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Nuclear Decommissioning, Waste Management, and Environmental Site Remediation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750677448, 9780080537788

Nuclear Decommissioning, Waste Management, and Environmental Site Remediation

1st Edition

Authors: Colin Bayliss Kevin Langley
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750677448
eBook ISBN: 9780080537788
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 8th September 2003
Page Count: 352
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Decommissioning nuclear facilities is a relatively new field, which has developed rapidly in the last ten years. It involves materials that may be highly radioactive and therefore require sophisticated methods of containment and remote handling. The wastes arising from decommissioning are hazardous and have to be stored or disposed of safely in order to protect the environment and future generations. Nuclear decommissioning work must be carried out to the highest possible standards to protect workers, the general public and the environment. This book describes the techniques used for dismantling redundant nuclear facilities, the safe storage of radioactive wastes and the restoration of nuclear licensed sites.

Key Features

  • Describes the techniques used for dismantling nuclear facilities, safe storage of radioactive wastes, and the restoration of nuclear licensed facilities.
    * Provides the reader with decommissioning experience accumulated over 15 years by UKAEA.
    * Contains valuable information to personnel new to decommissioning and waste management.


Industry: environmental engineers, generally and nuclear clean-up engineers and managers, specifically

Additional interested areas:
Academic: as a supplementary text for graduate students in nuclear engineering. Course titles could include:
Nuclear Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning
Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors

Table of Contents

About the authors
List of Contributors

1 Setting the Scene
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The Evolution of the Current Organisational Arrangements in the UK
1.3 A European Perspective on Nuclear Power Generation
1.4 An International Perspective on Radioactive Waste Management
1.4.1 Introduction
1.4.2 General Nuclear Waste Classifications
1.4.3 Nuclear Waste Disposal Concepts
1.4.4 Management and Funding Arrangements
1.4.5 Multinational Radioactive Waste Facilities
1.5 International Regulation & Collaboration
1.5.1 The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
1.5.2 The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)
1.5.3 The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD NEA)
1.5.4 The European Commission
1.6 The Kyoto Protocol and OSPAR (Oslo Paris Convention)
1.6.1 The Kyoto Protocol
1.6.2 OSPAR (Oslo/Paris) Convention
1.7 Waste Production
1.8 Acronyms and Abbreviations

2 Ionising Radiation and the Protection of Man
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Historical Background
2.3 Basic Concepts and Units
2.4 Biological Aspects of Radiological Protection
2.5 Conceptual Framework for Radiation Protection
2.6 The Control of Occupational Exposure
2.7 The Control of Medical Exposure
2.8 The Control of Public Exposure
2.9 Potential Exposures
2.10 Intervention
2.11 Practical Advice on Radiation Protection Implementation
2.12 The Role of NRPB
2.13 Practical Advice on Principles for Solid Radioactive Waste Disposal
2.14 Exemption of Sources from Regulatory Controls
2.15 Chronic Exposures

3 Decommissioning - Introduction and Overview
3.1 Definition and Scope
3.2 The Stages of Decommissioning
3.3 Drivers for Determining Decommissioning Plans and Programmes
3.4 Risk verses Hazard
3.5 Contrasting Reactor Decommissioning With Other Facilities
3.6 Availability of Guidance and Reference Information

4 Typical Government Policy on Decommissioning
4.1 Introduction
4.2 How and Why is Government Involved?
4.2.1 Historical
4.2.2 Safety
4.2.3 Regulatory Policy
4.2.4 Security
4.2.5 Decommissioning and Waste Management
4.2.6 National Economic Benefits
4.2.7 The Consequences of Failure
4.3 Some of the Key Drivers for Government
4.3.1 The Costs Involved
4.3.2 National and International Responsibilities
4.3.3 Business Potential
4.4 Current Developments
4.4.1 Structural Issues
4.4.2 Skills Issues
4.4.3 Regulatory Issues
4.4.4 Waste Issues
4.5 Decommissioning Research Framework Programmes of the European Community
4.6 The Challenges Ahead

5 The Transition From Operations to Decommissioning
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Preparing for the Transition
5.3 Human Resource Issues
5.4 Information Requirements
5.5 Implementation Issues
5.6 Costs of Transition Activities

6 Reactor Decommissioning - The Safestore Concept
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Decommissioning and Radioactivity
6.2.1 Decommissioning Strategy and Option Selection
6.2.2 Activation Inventory
6.2.3 Worker Dose Modelling
6.2.4 Radioactive Waste Minimisation Modelling
6.2.5 Arguments Against Deferral
6.3 Decommissioning Activities
6.4 Paying for Decommissioning

