Nuclear Decommissioning, Waste Management, and Environmental Site Remediation

Nuclear Decommissioning, Waste Management, and Environmental Site Remediation

1st Edition - September 8, 2003

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  • Authors: Colin Bayliss, Kevin Langley
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750677448
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080537788

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Description

Decommissioning nuclear facilities is a relatively new field, which has developed rapidly in the last ten years. It involves materials that may be highly radioactive and therefore require sophisticated methods of containment and remote handling. The wastes arising from decommissioning are hazardous and have to be stored or disposed of safely in order to protect the environment and future generations. Nuclear decommissioning work must be carried out to the highest possible standards to protect workers, the general public and the environment. This book describes the techniques used for dismantling redundant nuclear facilities, the safe storage of radioactive wastes and the restoration of nuclear licensed sites.

Key Features

* Describes the techniques used for dismantling nuclear facilities, safe storage of radioactive wastes, and the restoration of nuclear licensed facilities.
* Provides the reader with decommissioning experience accumulated over 15 years by UKAEA.
* Contains valuable information to personnel new to decommissioning and waste management.

Readership

Industry: environmental engineers, generally and nuclear clean-up engineers and managers, specifically

Additional interested areas:
Academic: as a supplementary text for graduate students in nuclear engineering. Course titles could include:
Nuclear Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning
Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors

Table of Contents

  • About the authors
    List of Contributors
    Preface

    1 Setting the Scene
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 The Evolution of the Current Organisational Arrangements in the UK
    1.3 A European Perspective on Nuclear Power Generation
    1.4 An International Perspective on Radioactive Waste Management
    1.4.1 Introduction
    1.4.2 General Nuclear Waste Classifications
    1.4.3 Nuclear Waste Disposal Concepts
    1.4.4 Management and Funding Arrangements
    1.4.5 Multinational Radioactive Waste Facilities
    1.5 International Regulation & Collaboration
    1.5.1 The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
    1.5.2 The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)
    1.5.3 The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD NEA)
    1.5.4 The European Commission
    1.6 The Kyoto Protocol and OSPAR (Oslo Paris Convention)
    1.6.1 The Kyoto Protocol
    1.6.2 OSPAR (Oslo/Paris) Convention
    1.7 Waste Production
    1.8 Acronyms and Abbreviations

    2 Ionising Radiation and the Protection of Man
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Historical Background
    2.3 Basic Concepts and Units
    2.4 Biological Aspects of Radiological Protection
    2.5 Conceptual Framework for Radiation Protection
    2.6 The Control of Occupational Exposure
    2.7 The Control of Medical Exposure
    2.8 The Control of Public Exposure
    2.9 Potential Exposures
    2.10 Intervention
    2.11 Practical Advice on Radiation Protection Implementation
    2.12 The Role of NRPB
    2.13 Practical Advice on Principles for Solid Radioactive Waste Disposal
    2.14 Exemption of Sources from Regulatory Controls
    2.15 Chronic Exposures

    3 Decommissioning - Introduction and Overview
    3.1 Definition and Scope
    3.2 The Stages of Decommissioning
    3.3 Drivers for Determining Decommissioning Plans and Programmes
    3.4 Risk verses Hazard
    3.5 Contrasting Reactor Decommissioning With Other Facilities
    3.6 Availability of Guidance and Reference Information

    4 Typical Government Policy on Decommissioning
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 How and Why is Government Involved?
    4.2.1 Historical
    4.2.2 Safety
    4.2.3 Regulatory Policy
    4.2.4 Security
    4.2.5 Decommissioning and Waste Management
    4.2.6 National Economic Benefits
    4.2.7 The Consequences of Failure
    4.3 Some of the Key Drivers for Government
    4.3.1 The Costs Involved
    4.3.2 National and International Responsibilities
    4.3.3 Business Potential
    4.4 Current Developments
    4.4.1 Structural Issues
    4.4.2 Skills Issues
    4.4.3 Regulatory Issues
    4.4.4 Waste Issues
    4.5 Decommissioning Research Framework Programmes of the European Community
    4.6 The Challenges Ahead

    5 The Transition From Operations to Decommissioning
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Preparing for the Transition
    5.3 Human Resource Issues
    5.4 Information Requirements
    5.5 Implementation Issues
    5.6 Costs of Transition Activities

    6 Reactor Decommissioning - The Safestore Concept
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Decommissioning and Radioactivity
    6.2.1 Decommissioning Strategy and Option Selection
    6.2.2 Activation Inventory
    6.2.3 Worker Dose Modelling
    6.2.4 Radioactive Waste Minimisation Modelling
    6.2.5 Arguments Against Deferral
    6.3 Decommissioning Activities
    6.4 Paying for Decommissioning

