Nuclear Graphite

Nuclear Graphite

Prepared under the Auspices of the Division of Technical Information United States Atomic Energy Commission

1st Edition - January 1, 1962

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  • Editor: R. E. Nightingale
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258485

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Nuclear Graphite focuses on the development and uses of nuclear graphite, including machining practices, manufacture, nuclear properties and structure, radiation, and electrical resistance. The selection first discusses the applications of graphite in the nuclear industry, machining practices, and manufacture. Discussions focus on early, current, and future applications of graphite, impregnation, graphitization, purification, general machining techniques, and equipment and methods in the nuclear industry. The book then examines the structure and nuclear and properties of graphite. The text evaluates radiation-induced structural and dimensional changes; radiation effects on electrical and thermal properties; and radiation effects on mechanical properties. Topics include radiation effects on crystal structure, electrical resistance, thermoelectric power, magnetoresistance, coefficient of friction, irradiation under stress, and elastic moduli of nuclear graphite. The book also ponders on stored energy, annealing radiation effects, and gas-graphite systems. The selection is a dependable source of data for readers interested in the applications of nuclear graphite.

Table of Contents

  • Contents

    List of Contributors v


    Chapter One. Graphite in the Nuclear Industry

    1-1 Early Use of Nuclear Graphite

    1-2 Current Applications

    1-3 Future Applications


    Chapter Two. Manufacture

    2-1 Raw Materials

    2-2 Forming

    2-3 Baking

    2-4 Impregnation

    2-5 Graphitization

    2-6 Purification

    2-7 New Techniques


    Chapter Three. Machining Practice

    3-1 General Machining Techniques

    3-2 Requirements in the Nuclear Industry

    3-3 Equipment and Methods in the Nuclear Industry

    3-4 Cementing Techniques


    Chapter Four. Nuclear Properties

    4-1 Nuclear Requirements for Moderator Graphite

    4-2 Graphite-moderator Physics

    4-3 Nuclear Purity


    Chapter Five. Structure

    5-1 Structural Units and Nomenclature

    5-2 Crystal Structure

    5-3 Forces Within Crystallites

    5-4 X-ray Diffraction by Polycrystalline Graphite

    5-5 Lattice Dimensions

    5-6 Lattice Distortions and Dimensions of Crystallites

    5-7 Pore Structure

    5-8 Grain Structure

    5.9 Structural Changes During Graphitization


    Chapter Six. Physical Properties

    6-1 Thermodynamic Properties

    6-2 Thermal Properties

    6-3 Electronic Band Structure

    6-4 Electronic Properties

    6-5 Chemical Properties

    6-6 Mechanical Properties

    6-7 Density

    6-8 Surface Properties

    6-9 Permeability

    6-10 Material Designations of Electrographites


    Chapter Seven. Theory of Radiation Effects in Graphite

    7-1 Interaction of Radiation with a Solid

    7-2 Displacement of Atoms in Graphite by Knock-on Atoms

    7-3 Creation of Displacements in Graphite by Neutrons

    7-4 Atomic Displacement Rates in Graphite in a Nuclear Reactor

    7-5 Reactor Radiation Dosage Units

    7-6 Nature of Radiation-induced Defects in Graphite

    7-7 Glossary of Symbols


    Chapter Eight. Irradiation Techniques

    8-1 Low-temperature Irradiations

    8-2 Room-temperature Irradiations

    8-3 High-temperature Irradiations

    8-4 Controlled-atmosphere Irradiations

    8-5 Reactor-graphite Monitoring Methods


    Chapter Nine. Radiation-Induced Structural and Dimensional Changes

    9-1 Radiation Effects on Crystal Structure

    9-2 Radiation Effects on Macrostructure

    9-3 Dimensional Changes Near Room Temperature

    9-4 Dimensional Changes at Elevated Temperatures

    9-5 Dimensional Changes in Moderator Structures


    Chapter Ten. Radiation Effects on Electrical and Thermal Properties

    10-1 Electrical Resistance

    10-2 Magnetoresistance

    10-3 Hall Coefficient

    10-4 Thermoelectric Power

    10-5 Magnetic Properties

    10-6 Thermal Conductivity

    10-7 Specific Heat


    Chapter Eleven. Radiation Effects on Mechanical Properties

    11-1 Single Crystals

    11-2 Elastic Moduli of Nuclear Graphites

    11-3 Strength

    11-4 Irradiation Under Stress

    11-5 Hardness and Machinability

    11-6 Coefficient of Friction

    11-7 Mechanical-property Changes in Graphite-moderator Stacks


    Chapter Twelve. Stored Energy

    12-1 Definition and Origin

    12-2 Total Stored Energy

    12-3 Measurement of Stored-energy Release Curves

    12-4 Release Curves in Irradiated Graphite

    12-5 Theory of Energy Storage

    12-6 Relation of Stored Energy to Other Radiation-induced Property Changes

    12-7 Reactor Safety and Operational Aspects of Stored Energy


    Chapter Thirteen. Annealing Radiation Effects

    13-1 Introduction

    13-2 Analysis of Annealing Experiments

    13-3 Thermal Annealing

    13-4 Radiation Annealing

    13-5 Glossary of Symbols


    Chapter Fourteen. Gas-Graphite Systems

    14-1 Survey of Gas-Graphite Systems

    14-2 Carbon Dioxide-Graphite System

    14-3 Oxygen-Graphite System

    14-4 Steam-Graphite System

    14-5 Hydrogen-Graphite System

    14-6 Other Gases

    14-7 Inhibitors and Protective Coatings


    Chapter Fifteen. Graphite-Metal and Graphite-Molten-salt Systems

    15-1 Liquid Metals

    15-2 Compatibility of Solid Metals and Graphite

    15-3 Compatibility of Molten Salts and Graphite


    Chapter Sixteen. Graphite-matrix Fuels

    16-1 Advanced Fuel-element Concepts

    16-2 Graphite as a Fuel Matrix

    16-3 Fuel-Graphite Geometries

    16-4 Fuel-element Fabrication

    16-5 Effect of Fuel Loading and Particle Size on Physical Properties

    16-6 Radiation Effects in Fueled Graphite

    16-7 Fission-product Release from Fueled Graphite

    16-8 Future Research Effort


    Chapter Seventeen. Graphite Moderator Design

    17-1 Advantages and Limitations of Graphite as a Structural Moderator

    17-2 Structural Design Considerations

    17-3 Reactor Moderator Designs and Operating Experience


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 562
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1962
  • Published: January 1, 1962
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258485

About the Editor

R. E. Nightingale

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