Nuclear Corrosion Science and Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845697655, 9780857095343

Nuclear Corrosion Science and Engineering

1st Edition

Editors: Damien Feron
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697655
eBook ISBN: 9780857095343
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 21st February 2012
Page Count: 1072
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

Preface

Part I: Introduction to corrosion in nuclear power applications

Chapter 1: Overview of corrosion engineering, science and technology

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Fundamentals of aqueous metallic corrosion

1.3 Forms of aqueous corrosion

1.4 Corrosion control

1.5 Metallurgical influences on corrosion

1.6 Mechanical influences on corrosion

1.9 Appendix: glossary of corrosion terms

Chapter 2: Overview of nuclear materials and nuclear corrosion science and engineering

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Nuclear environments

2.3 Zirconium alloys

2.4 Graphite

2.5 Carbon steels and low alloy steels

2.6 Stainless steels

2.7 Nickel alloys

2.8 Cobalt alloys

2.9 Other alloys and composites

2.10 Conclusions

Chapter 3: Understanding and mitigating corrosion in nuclear reactor systems

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Reactor coolant circuits

3.3 Primary coolant systems

3.4 Secondary coolant systems

3.5 Conclusion

Part II: Aqueous corrosion in nuclear power applications: fundamental science, materials and mechanisms

Chapter 4: General corrosion in nuclear reactor components and nuclear waste disposal systems

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Basic principles and mechanisms

4.3 Nuclear components subject to general corrosion: reactor operations

4.4 Nuclear components subject to general corrosion: back end of the fuel cycle

Chapter 5: Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in nuclear reactor systems and components

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Basic principles of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC)

5.3 Alloys and components exposed to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in the nuclear industry

5.4 Models and mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC)

5.5 Future trends: from experimental approach to numerical simulations

Chapter 6: Irradiation assisted corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (IAC/IASCC) in nuclear reactor systems and components

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Irradiation effects on microchemistry and microstructure

6.3 Irradiation effects on water chemistry

6.4 Irradiation effects on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC): lab and plant data

6.5 Conclusions

Chapter 7: Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) in nuclear power plant components

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC)

7.2 General aspects of flow accelerated corrosion (FAC)

7.3 Understanding and modeling of flow accelerated corrosion (FAC)

7.4 Theoretical model

7.5 Systems and components susceptible to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC): maintenance programs and experience feedback

7.6 Conclusion and future trends for flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) management

Chapter 8: Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in nuclear power plant systems and components

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Biofilms and biofouling

8.3 Microbial corrosion of different materials

8.4 Industrial examples

8.5 Tools to study microbial corrosion

8.6 Protection against microbial corrosion

Part III: Non-aqueous corrosion in nuclear power applications: fundamental science, materials and mechanisms

Chapter 9: High-temperature oxidation in nuclear reactor systems

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 General behaviour of reactions at high temperatures

9.3 Reactions with hot gases

9.4 Solid-state reactions

9.5 Mitigation

Chapter 10: Liquid metal corrosion in nuclear reactor and accelerator driven systems

Abstract:

10.1 Liquid metals as heat transfer fluids

10.2 General features of corrosion and mass transfer in liquid metal systems

10.3 Corrosion in liquid sodium systems

10.4 Corrosion in lithium systems

10.5 Corrosion in lead-lithium systems

10.6 Corrosion in liquid lead and lead-bismuth eutectic systems

10.7 Conclusions

10.8 Acknowledgements

Part IV: Corrosion monitoring and control in nuclear power applications

Chapter 11: Electrochemical techniques for monitoring and controlling corrosion in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Properties of the environment

11.3 Sensors

11.4 Reference electrodes

11.5 Redox and corrosion potential sensors

11.6 Hydrogen and oxygen sensors

11.7 In-situ corrosion monitors

11.8 Future trends

11.10 List of abbreviations

Chapter 12: On line electrochemical monitoring in light water reactor (LWR) systems

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Measurements in boiling water reactors (BWRs)

12.3 Pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system

12.4 Pressurized water reactor (PWR) secondary system

12.5 Conclusions

Chapter 13: Modelling corrosion in nuclear power plant systems

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Modelling techniques for corrosion: empirical and semi-empirical models

13.3 Other modelling techniques

Chapter 14: Lifetime prediction techniques for nuclear power plant systems

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Ageing management

14.3 Risk-informed inspection

14.4 Integrity assessment methods and lifetime calculations of reactor pressure vessel, piping and other load-bearing components

14.4.3 Fracture mechanics analysis procedures and tools

14.5 Ageing of concrete structures

14.6 Future trends

Part V: Corrosion issues in current nuclear reactors and applications

Chapter 15: Corrosion issues in pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Primary circuits

15.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

15.4 Austenitic stainless steels – stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

15.5 Secondary circuits: steam generators

15.6 Secondary circuits: miscellaneous

15.7 Tertiary circuits, fire protection systems and auxiliary circuits

15.8 Monitoring, modelling and lifetime prediction methods

15.9 Corrosion control and mitigation options

15.10 Future trends

15.11 Conclusion

15.12 Acknowledgement

15.14 List of abbreviations

Chapter 16: Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactors (BWRs)

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping

16.3 Modeling and lifetime prediction methods for stainless steel

16.4 Modeling and lifetime prediction methods for nickel-base alloys

16.5 Mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactors (BWRs)

16.6 Future trends

Chapter 17: Corrosion issues in pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR/CANDU®) systems

Abstract:

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Overview of CANDU® materials degradation

17.3 Monitoring, modelling, mitigation and lifetime prediction

17.4 Future trends

17.5 Acknowledgements

Chapter 18: Corrosion issues in water-cooled water-moderated energetic reactor (WWER) systems