7 Decommissioning PIE and Other Facilities
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Key Issues to be Considered
7.3 Alpha and Gamma Radiation Working
7.4 Decommissioning Examples

8 Preparation of Documentation for Decommissioning
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Decommissioning Plan and Programme
8.3 Decommissioning Safety Case
8.4 Conventional Safety Documentation Requirements
8.5 Management Procedures and Quality Assurance
8.6 Examples of Typical Safety Documentation
8.6.1 Materials Test reactors to Stage 2 Decommissioning
8.6.2 Jason (Royal Naval College) Reactor to Stage 3 Decommissioning
8.6.3 Site Environmental Remediation to Unrestricted Use

9 Radiological Characterisation
9.1 Introduction
9.2 General Approach
9.3 Characterisation Plan
9.4 In-Situ Measurements
9.5 Sampling and Analysis
9.6 Quality Assurance Requirements
9.7 Characterisation Report

10 Decontamination Techniques
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Objectives and Constraints for Decontamination
10.3 Characteristics of Decontamination Techniques
10.3.1 Non-Attritive Cleaning
10.3.2 Chemical Decontamination
10.3.3 Physical Attrition
10.4 Waste Minimisation and Treatment
10.5 Selecting a Decontamination Technique
10.6 Positive and Negative Experiences from Completed Projects

11 Dismantling Techniques
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Cutting Techniques
11.2.1 Mechanical Cutting
11.2.2 Thermal Cutting
11.2.3 Other Methods
11.3 Remote Handling Techniques
11.4 Radiological Protection During Dismantling
11.4.1 Contamination Containment
11.4.2 Personal Protective Equipment
11.5 Case Study: WAGR Decommissioning
11.5.1 Introduction
11.5.2 Decommissioning Plan
11.5.3 Remote Operations - Dismantling the Core Components
11.5.4 The Dismantling Campaigns
11.5.5 Fuel Strategy

12 Site Environmental Restoration Programme Management
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The Framework for Environmental Restoration Programme Management
12.3 The Strategic Plan
12.3.1 Introduction
12.3.2 A Strategic Planning System
12.3.3 Managing the Care and Maintenance Process
12.3.4 Programme Risk Management
12.3.5 Programme and Project Prioritisation
12.4 The Integrated Site Restoration Plan
12.5 Making the Case for a Project to Proceed
12.6 The Project Sanction Process
12.6.1 Introduction
12.6.2 Typical Sanction Paper Structure
12.7 Principles for Carrying Out Financial Appraisals
12.8 Sanction Case Study - Repacking Site X Legacy Intermediate Level

13 Project Investment Appraisal and Contract Strategy
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Capital Investment
13.3 Project Identification
13.4 Appraisal Methods
13.4.1 Rate of Return
13.4.2 Payback
13.4.3 Time Value of Money
13.4.4 Discounted Cash Flow
- Net Present Value (NPV)
- Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)
- Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
13.5 Project Investment Examples
13.5.1 NPV Example
13.5.2 IRR Example
13.5.3 NPV vs. IRR
13.5.4 Project X, Other Problems and Discussion
13.6 Modern Contract Strategy in the Nuclear Industry
13.6.1 Introduction
13.6.2 Modern Contract Selection Appropriate to Nuclear Decommissioning
13.6.3 Types of Contract
13.7 Alternative Sources of Funds
13.7.1 Introduction
13.7.2 What is PFI?
13.7.3 Fixed Price/Risk Premium and Value for Money
13.7.4 Technical Viability and PFI Project Set-Up Costs
13.7.5 The Staged Approach to PFI
13.8 Enclosures
Table A - Present Value of £1
Table B - Present Value of £1 Received Annually for N Years
13.9 Exercises
13.9.1 - 13.9.8
13.9.9 Case Study - The "D-Two" Decommissioning Company
13.9.10 Case Study - The "Delay and Decay" Decommissioning Company
13.9.11 Suggested Case Study Solutions

