Nuclear Decommissioning

Nuclear Decommissioning

Planning, Execution and International Experience

1st Edition - February 21, 2012

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  • Editor: M Laraia
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857091154
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095336

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Description

Once a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any significant health and environmental risks exist.This book critically reviews the nuclear decommissioning processes and technologies applicable to nuclear power plants and other civilian nuclear facilities. Part one focuses on the fundamental planning issues in starting a nuclear decommissioning process, from principles and safety regulations, to financing and project management. Part two covers the execution phase of nuclear decommissioning projects, detailing processes and technologies such as dismantling, decontamination, and radioactive waste management, as well as environmental remediation, site clearance and reuse. Finally, part three details international experience in the decommissioning of nuclear applications, including the main nuclear reactor types and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, as well as small nuclear facilities and legacy nuclear waste sites.

Key Features

  • Critically reviews nuclear decommissioning processes and technologies applicable to nuclear power plants and other civilian nuclear facilities
  • Discusses the fundamental planning issues in starting a nuclear decommissioning process
  • Considers the execution phase of nuclear decommissioning projects, including dismantling, decontamination, and radioactive waste management, as well as environmental remediation, site clearance and reuse

Readership

Nuclear power utilities, plant operators and management personnel; plant management personnel; governmental-/regulatory-safety bodies in this field; and academics in this field (from graduate students to research professors).

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

    Preface

    Dedication

    Chapter 1: Introduction to nuclear decommissioning: definitions and history

    Abstract:

    1.1 Semantics

    1.2 Definitions

    1.3 Reasons for publishing this book

    1.4 Planning for decommissioning

    1.5 Execution

    1.6 International experience

    1.7 Conclusions

    Part I: Planning: fundamental aspects of starting a nuclear decommissioning process

    Chapter 2: Overview of nuclear decommissioning principles and approaches

    Abstract:

    2.1 The scale of the decommissioning industry

    2.2 What is decommissioning?

    2.3 Reasons for final shutdown

    2.4 The no-action baseline

    2.5 History and evolution

    2.6 Responsibilities and interests of parties involved in decommissioning

    2.7 Overview of technical and nontechnical aspects relevant to decommissioning

    2.8 Future trends

    2.9 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 3: Nuclear decommissioning policy, infrastructure, strategies and project planning

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Decommissioning policy

    3.3 Factors affecting decommissioning strategy

    3.4 Options for decommissioning

    3.5 The planning process

    3.6 Challenges and lessons learned

    3.7 Future trends

    3.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 4: Financing and economics of nuclear facility decommissioning

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Nuclear decommissioning cost estimating and financing

    4.3 Recent experience in decommissioning

    4.4 Funding schemes

    4.5 Challenges and lessons learned

    4.6 Future trends

    4.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 5: Characterisation of radioactive materials in redundant nuclear facilities: key issues for the decommissioning plan

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Characterisation objectives

    5.3 The radionuclide inventory

    5.4 Stages in the characterisation process

    5.5 Characterisation methods

    5.6 Equipment and measurement techniques for characterising wastes

    5.7 Hazardous materials

    5.8 Physical characterisation

    5.9 Economic issues

    5.10 Challenges and lessons learned

    5.11 Future trends

    5.12 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 6: Managing the transition from operation to decommissioning of a nuclear facility

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Objectives of the transition period

    6.3 Strategic aspects

    6.4 Management and administrative aspects

    6.5 Implementation aspects

    6.6 Challenges and lessons learned

    6.7 Sources of further information

    Chapter 7: Nuclear decommissioning project organization, management and human resources

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Organization responsible for decommissioning

    7.3 Responsibilities, qualifications and training

    7.4 Contractors versus operational staff

    7.5 Management of change

    7.6 Challenges and lessons learned

    7.7 Future trends

    7.8 Sources of further information

    Chapter 8: Public engagement and stakeholder consultation in nuclear decommissioning projects

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.3 Stakeholders relevant to the decommissioning process

