclinical NIR FLI in Liver Safety/Toxicology
      • In Vivo Preclinical NIR Imaging in Kidney Safety/Toxicology
      • In Vivo Preclinical NIR Imaging in Gastric Emptying Toxicology
      • In Vivo Preclinical NIR Imaging of Vitamin D Toxicity
      • In Vivo Preclinical NIR Imaging of Vascular Toxicity
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Competing Interests
      • References
    • Chapter 24. Flow Cytometry and Light Scattering Technique in Evaluation of Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Light Scattering Technique in Studies of Platelets and Red Blood Cells
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 25. Zebrafish Model for Safety and Toxicity Testing of Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Zebrafish Model for Safety and Toxicity Assay of Nutraceuticals
      • Common Nutraceuticals Assessment with Zebrafish
      • Transparent Zebrafish and Fluorescent Transgenic Zebrafish for Safety and Toxicity Testing of Nutraceuticals
      • Genome Editing Technique for Safety and Toxicity Testing of Nutraceuticals in Zebrafish
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 26. Caenorhabditis elegans: A Model Organism for Nutraceutical Safety and Toxicity Evaluation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model Organism
      • Important Target Pathways in C. elegans
      • Nutraceutical Compounds and C. elegans
      • Whole Plant Extracts and C. elegans
      • Modeling Alzheimer’s Disease and Nutraceutical Treatment in C. elegans
      • Nutraceuticals Discovery in C. elegans
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 27. Alternative In Vitro Models for Safety and Toxicity Evaluation of Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Scope of This Chapter
      • General Concepts for Safety Assessment of Nutraceuticals
      • Overview of In Vitro Experimental Systems
      • General Types of In Vitro Assays
      • Endpoint-Based In Vitro Toxicity Assessment of Nutraceuticals
      • In Vitro Tests Validated for Use in Regulatory Toxicology Contexts
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 28. Mitochondria as a Target for Safety and Toxicity Evaluation of Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Nutraceuticals
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 29. Oxidative Stress and Excitotoxicity: Antioxidants from Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Lipid Peroxidation and Markers of Oxidative Stress
      • Oxidative Stress and Excitotoxicity
      • Antioxidant Defense and Suppression of Oxidative Injury
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section III: Common Nutraceuticals
    • Chapter 30. Caffeine: An Evaluation of the Safety Database
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • The Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine
      • The Biological Activity of Caffeine
      • The Safety Data Available for Caffeine
      • Safety Characterization of Caffeine: Conclusion and Future Direction
      • References
    • Chapter 31. Curcumin
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Cancer
      • Stroke
      • Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Epilepsy
      • Depression
      • Pain and Opiate Epidemic
      • Obesity, Fatty Liver, and Lipid Disorders
      • Diabetes
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 32. Quercetin
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Quercetin and Cancer
      • Quercetin and Cardiovascular Diseases
      • Quercetin and Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 33. Resveratrol: Multiple Activities on the Biological Functionality of the Cell
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Curcumin, Neem Oil, Forskolin: Our Laboratory Experience
      • Resveratrol in Health and Disease
      • Resveratrol and the “French Paradox”
      • Biological Activities of Resveratrol
      • Resveratrol and Cell Death
      • Resveratrol and the Cell Membrane
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 34. Isoflavones: Toxicological Aspects and Efficacy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Biokinetics of Isoflavones
      • Estrogenicity
      • Endocrine Function
      • Genotoxicity of Isoflavones
      • Carcinogenicity versus Chemoprevention
      • Efficacy
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 35. Anthocyanins
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Dietary Sources of Anthocyanins
      • Anthocyanin Health Benefits
      • Cellular and Molecular Targets of Anthocyanins
      • Anthocyanin Bioavailability
      • Anthocyanin Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
      • Anthocyanin Safety and Toxicology
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 36. Melatonin: A Safe Nutraceutical and Clinical Agent
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Range of Conditions Where Melatonin May Have Clinical Utility
      • Melatonin and Mood Disorders
      • Slowing of Common Age-Related Processes
      • Melatonin and Inflammatory Disease
      • Melatonin and Disease Related to Immune Function
      • Melatonin and Oxidative Stress
      • Melatonin and Nociception
      • Reduced Toxicity of Venoms and Pharmacological Agents After Melatonin Administration
      • Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Use During Surgical Procedures
      • Migraine Amelioration by Melatonin
      • Melatonin Supplementation and Fertility
      • Safety of Melatonin
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 37. Arginine and Citrulline as Nutraceuticals: Efficacy and Safety in Diseases
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Biochemical Aspects
      • Synthesis
      • Citrulline: More Efficacious Than Arginine—A Justification
      • Therapeutic Utility of Nutraceuticals
      • Pharmacokinetics of Citrulline and Arginine
      • Safety Considerations
      • Pharmacodynamics of Citrulline and Arginine
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Abbreviations
      • References
    • Chapter 38. Astaxanthin: Health Benefits and Toxicity
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pharmacokinetics
      • Health Benefits
      • Toxicity
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 39. Thymoquinone
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Pharmacological Actions of TQ
