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Decommissioning nuclear facilities is a relatively new field, which has developed rapidly in the last ten years. It involves materials that may be highly radioactive and therefore require sophisticated methods of containment and remote handling. The wastes arising from decommissioning are hazardous and have to be stored or disposed of safely in order to protect the environment and future generations. Nuclear decommissioning work must be carried out to the highest possible standards to protect workers, the general public and the environment. This book describes the techniques used for dismantling redundant nuclear facilities, the safe storage of radioactive wastes and the restoration of nuclear licensed sites.
- Describes the techniques used for dismantling nuclear facilities, safe storage of radioactive wastes, and the restoration of nuclear licensed facilities.
- Provides the reader with decommissioning experience accumulated over 15 years by UKAEA.
- Contains valuable information to personnel new to decommissioning and waste management.
Industry: environmental engineers, generally and nuclear clean-up engineers and managers, specifically
Additional interested areas: Academic: as a supplementary text for graduate students in nuclear engineering. Course titles could include: Nuclear Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors
About the authors
List of Contributors
1 Setting the Scene 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Evolution of the Current Organisational Arrangements in the UK 1.3 A European Perspective on Nuclear Power Generation 1.4 An International Perspective on Radioactive Waste Management 1.4.1 Introduction 1.4.2 General Nuclear Waste Classifications 1.4.3 Nuclear Waste Disposal Concepts 1.4.4 Management and Funding Arrangements 1.4.5 Multinational Radioactive Waste Facilities 1.5 International Regulation & Collaboration 1.5.1 The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 1.5.2 The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1.5.3 The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD NEA) 1.5.4 The European Commission 1.6 The Kyoto Protocol and OSPAR (Oslo Paris Convention) 1.6.1 The Kyoto Protocol 1.6.2 OSPAR (Oslo/Paris) Convention 1.7 Waste Production 1.8 Acronyms and Abbreviations
2 Ionising Radiation and the Protection of Man 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Historical Background 2.3 Basic Concepts and Units 2.4 Biological Aspects of Radiological Protection 2.5 Conceptual Framework for Radiation Protection 2.6 The Control of Occupational Exposure 2.7 The Control of Medical Exposure 2.8 The Control of Public Exposure 2.9 Potential Exposures 2.10 Intervention 2.11 Practical Advice on Radiation Protection Implementation 2.12 The Role of NRPB 2.13 Practical Advice on Principles for Solid Radioactive Waste Disposal 2.14 Exemption of Sources from Regulatory Controls 2.15 Chronic Exposures
3 Decommissioning - Introduction and Overview 3.1 Definition and Scope 3.2 The Stages of Decommissioning 3.3 Drivers for Determining Decommissioning Plans and Programmes 3.4 Risk verses Hazard 3.5 Contrasting Reactor Decommissioning With Other Facilities 3.6 Availability of Guidance and Reference Information
4 Typical Government Policy on Decommissioning
4.1 Introduction 4.2 How and Why is Government Involved? 4.2.1 Historical 4.2.2 Safety 4.2.3 Regulatory Policy 4.2.4 Security 4.2.5 Decommissioning and Waste Management 4.2.6 National Economic Benefits 4.2.7 The Consequences of Failure 4.3 Some of the Key Drivers for Government 4.3.1 The Costs Involved 4.3.2 National and International Responsibilities 4.3.3 Business Potential 4.4 Current Developments 4.4.1 Structural Issues 4.4.2 Skills Issues 4.4.3 Regulatory Issues 4.4.4 Waste Issues 4.5 Decommissioning Research Framework Programmes of the European Community 4.6 The Challenges Ahead
5 The Transition From Operations to Decommissioning 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Preparing for the Transition 5.3 Human Resource Issues 5.4 Information Requirements 5.5 Implementation Issues 5.6 Costs of Transition Activities