    8.4 Identifying stakeholders

    8.5 The Dounreay low-level waste-disposal facility

    8.6 Factors that may influence stakeholder involvement in decommissioning

    8.7 How to handle stakeholders

    8.8 Challenges and lessons learned

    8.9 Future trends

    8.10 Sources of further information and advice

    8.12 Appendix: list of abbreviations

    Chapter 9: Radiological protection in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: safety, regulations and licensing

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Personnel health and safety issues (ALARA)

    9.3 Environmental protection

    9.4 Risk prevention and decommissioning preparation

    9.5 National and international guidance

    9.6 The licensing process for decommissioning

    9.7 Challenges and lessons learned

    9.8 Future trends

    Chapter 10: Nuclear facility design and operation to facilitate decommissioning: lessons learned

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Project factors relevant to design for decommissioning

    10.3 Physical features and practice to facilitate decommissioning

    10.4 Application of lessons learned: practical guidance

    10.5 Challenges and future trends

    10.6 Sources of further information and advice

    10.7 Acknowledgement

    Part II: Execution: nuclear decommissioning processes and technologies, radioactive waste management, site rehabilitation and cleanup

    Chapter 11: Safe enclosure and entombment strategies in nuclear decommissioning projects

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Definition of safe enclosure and entombment

    11.3 Examples for deferred dismantling strategies (safe enclosure)

    11.4 Examples for entombment

    11.5 Reasons for selecting the deferred dismantling option

    11.6 Preparatory activities

    11.7 Management of a safe enclosure/entombment period

    11.8 National approaches and international guidance

    11.9 Challenges and lessons learned

    11.10 Future trends

    11.11 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 12: Dismantling and demolition processes and technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Thermal cutting techniques

    12.3 Mechanical cutting techniques

    12.4 Factors affecting selection of cutting processes and technology

    12.5 Cutting versus intact handling of large components

    12.6 Demolition of buildings

    12.7 Application of specific cutting techniques: pros and cons

    12.8 Challenges and lessons learned

    12.9 Emerging techniques and future trends

    12.10 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 13: Decontamination processes and technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Why and when to decontaminate

    13.3 Decontamination of metals

    13.4 Decontamination of building surfaces

    13.5 Factors affecting selection of decontamination processes and technology

    13.6 Application of specific decontamination techniques: pros and cons

    13.7 Challenges and lessons learned

    13.8 Emerging techniques and future trends

    13.9 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 14: Remote operation and robotics technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Remote operation and robotics: definitions and principles

    14.3 Development and application of remotely operated and robotics technologies in decommissioning

    14.4 Challenges and lessons learned

    14.5 Future trends

    14.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 15: Radioactive waste management in nuclear decommissioning projects

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Spent fuel removal as a prerequisite to decommissioning

    15.3 Airborne, waterborne and solid waste from decommissioning: amounts and characterization

    15.4 Ventilation and filtration requirements for airborne waste

    15.5 Management of liquid waste including decontamination solutions

    15.6 Solid waste characterization and segregation for onward processing

    15.7 Recycling/reuse and clearance processes

    15.8 Waste management and disposal in decommissioning projects

    15.9 Challenges and lessons learned

    15.10 Future trends

    15.11 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 16: Environmental remediation and restoration technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Environmental restoration process

    16.3 Types of site remediation techniques and technologies applicable in nuclear decommissioning

    16.4 Ex situ remediation techniques and technologies

    16.5 In situ treatment technologies

    16.6 Remediation of contaminated groundwater

    16.7 Disposal of radioactive wastes from remediation

    16.8 Challenges

    16.9 Lessons learned

    16.10 Future trends

    16.11 Conclusions

    Chapter 17: Site clearance and licence termination in nuclear decommissioning projects

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Regulatory approaches for site clearance and licence termination

    17.3 A process for site clearance and licence termination

    17.4 Challenges and lessons learned

    17.5 Future trends

    Chapter 18: Reuse and redevelopment of decommissioned nuclear sites: strategies and lessons learned

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Site redevelopment as an integral part of a facility’s lifecycle

    18.3 Early planning for redevelopment

    18.4 Policy issues in planning for redevelopment

    18.5 Management issues

    18.6 Technical issues

    18.7 Social issues

    18.8 Operating experience in reuse of decommissioned sites

    18.9 The non-nuclear sector

    18.10 Future trends

    Part III: International experience: nuclear decommissioning applications and case studies