      • Antioxidant Activity
      • Anti-inflammatory Activity
      • Anticancer and Chemopreventive Activity
      • Antiproliferative Activity of TQ
      • TQ-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Proapoptotic Effect in Cancer Cell
      • TQ for Autoimmune Diseases
      • ANALOGS of TQ
      • Adjuvant Efficacy of TQ Against Cancer
      • In Vivo Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of TQ
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 40. Glucosinolates
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Classification of Glucosinolates
      • Sources of Glucosinolates
      • Metabolism of Glucosinolates
      • Major Glucosinolates
      • Beneficial Effects of Glucosinolates
      • Toxic Effects of Glucosinolates
      • Other Compounds in Brassica
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 41. Organosulfur Compounds as Nutraceuticals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 42. Spirulina
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Consumption of Arthrospira
      • General Characteristics of Arthrospira
      • Health Effects of Spirulina
      • Safety Profile
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 43. Neem Extract
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Phytoconstituents
      • Extraction Procedures
      • Pharmacological Activities and Therapeutic Uses
      • Neem Extract as a Nutraceutical
      • Safety and Toxicity Considerations
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 44. Fenugreek: Multiple Health Benefits
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Major Active Components of Fenugreek
      • Potential for Antihyperglycemic Effect in Diabetic Conditions
      • Other Fenugreek’s Effects and Limitations Related to Normalization of Hyperglycemia
      • Normalization of Lipid Levels and Effect on Fat Accumulation
      • Maintenance of the Growth Hormone Level Helping in the Normalization of Metabolic Syndrome and Related Altered Functions
      • Potential for Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Benefits
      • Enhancing Milk Production in New Mothers
      • Potential for Increasing Male Libido, Testosterone Production, or Testosterone Maintenance in Blood
      • Hepatoprotective Effect
      • Safety and Toxicity Profile for Fenugreek and Its Active Components
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 45. St. John’s Wort
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Chemistry
      • Pharmacology
      • Pharmacokinetics
      • Hypericin Extracts and Drug Interactions
      • Safety
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 46. Green Tea Extract
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Green Tea Infusions and Extractions
      • Chemistry of Green Tea Infusions and Extracts
      • Kinetics of Green Tea Extract
      • Pharmacology of Green Tea Infusions and Green Tea Extracts
      • Antioxidant–Pro-oxidant Pharmacology
      • Immunology
      • The Use of Green Tea Extract in Obesity
      • Green Tea Infusions and Extract and Diabetes Mellitus
      • Intestinal Microbes and Green Tea
      • Cancer and Green Tea Infusions and Extracts
      • Green Tea Infusions—Extracts and Cardiovascular Disease
      • Toxicology of Green Tea Extract
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 47. Green Coffee Bean
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Processing of Green Coffee Beans
      • Major Phytochemical Constituents
      • Major Pharmacokinetic Attributes
      • GCB as a Nutraceutical
      • Risks to Human Health
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 48. Garcinia cambogia
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Phytochemical Ingredients
      • Pharmacological Effects
      • Safety
      • Toxicity
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 49. Ginkgo biloba
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Uses
      • Chemistry
      • Pharmacokinetics
      • Pharmacology
      • Safety
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 50. Chinese Ginseng
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Chemical Contents of Ginseng
      • The Health Benefits of Ginseng
      • Biochemical Actions of Ginseng
      • Health Effects and Pharmacological Actions
      • Toxicity of Ginseng
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 51. Shilajit
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Origin
      • Synonyms
      • Varieties
      • Physical and Chemical Properties
      • Traditional and Modern Therapeutic Uses
      • Preclinical Research and Pharmacological Activities
      • Human/Animal Efficacy Studies
      • Safety/Toxicity
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 52. Ashwagandha: Multiple Health Benefits
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Botany of W. somnifera
      • Important Bioactive Molecules Present in W. somnifera
      • Major Medicinal Value in Animals and Humans
      • Experimental Studies Supporting Medicinal Value of W. somnifera
      • Potential Medicinal Application in Ameliorating High-Altitude Stress
      • Available Drug Formulation Using W. somnifera
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 53. Cannabis sativa and Hemp
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • C. sativa Taxonomy
      • European Approved Hemp Cultivars and Medical C. sativa
      • Chemotaxonomy of C. sativa
      • Potency Trends
      • C. sativa Chemistry
      • Cannabinoids
      • Cannabinoids from non-C. sativa Species
      • C. sativa Terpenes
      • Phytocannabinoid and Terpene Biochemistry
      • Trichomes
      • The Pharmacology of Cannabis
      • Phytocannabinoids
      • Cannabis Terpenes
      • Flavonoids
      • Phytosterols
      • C. sativa as a Nutraceutical
      • General Health Benefits
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Direction
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section IV: Prebiotics and Probiotics
    • Chapter 54. Prebiotics: Safety and Toxicity Considerations
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Prebiotic Concept/Prebiotic Effects
      • Source of Dietary Oligosaccharides
      • Effects of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides
      • Use of Prebiotics
      • Guidelines of Prebiotic Safety