    7 Decommissioning PIE and Other Facilities
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Key Issues to be Considered
    7.3 Alpha and Gamma Radiation Working
    7.4 Decommissioning Examples

    8 Preparation of Documentation for Decommissioning
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Decommissioning Plan and Programme
    8.3 Decommissioning Safety Case
    8.4 Conventional Safety Documentation Requirements
    8.5 Management Procedures and Quality Assurance
    8.6 Examples of Typical Safety Documentation
    8.6.1 Materials Test reactors to Stage 2 Decommissioning
    8.6.2 Jason (Royal Naval College) Reactor to Stage 3 Decommissioning
    8.6.3 Site Environmental Remediation to Unrestricted Use

    9 Radiological Characterisation
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 General Approach
    9.3 Characterisation Plan
    9.4 In-Situ Measurements
    9.5 Sampling and Analysis
    9.6 Quality Assurance Requirements
    9.7 Characterisation Report

    10 Decontamination Techniques
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Objectives and Constraints for Decontamination
    10.3 Characteristics of Decontamination Techniques
    10.3.1 Non-Attritive Cleaning
    10.3.2 Chemical Decontamination
    10.3.3 Physical Attrition
    10.4 Waste Minimisation and Treatment
    10.5 Selecting a Decontamination Technique
    10.6 Positive and Negative Experiences from Completed Projects

    11 Dismantling Techniques
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Cutting Techniques
    11.2.1 Mechanical Cutting
    11.2.2 Thermal Cutting
    11.2.3 Other Methods
    11.3 Remote Handling Techniques
    11.4 Radiological Protection During Dismantling
    11.4.1 Contamination Containment
    11.4.2 Personal Protective Equipment
    11.5 Case Study: WAGR Decommissioning
    11.5.1 Introduction
    11.5.2 Decommissioning Plan
    11.5.3 Remote Operations - Dismantling the Core Components
    11.5.4 The Dismantling Campaigns
    11.5.5 Fuel Strategy


    12 Site Environmental Restoration Programme Management
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 The Framework for Environmental Restoration Programme Management
    12.3 The Strategic Plan
    12.3.1 Introduction
    12.3.2 A Strategic Planning System
    12.3.3 Managing the Care and Maintenance Process
    12.3.4 Programme Risk Management
    12.3.5 Programme and Project Prioritisation
    12.4 The Integrated Site Restoration Plan
    12.5 Making the Case for a Project to Proceed
    12.6 The Project Sanction Process
    12.6.1 Introduction
    12.6.2 Typical Sanction Paper Structure
    12.7 Principles for Carrying Out Financial Appraisals
    12.8 Sanction Case Study - Repacking Site X Legacy Intermediate Level
    Wastes

    13 Project Investment Appraisal and Contract Strategy
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Capital Investment
    13.3 Project Identification
    13.4 Appraisal Methods
    13.4.1 Rate of Return
    13.4.2 Payback
    13.4.3 Time Value of Money
    13.4.4 Discounted Cash Flow
    - Net Present Value (NPV)
    - Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)
    - Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
    13.5 Project Investment Examples
    13.5.1 NPV Example
    13.5.2 IRR Example
    13.5.3 NPV vs. IRR
    13.5.4 Project X, Other Problems and Discussion
    13.6 Modern Contract Strategy in the Nuclear Industry
    13.6.1 Introduction
    13.6.2 Modern Contract Selection Appropriate to Nuclear Decommissioning
    13.6.3 Types of Contract
    13.7 Alternative Sources of Funds
    13.7.1 Introduction
    13.7.2 What is PFI?
    13.7.3 Fixed Price/Risk Premium and Value for Money
    13.7.4 Technical Viability and PFI Project Set-Up Costs
    13.7.5 The Staged Approach to PFI
    13.8 Enclosures
    Table A - Present Value of £1
    Table B - Present Value of £1 Received Annually for N Years
    13.9 Exercises
    13.9.1 - 13.9.8
    13.9.9 Case Study - The "D-Two" Decommissioning Company
    13.9.10 Case Study - The "Delay and Decay" Decommissioning Company
    13.9.11 Suggested Case Study Solutions

    14 Hazard Reduction and Project Prioritisation
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Understanding Risk and Doses
    14.3 Hazard Reduction
    14.3.1 Why is Hazard Reduction Important?
    14.3.2 How are Hazards Reduced?
    14.3.3 What Methods may be used to Gauge Hazard Reduction?
    14.4 Project Prioritisation
    14.4.1 Why do we need to Prioritise our Projects?
    14.4.2 A Prioritisation Methodology
    14.4.3 The Model
    14.5 Case Studies
    14.5.1 Case Study - Hazard Reduction Over Time on Site X
    14.5.2 Case Study - "My project is more important than yours";
    A Case for Project Prioritisation