Abstract:

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Corrosion issues

18.3 Monitoring and corrosion control

18.4 Conclusions

18.5 Acknowledgments

18.7 Appendix: acronyms and abbreviations

Chapter 19: Corrosion issues in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

Abstract:

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Corrosion mechanisms of austenitic stainless steels in nitric media used in reprocessing plants

19.3 Corrosion behaviour of zirconium in nitric media used in reprocessing plants

19.4 Future trends

19.5 Conclusion

Part VI: Corrosion issues in next generation nuclear reactors and advanced applications

Chapter 20: Corrosion issues in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) systems

Abstract:

20.1 Introduction

20.2 General high temperature reactor (HTR) plant description

20.3 Outline of the main corrosion issues specifically related to high temperature reactor (HTR) technology

20.4 High temperature corrosion of structural metallic alloys in the primary coolant He of a high temperature reactor (HTR)

20.5 Oxidation of different graphite materials used in high temperature reactor (HTR) systems

20.6 UO2/C interaction inside the tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel

20.7 Corrosion studies on the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) spent fuel tank materials

20.8 Future trends

Chapter 21: Corrosion issues in sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) systems

Abstract:

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Core and structural materials for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs)

21.3 Corrosion issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs)

21.4 Corrosion estimation for design

21.5 Conclusion

Chapter 22: Corrosion issues in lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) and accelerator driven systems (ADS)

Abstract:

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Overview of corrosion in liquid lead alloys

22.3 Corrosion issues and reactor concepts

22.4 Corrosion control and monitoring and mitigation options

22.5 Modelling and lifetime prediction methods

22.6 Future trends

Chapter 23: Corrosion issues in molten salt reactor (MSR) systems

Abstract:

23.1 The development and operational experience of molten salt reactors (MSRs)

23.2 Corrosion processes in molten salts

23.3 Review of molten salt corrosion data

23.4 Monitoring, modeling and lifetime prediction methods

23.5 Material development and corrosion control

Chapter 24: Corrosion issues in supercritical water reactor (SCWR) systems

Abstract:

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Corrosion in supercritical water reactors (SCWRs)

24.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in supercritical water

24.4 Conclusion

Chapter 25: Corrosion issues in thermonuclear fusion reactors and facilities

Abstract:

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Corrosion issues for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)

25.3 Corrosion issues for fusion power reactors

25.4 Corrosion issues for international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF)

25.5 Modelling tools

25.6 Future trends

Chapter 26: Corrosion issues of radioactive waste packages in geological disposal systems

Abstract:

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Potential corrosion issues in waste packages

26.3 Experimental and modelling approaches to the corrosion behaviour of waste package constituents

26.4 Future trends and recommendations

26.6 Acknowledgements

Appendix: Corrosion issues in radioactive waste interim storage facilities

Index


Description

Corrosion of nuclear materials, i.e. the interaction between these materials and their environments, is a major issue for plant safety as well as for operation and economic competitiveness. Understanding these corrosion mechanisms, the systems and materials they affect, and the methods to accurately measure their incidence is of critical importance to the nuclear industry. Combining assessment techniques and analytical models into this understanding allows operators to predict the service life of corrosion-affected nuclear plant materials, and to apply the most appropriate maintenance and mitigation options to ensure safe long term operation.

This book critically reviews the fundamental corrosion mechanisms that affect nuclear power plants and facilities. Initial sections introduce the complex field of nuclear corrosion science, with detailed chapters on the different types of both aqueous and non aqueous corrosion mechanisms and the nuclear materials susceptible to attack from them. This is complemented by reviews of monitoring and control methodologies, as well as modelling and lifetime prediction approaches. Given that corrosion is an applied science, the final sections review corrosion issues across the range of current and next-generation nuclear reactors, and across such nuclear applications as fuel reprocessing facilities, radioactive waste storage and geological disposal systems.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Nuclear corrosion science and engineering is an invaluable reference for nuclear metallurgists, materials scientists and engineers, as well as nuclear facility operators, regulators and consultants, and researchers and academics in this field.

Key Features

  • Comprehensively reviews the fundamental corrosion mechanisms that affect nuclear power plants and facilities
  • Chapters assess different types of both aqueous and non aqueous corrosion mechanisms and the nuclear materials susceptible to attack from them
  • Considers monitoring and control methodologies, as well as modelling and lifetime prediction approaches

Readership

Nuclear metallurgists, materials scientists and engineers, nuclear facility operators, regulators and consultants, and researchers and academics in this field.


Details

No. of pages:
1072
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2012
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857095343
Hardcover ISBN:
9781845697655
Paperback ISBN:
9780081016343

Reviews

The reliability of nuclear power depends mostly on the unblemished integrity of its construction materials over the long term; here, their corrosion by several modes of degradation, especially stress corrosion cracking, continues to threaten reliable performance. Such fragility will continue into the future for new plants. This book considers all of the important nuclear corrosion issues and will be a great asset to operators, designers, and researchers., Roger W. Staehle, NAE, Staehle Consulting, USA
This book covers the range of nuclear reactors and provides comprehensive and systematic information on the relevant nuclear corrosion mechanisms, science and engineering., Professor Tetsuo Shoji, Long-term Materials Reliability Laboratory, Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University, Japan


About the Editors

Damien Feron Editor

Dr. Damien Feron is Director of Research at the Nuclear Energy Division of the Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA) and Professor at the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN), France. He is also Chairman of the Nuclear Corrosion Working Party (WP4) and of the Science and Technology Advisory Committee (STAC) of the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC). He is world-renowned for his leadership and research in the field of nuclear materials corrosion and its mitigation.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN), France