6 Reactor Decommissioning - The Safestore Concept 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Decommissioning and Radioactivity 6.2.1 Decommissioning Strategy and Option Selection 6.2.2 Activation Inventory 6.2.3 Worker Dose Modelling 6.2.4 Radioactive Waste Minimisation Modelling 6.2.5 Arguments Against Deferral 6.3 Decommissioning Activities 6.4 Paying for Decommissioning
7 Decommissioning PIE and Other Facilities 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Key Issues to be Considered 7.3 Alpha and Gamma Radiation Working 7.4 Decommissioning Examples
8 Preparation of Documentation for Decommissioning 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Decommissioning Plan and Programme 8.3 Decommissioning Safety Case 8.4 Conventional Safety Documentation Requirements 8.5 Management Procedures and Quality Assurance 8.6 Examples of Typical Safety Documentation 8.6.1 Materials Test reactors to Stage 2 Decommissioning 8.6.2 Jason (Royal Naval College) Reactor to Stage 3 Decommissioning 8.6.3 Site Environmental Remediation to Unrestricted Use
9 Radiological Characterisation 9.1 Introduction 9.2 General Approach 9.3 Characterisation Plan 9.4 In-Situ Measurements 9.5 Sampling and Analysis 9.6 Quality Assurance Requirements 9.7 Characterisation Report
10 Decontamination Techniques 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Objectives and Constraints for Decontamination 10.3 Characteristics of Decontamination Techniques 10.3.1 Non-Attritive Cleaning 10.3.2 Chemical Decontamination 10.3.3 Physical Attrition 10.4 Waste Minimisation and Treatment 10.5 Selecting a Decontamination Technique 10.6 Positive and Negative Experiences from Completed Projects
11 Dismantling Techniques 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Cutting Techniques 11.2.1 Mechanical Cutting 11.2.2 Thermal Cutting 11.2.3 Other Methods 11.3 Remote Handling Techniques 11.4 Radiological Protection During Dismantling 11.4.1 Contamination Containment 11.4.2 Personal Protective Equipment 11.5 Case Study: WAGR Decommissioning 11.5.1 Introduction 11.5.2 Decommissioning Plan 11.5.3 Remote Operations - Dismantling the Core Components 11.5.4 The Dismantling Campaigns 11.5.5 Fuel Strategy
12 Site Environmental Restoration Programme Management 12.1 Introduction 12.2 The Framework for Environmental Restoration Programme Management 12.3 The Strategic Plan 12.3.1 Introduction 12.3.2 A Strategic Planning System 12.3.3 Managing the Care and Maintenance Process 12.3.4 Programme Risk Management 12.3.5 Programme and Project Prioritisation 12.4 The Integrated Site Restoration Plan 12.5 Making the Case for a Project to Proceed 12.6 The Project Sanction Process 12.6.1 Introduction 12.6.2 Typical Sanction Paper Structure 12.7 Principles for Carrying Out Financial Appraisals 12.8 Sanction Case Study - Repacking Site X Legacy Intermediate Level Wastes
13 Project Investment Appraisal and Contract Strategy 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Capital Investment 13.3 Project Identification 13.4 Appraisal Methods 13.4.1 Rate of Return 13.4.2 Payback 13.4.3 Time Value of Money 13.4.4 Discounted Cash Flow
- Net Present Value (NPV)
- Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)
- Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
13.5 Project Investment Examples
13.5.1 NPV Example
13.5.2 IRR Example
13.5.3 NPV vs. IRR
13.5.4 Project X, Other Problems and Discussion
13.6 Modern Contract Strategy in the Nuclear Industry 13.6.1 Introduction 13.6.2 Modern Contract Selection Appropriate to Nuclear Decommissioning 13.6.3 Types of Contract 13.7 Alternative Sources of Funds 13.7.1 Introduction 13.7.2 What is PFI? 13.7.3 Fixed Price/Risk Premium and Value for Money 13.7.4 Technical Viability and PFI Project Set-Up Costs 13.7.5 The Staged Approach to PFI 13.8 Enclosures Table A - Present Value of £1 Table B - Present Value of £1 Received Annually for N Years 13.9 Exercises 13.9.1 - 13.9.8 13.9.9 Case Study - The "D-Two" Decommissioning Company 13.9.10 Case Study - The "Delay and Decay" Decommissioning Company 13.9.11 Suggested Case Study Solutions