    15 Decommissioning Cost Estimating
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Conventional Cost Estimating
    15.3 Standardised Cost Listings
    15.4 Parametric Cost Estimating

    16 Waste Management - Introduction and Overview
    16.1 Requirements to Manage Radioactive Wastes
    16.2 Characterisation and Segregation
    16.3 Passive Safety
    16.4 Classification of Wastes
    16.4.1 Introduction
    16.4.2 Exempt Materials
    16.4.3 Clean Materials - Free Release
    16.4.4 Very Low Level Waste (VLLW)
    16.4.5 Low Level Waste (LLW)
    16.4.6 Intermediate Level Waste (ILW)
    16.4.7 High Level Waste (HLW)
    16.5 Summary

    17 Waste Management Strategy
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Waste Management Strategy Requirements
    17.2.1 Regulations
    17.2.2 Consultation
    17.2.3 Completeness
    17.2.4 NII Requirements
    17.2.5 Environment Agencies' Requirements
    17.2.6 ILW Disposal Company (Nirex) Requirements
    17.2.7 LLW Disposal Company (BNFL, Drigg) Requirements
    17.2.8 Integration of the Strategy
    17.2.9 Costs
    17.3 Elements of Waste Management Strategy
    17.3.1 Waste Generation
    17.3.2 Interim Storage
    17.3.3 Retrieval
    17.3.4 Treatment
    17.3.5 Conditioning
    17.3.6 Storage
    17.3.7 Disposal
    17.4 Strategic Planning
    17.4.1 Waste Inventory
    17.4.2 Evaluation of Treatment/Processing Options
    17.4.3 Reference Strategy
    17.5 Integration and Costing
    17.6 Review and Updating
    17.7 The Fundamentals of Licensees' Waste Management Strategies
    17.7.1 UKAEA
    17.7.2 BNFL
    17.7.3 British Energy (BE)
    17.7.4 Liabilities Management Authority (LMA)
    17.8 Summary

    18 Policy and Regulatory Aspects of Waste Management
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Nuclear Site Operations
    18.2.1 Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage
    18.2.2 Operational Safety
    18.3 Environmental Policy and Regulation
    18.3.1 Introduction
    18.3.2 Specific Regulations
    18.3.3 Assessment Terminology
    18.3.4 Assessment Criteria
    18.4 Environmental Management System (EMS)
    18.5 Organisational Framework
    18.6 Tolerability of Risk

    19 Management of Low Level Wastes (LLW)
    19.1 Introduction
    19.2 Sources of LLW
    19.2.1 Introduction
    19.2.2 Fuel Manufacture
    19.2.3 Nuclear Power Generation and Decommissioning
    19.2.4 Fuel Reprocessing
    19.2.5 Other Sources
    19.3 LLW Disposal
    19.3.1 Regulatory Controls
    19.3.2 Waste Control Systems
    19.4 LLW Disposal Practices
    19.5 LLW Conditioning Facilities

    20 Management of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW)
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 Regulatory Requirements for ILW
    20.3 Sources and Processing Requirements
    20.4 Standard Waste Packages & Specifications
    20.4.1 Waste Package Specification
    20.4.2 Storage
    20.4.3 Transport
    20.4.4 Disposal
    20.4.5 ILW Conditions for Acceptance for Interim Storage & / or Eventual Disposal
    20.5 Case Study - Waste Packaging Exercise
    20.5.1 Introduction
    20.5.2 Waste Descriptions
    20.5.3 Solid Waste Packaging Concept
    20.5.4 Sludge Waste Packaging Concept
    20.5.5 Questions and Hints to Answers
    20.5.6 General Case Study Data
    20.5.7 Suggested Answers to the Case Study Questions

    21 Management of High Level Wastes (HLW)
    21.1 Introduction
    21.2 Origins and Disposition of HLW
    21.3 Spent Fuel
    21.3.1 Introduction
    21.3.2 Storage
    21.3.3 Security and Safeguards
    21.3.4 Conditioning for Disposal
    21.4 HLW Characteristics and Inventory Data
    21.5 HLW - Current World Disposal Status