    Chapter 19: Decommissioning of Western-type light-water nuclear reactors (LWRs)

    Abstract:

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Types of materials and decommissioning issues

    19.3 Decommissioning technologies for major components of light-water reactors (LWRs)

    19.4 Specific LWR reactor vessel (RV) internals segmentation experience in the USA

    19.5 Specific LWR RV disposition experience in the USA

    19.6 Major components dismantling

    19.7 Decommissioning technologies for LWR buildings and structures

    19.8 Site remediation and reuse in the USA

    19.9 Challenges and lessons learned

    19.10 Future trends

    Chapter 20: Decommissioning of Russian-type water-cooled water-moderated nuclear reactors (WWERs)

    Abstract:

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 WWER-specific features relevant to decommissioning

    20.3 Planning and implementation of WWER decommissioning

    20.4 Decommissioning technologies for WWER activated components (RPV and internals)

    20.5 Decommissioning technologies for WWER building structures

    20.6 Decommissioning waste (material) management

    20.7 Challenges and lessons learned

    20.9 Appendix

    Chapter 21: Decommissioning of gas-cooled nuclear reactors (GCRs)

    Abstract:

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Types of materials and aspects of their decommissioning

    21.3 Decommissioning strategies for gas-cooled reactors (GCRs)

    21.4 Decommissioning technologies for GCR containment components

    21.5 Application of particular techniques to GCR decommissioning projects

    21.6 Challenges and lessons learned

    21.7 Future trends

    21.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 22: Decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Abstract:

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    22.3 Decommissioning strategies and plans

    22.4 Decommissioning phases

    22.5 Specific issues in decommissioning of NFC facilities

    22.6 Decommissioning techniques for NFC facilities

    22.7 Demolition techniques

    22.8 Challenges and lessons learned

    22.9 Future trends

    22.10 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 23: Decommissioning of small nuclear facilities: industrial, medical and research facilities

    Abstract:

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Types of facilities

    23.3 Planning and management

    23.4 Application of particular techniques

    23.5 Waste management

    23.6 Challenges and lessons learned

    23.7 Future trends

    23.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 24: Decommissioning of legacy nuclear waste sites: Dounreay, UK

    Abstract:

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Decommissioning programme

    24.3 High-hazard decommissioning projects

    24.4 High-alpha-contaminated facilities decommissioning

    24.5 Pond decommissioning

    24.6 Fuel production and reprocessing facilities decommissioning

    24.7 Cells and laboratories decommissioning

    24.8 Legacy waste facilities

    24.9 Fuels management

    24.10 Infrastructure decommissioning

    24.11 Waste management

    24.12 Environmental restoration

    24.13 Future challenges

    Chapter 25: Decommissioning of legacy nuclear waste sites: Idaho National Laboratory, USA

    Abstract:

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Types of materials and decommissioning issues

    25.3 Waste retrieval and decontamination processes

    25.4 Application of appropriate decommissioning technologies

    25.5 Environmental restoration and site clearance: case studies

    25.6 Challenges and lessons learned

    25.7 Future trends

    25.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 26: Information management for nuclear decommissioning projects

    Abstract:

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Importance of information management in decommissioning

    26.3 Key decommissioning information

    26.4 Records and information management and preservation

    26.5 Knowledge management in decommissioning

    26.6 Challenges and lessons learned

    26.7 Future trends

    26.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 856
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: February 21, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857091154
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095336

About the Editor

M Laraia

Michele Laraia, a chemical engineer by background, gained his first degree at the University of Rome. In 1975 he began to work at Italy's Regulatory Body, since 1982 as licensing manager of decommissioning projects. From July 1991, Michele worked at the International Atomic Energy Agency, Waste Technology Section, as Unit Leader responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear installations and environmental remediation. The objectives of the work were to provide guidance to Member States on the planning and implementation of nuclear decommissioning and site remediation, to disseminate information on good practices, and to provide direct assistance to Member States in the implementation of their programmes. Following his retirement in November 2011 Michele offers consultant services in the above-mentioned areas.

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Consultant, Rome, Italy

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