14 Hazard Reduction and Project Prioritisation 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Understanding Risk and Doses 14.3 Hazard Reduction 14.3.1 Why is Hazard Reduction Important? 14.3.2 How are Hazards Reduced? 14.3.3 What Methods may be used to Gauge Hazard Reduction? 14.4 Project Prioritisation 14.4.1 Why do we need to Prioritise our Projects? 14.4.2 A Prioritisation Methodology 14.4.3 The Model 14.5 Case Studies 14.5.1 Case Study - Hazard Reduction Over Time on Site X 14.5.2 Case Study - "My project is more important than yours"; A Case for Project Prioritisation
15 Decommissioning Cost Estimating 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Conventional Cost Estimating 15.3 Standardised Cost Listings 15.4 Parametric Cost Estimating
16 Waste Management - Introduction and Overview 16.1 Requirements to Manage Radioactive Wastes 16.2 Characterisation and Segregation 16.3 Passive Safety 16.4 Classification of Wastes 16.4.1 Introduction 16.4.2 Exempt Materials 16.4.3 Clean Materials - Free Release 16.4.4 Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) 16.4.5 Low Level Waste (LLW) 16.4.6 Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) 16.4.7 High Level Waste (HLW) 16.5 Summary
17 Waste Management Strategy 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Waste Management Strategy Requirements 17.2.1 Regulations 17.2.2 Consultation 17.2.3 Completeness 17.2.4 NII Requirements 17.2.5 Environment Agencies' Requirements 17.2.6 ILW Disposal Company (Nirex) Requirements 17.2.7 LLW Disposal Company (BNFL, Drigg) Requirements 17.2.8 Integration of the Strategy 17.2.9 Costs 17.3 Elements of Waste Management Strategy 17.3.1 Waste Generation 17.3.2 Interim Storage 17.3.3 Retrieval 17.3.4 Treatment 17.3.5 Conditioning 17.3.6 Storage 17.3.7 Disposal 17.4 Strategic Planning 17.4.1 Waste Inventory 17.4.2 Evaluation of Treatment/Processing Options 17.4.3 Reference Strategy 17.5 Integration and Costing 17.6 Review and Updating 17.7 The Fundamentals of Licensees' Waste Management Strategies 17.7.1 UKAEA 17.7.2 BNFL 17.7.3 British Energy (BE) 17.7.4 Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) 17.8 Summary
18 Policy and Regulatory Aspects of Waste Management 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Nuclear Site Operations 18.2.1 Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage 18.2.2 Operational Safety 18.3 Environmental Policy and Regulation 18.3.1 Introduction 18.3.2 Specific Regulations 18.3.3 Assessment Terminology 18.3.4 Assessment Criteria 18.4 Environmental Management System (EMS) 18.5 Organisational Framework 18.6 Tolerability of Risk
19 Management of Low Level Wastes (LLW) 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Sources of LLW 19.2.1 Introduction 19.2.2 Fuel Manufacture 19.2.3 Nuclear Power Generation and Decommissioning 19.2.4 Fuel Reprocessing 19.2.5 Other Sources 19.3 LLW Disposal 19.3.1 Regulatory Controls 19.3.2 Waste Control Systems 19.4 LLW Disposal Practices 19.5 LLW Conditioning Facilities
20 Management of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Regulatory Requirements for ILW 20.3 Sources and Processing Requirements 20.4 Standard Waste Packages & Specifications 20.4.1 Waste Package Specification 20.4.2 Storage 20.4.3 Transport 20.4.4 Disposal 20.4.5 ILW Conditions for Acceptance for Interim Storage & / or Eventual Disposal 20.5 Case Study - Waste Packaging Exercise 20.5.1 Introduction 20.5.2 Waste Descriptions 20.5.3 Solid Waste Packaging Concept 20.5.4 Sludge Waste Packaging Concept 20.5.5 Questions and Hints to Answers 20.5.6 General Case Study Data 20.5.7 Suggested Answers to the Case Study Questions
21 Management of High Level Wastes (HLW) 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Origins and Disposition of HLW 21.3 Spent Fuel 21.3.1 Introduction 21.3.2 Storage 21.3.3 Security and Safeguards 21.3.4 Conditioning for Disposal 21.4 HLW Characteristics and Inventory Data 21.5 HLW - Current World Disposal Status