      • Safety and Toxicity Considerations
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 55. Probiotics: Safety and Toxicity Considerations
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Probiotics
      • Probiotics Used in Food or as Medicines
      • Synbiotics (Eubiotics)
      • Intestinal Microflora or Microbiota, Probiotics, and Gut Immunity
      • Toxicity
      • Safety Aspect of Probiotics
      • Probiotic Efficacy Evidence
      • European Regulations of Probiotics
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 56. Probiotics: Preclinical Testing for Verification of Their Gastrointestinal Effectiveness
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Experimental Models
      • Probiotics
      • Model of Experimentally Induced Gastrointestinal Lesions
      • Lesions Induced by Indomethacin
      • Morphometry of Intestinal Mucous
      • Lesions Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate
      • Influence of Probiotics on Pharmacokinetics of Model Drugs
      • Caco-2 Cells
      • Colicinogeny
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 57. Synbiotics: Safety and Toxicity Considerations
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • General Considerations
      • Synbiotics in Humans
      • Synbiotics in Animals
      • Safety Assessment
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
  • Section V: Toxicity and Toxic Interactions
    • Chapter 58. Toxic Contamination of Nutraceuticals and Food Ingredients
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and Background
      • Chemical Contamination in Nutraceuticals and Food Ingredients
      • Radioactive Contamination of Nutraceuticals and Food Ingredients
      • Adulteration and Undeclared Chemical Substances in Nutraceuticals and Food Ingredients
      • Risk Assessment of Toxic Contaminants in Nutraceuticals and Food Ingredients
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 59. Nutraceuticals and Adverse Outcome Pathways
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Concept and Regulatory Aspects of Nutraceuticals
      • Toxicity Pathways and Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOP)
      • Type, Sources, and Health Benefits of Nutraceuticals
      • Mechanisms Underlying Nutraceuticals Beneficial Effects
      • Toxicity of Nutraceuticals
      • Can Nutraceuticals Be Subjected to an AOP Approach?
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 60. Interactions between Nutraceuticals/Nutrients and Therapeutic Drugs
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Drug Metabolism
      • Types of Drug–Nutrients Interactions
      • Nutrient–Drug Interactions
      • Herb–Drug Interactions
      • Food and Nutrient–Drug Interactions
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 61. Interactions between Chinese Nutraceuticals and Western Medicines
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Key Differences between Drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine
      • Drug Interactions
      • The Importance of Recognizing Herb–Drug Interactions
      • Cytochrome P450
      • Select Disease States and Herb Interactions of Concern
      • The Challenges of TCM
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 62. Assessment of Genotoxic Effects of Selected Herbal Dietary Supplements
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Aloe vera
      • Ginkgo biloba
      • Goldenseal
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section VI: Regulatory Aspects
    • Chapter 63. Evaluation and Regulation of Food Supplements: European Perspective
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The European Union’s Regulatory Framework on Food Supplements and Other Similar Nutritional Products
      • Food Supplements: Vitamins and Minerals
      • Food Supplements: Substances Other than Vitamins and Minerals
      • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA): Role and Activities
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 64. Seed to Patient in Clinically Proven Natural Medicines
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Herbal Medicinal Products
      • Phytotherapy
      • Quality Control
      • Variability
      • Safety and Efficacy
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 65. Regulatory Aspects of Nutraceuticals: Japanese Perspective
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Historical Treatment of Health Claims in Japan
      • Foods for Special Dietary Uses
      • Foods for Specified Health Uses
      • Foods with Nutrient Function Claims
      • New Food Category with Labeled Functionality
      • Current Issues in Foods with Health Claims
      • Efforts to Ensure the Safety of Health Foods
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 66. Regulatory Aspects of Nutraceuticals: An Indian Perspective
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Global Regulatory Scenario for Nutraceuticals
      • Regulatory Aspects of Nutraceuticals in India
      • Requirements for Entry in Indian Nutraceutical Market
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 67. Regulatory Aspects of Nutraceuticals: Chinese Perspective
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The New Resource Foods (or New Food Ingredients)
      • Regulatory Aspects of Functional Foods
      • New Resource Food and Its Regulation
      • Regulation of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      • Quality Assurance
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 68. Regulatory Aspects of Nutraceuticals: Russian Perspective
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Technical Regulations in the Eurasian Economic Union
      • Supplement Market
      • Premarket Approval
      • Labeling
      • Ingredients
      • Advertising
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 69. Nutraceuticals: Turkish Perspective
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Herbal Functional Foods
      • Energy Drinks
      • Regulation of Nutraceuticals in Turkey
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • References
      • Regulations and Laws
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
1040
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128021651
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128021477

