Nuclear Corrosion Science and Engineering

Nuclear Corrosion Science and Engineering

1st Edition - February 21, 2012

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  • Editor: Damien Féron
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095343

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Description

Corrosion of nuclear materials, i.e. the interaction between these materials and their environments, is a major issue for plant safety as well as for operation and economic competitiveness. Understanding these corrosion mechanisms, the systems and materials they affect, and the methods to accurately measure their incidence is of critical importance to the nuclear industry. Combining assessment techniques and analytical models into this understanding allows operators to predict the service life of corrosion-affected nuclear plant materials, and to apply the most appropriate maintenance and mitigation options to ensure safe long term operation.This book critically reviews the fundamental corrosion mechanisms that affect nuclear power plants and facilities. Initial sections introduce the complex field of nuclear corrosion science, with detailed chapters on the different types of both aqueous and non aqueous corrosion mechanisms and the nuclear materials susceptible to attack from them. This is complemented by reviews of monitoring and control methodologies, as well as modelling and lifetime prediction approaches. Given that corrosion is an applied science, the final sections review corrosion issues across the range of current and next-generation nuclear reactors, and across such nuclear applications as fuel reprocessing facilities, radioactive waste storage and geological disposal systems.With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Nuclear corrosion science and engineering is an invaluable reference for nuclear metallurgists, materials scientists and engineers, as well as nuclear facility operators, regulators and consultants, and researchers and academics in this field.

Key Features

  • Comprehensively reviews the fundamental corrosion mechanisms that affect nuclear power plants and facilities
  • Chapters assess different types of both aqueous and non aqueous corrosion mechanisms and the nuclear materials susceptible to attack from them
  • Considers monitoring and control methodologies, as well as modelling and lifetime prediction approaches

Readership

Nuclear metallurgists, materials scientists and engineers, nuclear facility operators, regulators and consultants, and researchers and academics in this field.

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

    Preface

    Part I: Introduction to corrosion in nuclear power applications

    Chapter 1: Overview of corrosion engineering, science and technology

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Fundamentals of aqueous metallic corrosion

    1.3 Forms of aqueous corrosion

    1.4 Corrosion control

    1.5 Metallurgical influences on corrosion

    1.6 Mechanical influences on corrosion

    1.9 Appendix: glossary of corrosion terms

    Chapter 2: Overview of nuclear materials and nuclear corrosion science and engineering

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Nuclear environments

    2.3 Zirconium alloys

    2.4 Graphite

    2.5 Carbon steels and low alloy steels

    2.6 Stainless steels

    2.7 Nickel alloys

    2.8 Cobalt alloys

    2.9 Other alloys and composites

    2.10 Conclusions

    Chapter 3: Understanding and mitigating corrosion in nuclear reactor systems

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Reactor coolant circuits

    3.3 Primary coolant systems

    3.4 Secondary coolant systems

    3.5 Conclusion

    Part II: Aqueous corrosion in nuclear power applications: fundamental science, materials and mechanisms

    Chapter 4: General corrosion in nuclear reactor components and nuclear waste disposal systems

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Basic principles and mechanisms

    4.3 Nuclear components subject to general corrosion: reactor operations

    4.4 Nuclear components subject to general corrosion: back end of the fuel cycle

    Chapter 5: Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in nuclear reactor systems and components

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Basic principles of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC)

    5.3 Alloys and components exposed to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in the nuclear industry

    5.4 Models and mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC)

    5.5 Future trends: from experimental approach to numerical simulations

    Chapter 6: Irradiation assisted corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (IAC/IASCC) in nuclear reactor systems and components

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Irradiation effects on microchemistry and microstructure

    6.3 Irradiation effects on water chemistry

    6.4 Irradiation effects on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC): lab and plant data

    6.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 7: Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) in nuclear power plant components

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC)

    7.2 General aspects of flow accelerated corrosion (FAC)

    7.3 Understanding and modeling of flow accelerated corrosion (FAC)

    7.4 Theoretical model

    7.5 Systems and components susceptible to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC): maintenance programs and experience feedback

    7.6 Conclusion and future trends for flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) management

    Chapter 8: Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in nuclear power plant systems and components

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Biofilms and biofouling

    8.3 Microbial corrosion of different materials

    8.4 Industrial examples

    8.5 Tools to study microbial corrosion

    8.6 Protection against microbial corrosion

    Part III: Non-aqueous corrosion in nuclear power applications: fundamental science, materials and mechanisms

    Chapter 9: High-temperature oxidation in nuclear reactor systems

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 General behaviour of reactions at high temperatures

    9.3 Reactions with hot gases

    9.4 Solid-state reactions

    9.5 Mitigation

    Chapter 10: Liquid metal corrosion in nuclear reactor and accelerator driven systems

    Abstract:

    10.1 Liquid metals as heat transfer fluids

    10.2 General features of corrosion and mass transfer in liquid metal systems

    10.3 Corrosion in liquid sodium systems

    10.4 Corrosion in lithium systems

    10.5 Corrosion in lead-lithium systems

    10.6 Corrosion in liquid lead and lead-bismuth eutectic systems

    10.7 Conclusions

    10.8 Acknowledgements

    Part IV: Corrosion monitoring and control in nuclear power applications

    Chapter 11: Electrochemical techniques for monitoring and controlling corrosion in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Properties of the environment

    11.3 Sensors

    11.4 Reference electrodes

    11.5 Redox and corrosion potential sensors

    11.6 Hydrogen and oxygen sensors

    11.7 In-situ corrosion monitors

    11.8 Future trends

    11.10 List of abbreviations

    Chapter 12: On line electrochemical monitoring in light water reactor (LWR) systems

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Measurements in boiling water reactors (BWRs)