22 Transport 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Regulatory Requirements for Transport 22.2.1 Regulations 22.2.2 General Requirements 22.2.3 Package Specific Requirements 22.2.4 Mode Specific Requirements 22.2.5 Operational Requirements 22.2.6 Special Arrangements 22.3 Examples of Waste Transport in the UK 22.3.1 BNFL 22.3.2 UKAEA 22.3.3 AEA-Technology 22.3.4 Croft Associates 22.3.5 Nirex 22.4 Examples of Waste Transport outside the UK 22.4.1 Trupact 22.4.2 Cogema Logistics LR56 22.4.3 BNFL Vit Return Flask 22.4.4 Swedish Waste Shipments 22.4.5 Cogema Gemini 22.5 Transport of Large items of Decommissioning Waste 22.5.1 Application of the Regulations to Large Items 22.5.2 General Requirements 22.5.3 Examples of the Transport of Large Decommissioning Items 22.6 Regulatory Considerations In the UK 22.6.1 DfT 22.6.2 NII 22.6.3 Environmental Agencies 22.7 Waste Transport Planning
23 Radiation and its Control 23.1 Introduction 23.2 The Properties of Radiation 23.3 The Measurement of Radiation 23.4 The Biological Effects of Radiation 23.5 Radiological Protection Principles 23.5.1 Justification 23.5.2 Dose Limits for Protective Action 23.5.3 Optimisation of Protection 23.6 Methods of Radiation Protection 23.7 Choosing Detection Equipment 23.8 Practical Aspects of Radiation Protection 23.8.1 Designation of Controlled and Supervised Areas 23.8.2 Categorisation of Controlled Areas 23.8.3 Personal Protective Equipment 23.9 Summary
24 Site Remediation - Principles and Regulatory Aspects 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Delicensing 24.3 Chemically Contaminated Ground 24.4 Radioactively Contaminated Ground 24.5 Principles for Management of Contaminated Ground 24.6 Best Practical Environmental Option 24.7 Summary
25 Characterisation of Contaminated Ground 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Desk Studies 25.3 Walk Over Surveys 25.4 Planning the Characterisation Programme 25.5 Health, Safety and Logistical Issues 25.6 Non Intrusive Surveys 25.6.1 Radiological Surveys 25.6.2 Geophysical Surveys 25.7 Intrusive Surveys 25.8 Logging, Sampling and Analysis 25.9 Interpretation and Modelling 25.10 Databasing and GIS 25.11 Guidance on Site Investigation
26 Technologies for Remediating Contaminated Land 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Waste Minimisation 26.3 Immobilisation, Stabilisation and Solidification 26.4 Containment Systems and Hydraulic Measures 26.5 Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater 26.6 Best Practical Environmental Option
Annex 1 - A Summary of International Waste Management Practice Country Specific Examples of Radioactive Waste Management Programmes A.1.1 Belgium A 1.2 Canada A 1.3 Finland A 1.4 France A 1.5 Germany A 1.6 Japan A 1.7 Netherlands A 1.8 Spain A 1.9 Sweden A 1.10 Switzerland A 1.11 United Kingdom A 1.12 United States of America (USA) A 1.13 Central and Eastern European Countries
Annex 2 - An Example of a Project Sanction Case - Repacking of Harwell Legacy Intermediate Level Waste
Annex 3 - Preliminary Background Introduction to Accounting Terminology A 3.1 Introduction A 3.2 Glossary of Accounting Terms A 3.3 The Balance Sheet A 3.4 The Profit and Loss Account A 3.5 Preliminary Background Introduction to Accounting Terminology A 3.6 Depreciation A 3.7 Answers to Exercises
Annex 4 - References, Internet Information and Book Reading List A 4.1 References A 4.2 Internet Information A 4.3 Booklist
Annex 5 - Elements and Isotopes A 5.1 Introduction A 5.2 The Nucleus A 5.3 Radioactivity A 5.4 Half-Life A 5.5 Table of Elements
Annex 6 - Case Study: Dounreay Castle Ground Remediation
- No. of pages:
- © Butterworth-Heinemann 2003
- 8th September 2003
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), Director of Major Projects
Dr. Langley is head of Technical Services Group within the Planning, Performance and Engineering Division of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Dr. Langley obtained a PhD in physical chemistry from Queen’s University, Belfast and has worked in universities and industry both in the UK and Australia, until joining the UKAEA in 1978. He has managed a broad range of projects on renewable energy technologies and nuclear fuel processing, including strategic studies. Since 1990 he has been involved in various capacities with managing the decommissioning program at Harwell and other UKAEA sites.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA
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