Nuclear Graphite - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483228549, 9781483258485

Nuclear Graphite

1st Edition

Prepared under the Auspices of the Division of Technical Information United States Atomic Energy Commission

Editors: R. E. Nightingale
eBook ISBN: 9781483258485
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1962
Page Count: 562
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Nuclear Graphite focuses on the development and uses of nuclear graphite, including machining practices, manufacture, nuclear properties and structure, radiation, and electrical resistance.
The selection first discusses the applications of graphite in the nuclear industry, machining practices, and manufacture. Discussions focus on early, current, and future applications of graphite, impregnation, graphitization, purification, general machining techniques, and equipment and methods in the nuclear industry. The book then examines the structure and nuclear and properties of graphite.
The text evaluates radiation-induced structural and dimensional changes; radiation effects on electrical and thermal properties; and radiation effects on mechanical properties. Topics include radiation effects on crystal structure, electrical resistance, thermoelectric power, magnetoresistance, coefficient of friction, irradiation under stress, and elastic moduli of nuclear graphite. The book also ponders on stored energy, annealing radiation effects, and gas-graphite systems.
The selection is a dependable source of data for readers interested in the applications of nuclear graphite.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors v


Chapter One. Graphite in the Nuclear Industry

1-1 Early Use of Nuclear Graphite

1-2 Current Applications

1-3 Future Applications


Chapter Two. Manufacture

2-1 Raw Materials

2-2 Forming

2-3 Baking

2-4 Impregnation

2-5 Graphitization

2-6 Purification

2-7 New Techniques


Chapter Three. Machining Practice

3-1 General Machining Techniques

3-2 Requirements in the Nuclear Industry

3-3 Equipment and Methods in the Nuclear Industry

3-4 Cementing Techniques


Chapter Four. Nuclear Properties

4-1 Nuclear Requirements for Moderator Graphite

4-2 Graphite-moderator Physics

4-3 Nuclear Purity


Chapter Five. Structure

5-1 Structural Units and Nomenclature

5-2 Crystal Structure

5-3 Forces Within Crystallites

5-4 X-ray Diffraction by Polycrystalline Graphite

5-5 Lattice Dimensions

5-6 Lattice Distortions and Dimensions of Crystallites

5-7 Pore Structure

5-8 Grain Structure

5.9 Structural Changes During Graphitization


Chapter Six. Physical Properties

6-1 Thermodynamic Properties

6-2 Thermal Properties

6-3 Electronic Band Structure

6-4 Electronic Properties

6-5 Chemical Properties

6-6 Mechanical Properties

6-7 Density

6-8 Surface Properties

6-9 Permeability

6-10 Material Designations of Electrographites


Chapter Seven. Theory of Radiation Effects in Graphite

7-1 Interaction of Radiation with a Solid

7-2 Displacement of Atoms in Graphite by Knock-on Atoms

7-3 Creation of Displacements in Graphite by Neutrons

7-4 Atomic Displacement Rates in Graphite in a Nuclear Reactor

7-5 Reactor Radiation Dosage Units

7-6 Nature of Radiation-induced Defects in Graphite

7-7 Glossary of Symbols


Chapter Eight. Irradiation Techniques

8-1 Low-temperature Irradiations

8-2 Room-temperature Irradiations

8-3 High-temperature Irradiations

8-4 Controlled-atmosphere Irradiations

8-5 Reactor-graphite Monitoring Methods


Chapter Nine. Radiation-Induced Structural and Dimensional Changes

9-1 Radiation Effects on Crystal Structure

9-2 Radiation Effects on Macrostructure

9-3 Dimensional Changes Near Room Temperature

9-4 Dimensional Changes at Elevated Temperatures

9-5 Dimensional Changes in Moderator Structures


Chapter Ten. Radiation Effects on Electrical and Thermal Properties

10-1 Electrical Resistance

10-2 Magnetoresistance

10-3 Hall Coefficient

10-4 Thermoelectric Power

10-5 Magnetic Properties

10-6 Thermal Conductivity

10-7 Specific Heat


Chapter Eleven. Radiation Effects on Mechanical Properties

11-1 Single Crystals

11-2 Elastic Moduli of Nuclear Graphites

11-3 Strength

11-4 Irradiation Under Stress

11-5 Hardness and Machinability

11-6 Coefficient of Friction

11-7 Mechanical-property Changes in Graphite-moderator Stacks


Chapter Twelve. Stored Energy

12-1 Definition and Origin

12-2 Total Stored Energy

12-3 Measurement of Stored-energy Release Curves

12-4 Release Curves in Irradiated Graphite

12-5 Theory of Energy Storage

12-6 Relation of Stored Energy to Other Radiation-induced Property Changes

12-7 Reactor Safety and Operational Aspects of Stored Energy


Chapter Thirteen. Annealing Radiation Effects

13-1 Introduction

13-2 Analysis of Annealing Experiments

13-3 Thermal Annealing

13-4 Radiation Annealing

13-5 Glossary of Symbols


Chapter Fourteen. Gas-Graphite Systems

14-1 Survey of Gas-Graphite Systems

14-2 Carbon Dioxide-Graphite System

14-3 Oxygen-Graphite System

14-4 Steam-Graphite System

14-5 Hydrogen-Graphite System

14-6 Other Gases

14-7 Inhibitors and Protective Coatings


Chapter Fifteen. Graphite-Metal and Graphite-Molten-salt Systems

15-1 Liquid Metals

15-2 Compatibility of Solid Metals and Graphite

15-3 Compatibility of Molten Salts and Graphite


Chapter Sixteen. Graphite-matrix Fuels

16-1 Advanced Fuel-element Concepts

16-2 Graphite as a Fuel Matrix

16-3 Fuel-Graphite Geometries

16-4 Fuel-element Fabrication

16-5 Effect of Fuel Loading and Particle Size on Physical Properties

16-6 Radiation Effects in Fueled Graphite

16-7 Fission-product Release from Fueled Graphite

16-8 Future Research Effort


Chapter Seventeen. Graphite Moderator Design

17-1 Advantages and Limitations of Graphite as a Structural Moderator

17-2 Structural Design Considerations

17-3 Reactor Moderator Designs and Operating Experience


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1962
Academic Press
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About the Editor

R. E. Nightingale

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