14 Hazard Reduction and Project Prioritisation
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Understanding Risk and Doses
14.3 Hazard Reduction
14.3.1 Why is Hazard Reduction Important?
14.3.2 How are Hazards Reduced?
14.3.3 What Methods may be used to Gauge Hazard Reduction?
14.4 Project Prioritisation
14.4.1 Why do we need to Prioritise our Projects?
14.4.2 A Prioritisation Methodology
14.4.3 The Model
14.5 Case Studies
14.5.1 Case Study - Hazard Reduction Over Time on Site X
14.5.2 Case Study - "My project is more important than yours";
A Case for Project Prioritisation

15 Decommissioning Cost Estimating
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Conventional Cost Estimating
15.3 Standardised Cost Listings
15.4 Parametric Cost Estimating

16 Waste Management - Introduction and Overview
16.1 Requirements to Manage Radioactive Wastes
16.2 Characterisation and Segregation
16.3 Passive Safety
16.4 Classification of Wastes
16.4.1 Introduction
16.4.2 Exempt Materials
16.4.3 Clean Materials - Free Release
16.4.4 Very Low Level Waste (VLLW)
16.4.5 Low Level Waste (LLW)
16.4.6 Intermediate Level Waste (ILW)
16.4.7 High Level Waste (HLW)
16.5 Summary

17 Waste Management Strategy
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Waste Management Strategy Requirements
17.2.1 Regulations
17.2.2 Consultation
17.2.3 Completeness
17.2.4 NII Requirements
17.2.5 Environment Agencies' Requirements
17.2.6 ILW Disposal Company (Nirex) Requirements
17.2.7 LLW Disposal Company (BNFL, Drigg) Requirements
17.2.8 Integration of the Strategy
17.2.9 Costs
17.3 Elements of Waste Management Strategy
17.3.1 Waste Generation
17.3.2 Interim Storage
17.3.3 Retrieval
17.3.4 Treatment
17.3.5 Conditioning
17.3.6 Storage
17.3.7 Disposal
17.4 Strategic Planning
17.4.1 Waste Inventory
17.4.2 Evaluation of Treatment/Processing Options
17.4.3 Reference Strategy
17.5 Integration and Costing
17.6 Review and Updating
17.7 The Fundamentals of Licensees' Waste Management Strategies
17.7.1 UKAEA
17.7.2 BNFL
17.7.3 British Energy (BE)
17.7.4 Liabilities Management Authority (LMA)
17.8 Summary

18 Policy and Regulatory Aspects of Waste Management
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Nuclear Site Operations
18.2.1 Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage
18.2.2 Operational Safety
18.3 Environmental Policy and Regulation
18.3.1 Introduction
18.3.2 Specific Regulations
18.3.3 Assessment Terminology
18.3.4 Assessment Criteria
18.4 Environmental Management System (EMS)
18.5 Organisational Framework
18.6 Tolerability of Risk

19 Management of Low Level Wastes (LLW)
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Sources of LLW
19.2.1 Introduction
19.2.2 Fuel Manufacture
19.2.3 Nuclear Power Generation and Decommissioning
19.2.4 Fuel Reprocessing
19.2.5 Other Sources
19.3 LLW Disposal
19.3.1 Regulatory Controls
19.3.2 Waste Control Systems
19.4 LLW Disposal Practices
19.5 LLW Conditioning Facilities

20 Management of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW)
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Regulatory Requirements for ILW
20.3 Sources and Processing Requirements
20.4 Standard Waste Packages & Specifications
20.4.1 Waste Package Specification
20.4.2 Storage
20.4.3 Transport
20.4.4 Disposal
20.4.5 ILW Conditions for Acceptance for Interim Storage & / or Eventual Disposal
20.5 Case Study - Waste Packaging Exercise
20.5.1 Introduction
20.5.2 Waste Descriptions
20.5.3 Solid Waste Packaging Concept
20.5.4 Sludge Waste Packaging Concept
20.5.5 Questions and Hints to Answers
20.5.6 General Case Study Data
20.5.7 Suggested Answers to the Case Study Questions

21 Management of High Level Wastes (HLW)
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Origins and Disposition of HLW
21.3 Spent Fuel
21.3.1 Introduction
21.3.2 Storage
21.3.3 Security and Safeguards
21.3.4 Conditioning for Disposal
21.4 HLW Characteristics and Inventory Data
21.5 HLW - Current World Disposal Status