    22 Transport
    22.1 Introduction
    22.2 Regulatory Requirements for Transport
    22.2.1 Regulations
    22.2.2 General Requirements
    22.2.3 Package Specific Requirements
    22.2.4 Mode Specific Requirements
    22.2.5 Operational Requirements
    22.2.6 Special Arrangements
    22.3 Examples of Waste Transport in the UK
    22.3.1 BNFL
    22.3.2 UKAEA
    22.3.3 AEA-Technology
    22.3.4 Croft Associates
    22.3.5 Nirex
    22.4 Examples of Waste Transport outside the UK
    22.4.1 Trupact
    22.4.2 Cogema Logistics LR56
    22.4.3 BNFL Vit Return Flask
    22.4.4 Swedish Waste Shipments
    22.4.5 Cogema Gemini
    22.5 Transport of Large items of Decommissioning Waste
    22.5.1 Application of the Regulations to Large Items
    22.5.2 General Requirements
    22.5.3 Examples of the Transport of Large Decommissioning Items
    22.6 Regulatory Considerations In the UK
    22.6.1 DfT
    22.6.2 NII
    22.6.3 Environmental Agencies
    22.7 Waste Transport Planning

    23 Radiation and its Control
    23.1 Introduction
    23.2 The Properties of Radiation
    23.3 The Measurement of Radiation
    23.4 The Biological Effects of Radiation
    23.5 Radiological Protection Principles
    23.5.1 Justification
    23.5.2 Dose Limits for Protective Action
    23.5.3 Optimisation of Protection
    23.6 Methods of Radiation Protection
    23.7 Choosing Detection Equipment
    23.8 Practical Aspects of Radiation Protection
    23.8.1 Designation of Controlled and Supervised Areas
    23.8.2 Categorisation of Controlled Areas
    23.8.3 Personal Protective Equipment
    23.9 Summary

    24 Site Remediation - Principles and Regulatory Aspects
    24.1 Introduction
    24.2 Delicensing
    24.3 Chemically Contaminated Ground
    24.4 Radioactively Contaminated Ground
    24.5 Principles for Management of Contaminated Ground
    24.6 Best Practical Environmental Option
    24.7 Summary

    25 Characterisation of Contaminated Ground
    25.1 Introduction
    25.2 Desk Studies
    25.3 Walk Over Surveys
    25.4 Planning the Characterisation Programme
    25.5 Health, Safety and Logistical Issues
    25.6 Non Intrusive Surveys
    25.6.1 Radiological Surveys
    25.6.2 Geophysical Surveys
    25.7 Intrusive Surveys
    25.8 Logging, Sampling and Analysis
    25.9 Interpretation and Modelling
    25.10 Databasing and GIS
    25.11 Guidance on Site Investigation

    26 Technologies for Remediating Contaminated Land
    26.1 Introduction
    26.2 Waste Minimisation
    26.3 Immobilisation, Stabilisation and Solidification
    26.4 Containment Systems and Hydraulic Measures
    26.5 Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater
    26.6 Best Practical Environmental Option


    Annex 1 - A Summary of International Waste Management Practice
    Country Specific Examples of Radioactive Waste Management Programmes
    A.1.1 Belgium
    A 1.2 Canada
    A 1.3 Finland
    A 1.4 France
    A 1.5 Germany
    A 1.6 Japan
    A 1.7 Netherlands
    A 1.8 Spain
    A 1.9 Sweden
    A 1.10 Switzerland
    A 1.11 United Kingdom
    A 1.12 United States of America (USA)
    A 1.13 Central and Eastern European Countries


    Annex 2 - An Example of a Project Sanction Case - Repacking of Harwell Legacy Intermediate Level Waste

    Annex 3 - Preliminary Background Introduction to Accounting Terminology
    A 3.1 Introduction
    A 3.2 Glossary of Accounting Terms
    A 3.3 The Balance Sheet
    A 3.4 The Profit and Loss Account
    A 3.5 Preliminary Background Introduction to Accounting Terminology
    A 3.6 Depreciation
    A 3.7 Answers to Exercises

    Annex 4 - References, Internet Information and Book Reading List
    A 4.1 References
    A 4.2 Internet Information
    A 4.3 Booklist

    Annex 5 - Elements and Isotopes
    A 5.1 Introduction
    A 5.2 The Nucleus
    A 5.3 Radioactivity
    A 5.4 Half-Life
    A 5.5 Table of Elements

    Annex 6 - Case Study: Dounreay Castle Ground Remediation

Product details

  • No. of pages: 352
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2003
  • Published: September 8, 2003
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750677448
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080537788

About the Authors

Colin Bayliss

Colin Bayliss

Affiliations and Expertise

United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), Director of Major Projects

Kevin Langley

Dr. Langley is head of Technical Services Group within the Planning, Performance and Engineering Division of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Dr. Langley obtained a PhD in physical chemistry from Queen’s University, Belfast and has worked in universities and industry both in the UK and Australia, until joining the UKAEA in 1978. He has managed a broad range of projects on renewable energy technologies and nuclear fuel processing, including strategic studies. Since 1990 he has been involved in various capacities with managing the decommissioning program at Harwell and other UKAEA sites.

Affiliations and Expertise

United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA

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