About the Editor

Ramesh C. Gupta

Dr. Ramesh C. Gupta, Professor & Head of Toxicology Department at Murray State university, is engaged in experimental brain research in relation to Alzheimer(s) disease (AD) and pesticide toxicity. He has delivered lectures in Australia, Italy, Japan, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, China, South Korea, and Sweden. He served the panels of NIH, CDC, NIOSH, and NAS. He has >350 publications to his credit, including six major books: (1) Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds, (2) Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, (3) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, (4) Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, (5) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, and (6) Biomarkers in Toxicology. He is recipient of Murray State University's distinguished researcher award of the year-2006. He is a diplomate of American Board of Toxicology, and fellow of American College of Toxicology, American College of Nutrition, and Academy of Toxicological Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

DVM, MVSc, PhD, DABT, FACT, FACN, FATS, Professor and Head, Toxicology Department, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY, USA

Reviews

"This is the first comprehensive book on nutraceuticals involving timely topics such as fenugreek. The book covers various aspects of nutraceuticals, including efficacy, safety and regulatory status. It will be an immense resource for researchers, toxicologists, clinicians and regulators engaged in the area of nutraceuticals." -- Dr. Ramesh C. Garg, Abbvie

"This book is a great contribution to our understanding of naturally derived nutraceuticals and how they relate to human health. In the era of legal cannabis, this book highlights many of its beneficial properties, which have been overlooked for nearly a century." -- Dr. Joshua Hartsel, Delta-9 Technologies, San Diego, CA, USA