22 Transport
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Regulatory Requirements for Transport
22.2.1 Regulations
22.2.2 General Requirements
22.2.3 Package Specific Requirements
22.2.4 Mode Specific Requirements
22.2.5 Operational Requirements
22.2.6 Special Arrangements
22.3 Examples of Waste Transport in the UK
22.3.1 BNFL
22.3.2 UKAEA
22.3.3 AEA-Technology
22.3.4 Croft Associates
22.3.5 Nirex
22.4 Examples of Waste Transport outside the UK
22.4.1 Trupact
22.4.2 Cogema Logistics LR56
22.4.3 BNFL Vit Return Flask
22.4.4 Swedish Waste Shipments
22.4.5 Cogema Gemini
22.5 Transport of Large items of Decommissioning Waste
22.5.1 Application of the Regulations to Large Items
22.5.2 General Requirements
22.5.3 Examples of the Transport of Large Decommissioning Items
22.6 Regulatory Considerations In the UK
22.6.1 DfT
22.6.2 NII
22.6.3 Environmental Agencies
22.7 Waste Transport Planning

23 Radiation and its Control
23.1 Introduction
23.2 The Properties of Radiation
23.3 The Measurement of Radiation
23.4 The Biological Effects of Radiation
23.5 Radiological Protection Principles
23.5.1 Justification
23.5.2 Dose Limits for Protective Action
23.5.3 Optimisation of Protection
23.6 Methods of Radiation Protection
23.7 Choosing Detection Equipment
23.8 Practical Aspects of Radiation Protection
23.8.1 Designation of Controlled and Supervised Areas
23.8.2 Categorisation of Controlled Areas
23.8.3 Personal Protective Equipment
23.9 Summary

24 Site Remediation - Principles and Regulatory Aspects
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Delicensing
24.3 Chemically Contaminated Ground
24.4 Radioactively Contaminated Ground
24.5 Principles for Management of Contaminated Ground
24.6 Best Practical Environmental Option
24.7 Summary

25 Characterisation of Contaminated Ground
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Desk Studies
25.3 Walk Over Surveys
25.4 Planning the Characterisation Programme
25.5 Health, Safety and Logistical Issues
25.6 Non Intrusive Surveys
25.6.1 Radiological Surveys
25.6.2 Geophysical Surveys
25.7 Intrusive Surveys
25.8 Logging, Sampling and Analysis
25.9 Interpretation and Modelling
25.10 Databasing and GIS
25.11 Guidance on Site Investigation

26 Technologies for Remediating Contaminated Land
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Waste Minimisation
26.3 Immobilisation, Stabilisation and Solidification
26.4 Containment Systems and Hydraulic Measures
26.5 Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater
26.6 Best Practical Environmental Option

Annex 1 - A Summary of International Waste Management Practice
Country Specific Examples of Radioactive Waste Management Programmes
A.1.1 Belgium
A 1.2 Canada
A 1.3 Finland
A 1.4 France
A 1.5 Germany
A 1.6 Japan
A 1.7 Netherlands
A 1.8 Spain
A 1.9 Sweden
A 1.10 Switzerland
A 1.11 United Kingdom
A 1.12 United States of America (USA)
A 1.13 Central and Eastern European Countries

Annex 2 - An Example of a Project Sanction Case - Repacking of Harwell Legacy Intermediate Level Waste

Annex 3 - Preliminary Background Introduction to Accounting Terminology
A 3.1 Introduction
A 3.2 Glossary of Accounting Terms
A 3.3 The Balance Sheet
A 3.4 The Profit and Loss Account
A 3.5 Preliminary Background Introduction to Accounting Terminology
A 3.6 Depreciation
A 3.7 Answers to Exercises

Annex 4 - References, Internet Information and Book Reading List
A 4.1 References
A 4.2 Internet Information
A 4.3 Booklist

Annex 5 - Elements and Isotopes
A 5.1 Introduction
A 5.2 The Nucleus
A 5.3 Radioactivity
A 5.4 Half-Life
A 5.5 Table of Elements

Annex 6 - Case Study: Dounreay Castle Ground Remediation


No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2003
8th September 2003
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Colin Bayliss

Colin Bayliss

Affiliations and Expertise

United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), Director of Major Projects

Kevin Langley

Dr. Langley is head of Technical Services Group within the Planning, Performance and Engineering Division of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Dr. Langley obtained a PhD in physical chemistry from Queen’s University, Belfast and has worked in universities and industry both in the UK and Australia, until joining the UKAEA in 1978. He has managed a broad range of projects on renewable energy technologies and nuclear fuel processing, including strategic studies. Since 1990 he has been involved in various capacities with managing the decommissioning program at Harwell and other UKAEA sites.

Affiliations and Expertise

United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA

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