    12.3 Pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system

    12.4 Pressurized water reactor (PWR) secondary system

    12.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 13: Modelling corrosion in nuclear power plant systems

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Modelling techniques for corrosion: empirical and semi-empirical models

    13.3 Other modelling techniques

    Chapter 14: Lifetime prediction techniques for nuclear power plant systems

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Ageing management

    14.3 Risk-informed inspection

    14.4 Integrity assessment methods and lifetime calculations of reactor pressure vessel, piping and other load-bearing components

    14.4.3 Fracture mechanics analysis procedures and tools

    14.5 Ageing of concrete structures

    14.6 Future trends

    Part V: Corrosion issues in current nuclear reactors and applications

    Chapter 15: Corrosion issues in pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Primary circuits

    15.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    15.4 Austenitic stainless steels – stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    15.5 Secondary circuits: steam generators

    15.6 Secondary circuits: miscellaneous

    15.7 Tertiary circuits, fire protection systems and auxiliary circuits

    15.8 Monitoring, modelling and lifetime prediction methods

    15.9 Corrosion control and mitigation options

    15.10 Future trends

    15.11 Conclusion

    15.12 Acknowledgement

    15.14 List of abbreviations

    Chapter 16: Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactors (BWRs)

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping

    16.3 Modeling and lifetime prediction methods for stainless steel

    16.4 Modeling and lifetime prediction methods for nickel-base alloys

    16.5 Mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactors (BWRs)

    16.6 Future trends

    Chapter 17: Corrosion issues in pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR/CANDU®) systems

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Overview of CANDU® materials degradation

    17.3 Monitoring, modelling, mitigation and lifetime prediction

    17.4 Future trends

    17.5 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 18: Corrosion issues in water-cooled water-moderated energetic reactor (WWER) systems

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Corrosion issues

    18.3 Monitoring and corrosion control

    18.4 Conclusions

    18.5 Acknowledgments

    18.7 Appendix: acronyms and abbreviations

    Chapter 19: Corrosion issues in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    Abstract:

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Corrosion mechanisms of austenitic stainless steels in nitric media used in reprocessing plants

    19.3 Corrosion behaviour of zirconium in nitric media used in reprocessing plants

    19.4 Future trends

    19.5 Conclusion

    Part VI: Corrosion issues in next generation nuclear reactors and advanced applications

    Chapter 20: Corrosion issues in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) systems

    Abstract:

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 General high temperature reactor (HTR) plant description

    20.3 Outline of the main corrosion issues specifically related to high temperature reactor (HTR) technology

    20.4 High temperature corrosion of structural metallic alloys in the primary coolant He of a high temperature reactor (HTR)

    20.5 Oxidation of different graphite materials used in high temperature reactor (HTR) systems

    20.6 UO2/C interaction inside the tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel

    20.7 Corrosion studies on the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) spent fuel tank materials

    20.8 Future trends

    Chapter 21: Corrosion issues in sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) systems

    Abstract:

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Core and structural materials for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs)

    21.3 Corrosion issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs)

    21.4 Corrosion estimation for design

    21.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 22: Corrosion issues in lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) and accelerator driven systems (ADS)

    Abstract:

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Overview of corrosion in liquid lead alloys

    22.3 Corrosion issues and reactor concepts

    22.4 Corrosion control and monitoring and mitigation options

    22.5 Modelling and lifetime prediction methods

    22.6 Future trends

    Chapter 23: Corrosion issues in molten salt reactor (MSR) systems

    Abstract:

    23.1 The development and operational experience of molten salt reactors (MSRs)

    23.2 Corrosion processes in molten salts

    23.3 Review of molten salt corrosion data

    23.4 Monitoring, modeling and lifetime prediction methods

    23.5 Material development and corrosion control

    Chapter 24: Corrosion issues in supercritical water reactor (SCWR) systems

    Abstract:

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Corrosion in supercritical water reactors (SCWRs)

    24.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in supercritical water

    24.4 Conclusion

    Chapter 25: Corrosion issues in thermonuclear fusion reactors and facilities

    Abstract:

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Corrosion issues for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)

    25.3 Corrosion issues for fusion power reactors

    25.4 Corrosion issues for international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    25.5 Modelling tools

    25.6 Future trends

    Chapter 26: Corrosion issues of radioactive waste packages in geological disposal systems

    Abstract:

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Potential corrosion issues in waste packages

    26.3 Experimental and modelling approaches to the corrosion behaviour of waste package constituents

    26.4 Future trends and recommendations

    26.6 Acknowledgements

    Appendix: Corrosion issues in radioactive waste interim storage facilities

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1072
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: February 21, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095343

About the Editor

Damien Féron

Damien Féron has been Director of Research at CEA (French Atomic and Alternative Energies Commission) since 2007 and Professor at INSTN (The French School for Energy and Health Technology, University Paris-Saclay) since 2010. He has been working in the corrosion field for more than 40 years. He chaired the Working Party on Nuclear Corrosion (2003-2016) of the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) and the Science and Technology Advisory Committee (STAC). He has been President of the EFC (2017-18) and the WCO (World Corrosion Organization) which is a non-governmental organization recognized by the United Nations (2019-2022). He has published more than 70 scientific papers and is editor or co-editor of 22 books or special issues in journals, mainly in the field of microbial corrosion, seawater corrosion and nuclear corrosion. During his career, he has received several national and international honors, including appointment as an Honorary Fellow from both NACE (USA) and the EFC, and the Lee Hsun Lecture Award in China. He was also nominated for the “Chevalier dans l’ordre des Palmes Académiques” (French National Honor) in 2017.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Research, CEA and Professor, INSTN (Université Paris-Saclay), France

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