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Corrosion in nuclear power plants cause reductions in efficiency and increases in deposit build-up on plant surfaces, making for expensive maintentance and potential radiological health hazards. This book guides studies to predict and minimize corrosion, thus making nuclear power safer and more cost effective. Too often, reliance on empirical models and on-site testing of existing plants makes study and prediction of corrosive effects in nuclear reactors into a pricey and lengthy process. Introducing the experimental procedures, set up, sample preparation and computer modeling suggested in this book will save precious time and resources in a field where the significant time and expense to get and keep plants on-line are two of the chief concerns preventing broader commerical viability.
The only book to focus exclusively on preventing nuclear corrosion
Uses computer modelling to tie together chemical engineering, civil engineering, corrosion science, and nuclear engineering into a cohesive solution to a vexing nucelar problem
Includes all fundamental equations, example data sets and experimental techniques
Nuclear Engineers, Nuclear Power Designers, Chemical and Civil Engineers working in the Nuclear field, Corrosion Scientists
Preface Introduction Why do we care? Bounding the discussion The reactor Materials of construction pH control agents and coolant additives Clarifying the definition The analytical domain The Corrosion Source The process The form Why a double layered film? Ion site preference Kinetics Modeling the behavior A closer look at kp Elemental speciation of kp & kr The cobalt source Tramp cobalt in construction material High cobalt content alloys A place to start Framing the vision of the general equation set Mass balances Physico-chemical processes Nuclear processes Dependant variables Modeling coolant additives and pH control agents Building block fluxes for the general equation set Corrosion growth and release Particulate deposition and erosion Water Purity Practical measurements of kdp and ke Hydro-thermal crystallization/dissolution Saturated or equilibrium coolant concentrations Vanishing dependent variables Parsing the hydrothermal mass transfer Modeling of boiling phenomena Boiling enhanced hydrothermal crystallization Boiling enhanced particulate deposition Hydrothermal particulate crystallization/dissolution Saturation enhancement factor (FP) Hydrothermal particulate mass transfer coefficient Building block models for radioactive build-up and decay Effective thermal neutron production cross sections Chromite sub-layer equations Iron & nickel based alloys Stellite Zircaloy Ferrite layer equations Particulate aqueous phase equations Discussion Aqueous soluble phase equations Iron & nickel based alloy soluble equations Zircaloy base metal soluble equations Stellite base metal soluble equations Discussion Framing the vision of the media equation set Reactor coolant purification systems Modeling media Filtration building block model Modeling f and A simpler approach Ion-exchange building block model The media equation set Media ionic sub-surface equations (ion-exchangers only) Media surface phase (filtered mass) equations Media particulate equations Media soluble equations A solution method Linerizing the equation sets Finite differencing General equations for iron in iron/nickel based alloys Simplified-linearized iron equations Discussion How does finite-differencing work? Defining Y (n) and b (n,m) Subordinate or Secondary Models and Correlations FORTRAN or C Algorithms for the Thermodynamic Properties of Steam and Water Computation of pH (log of the H+ ion concentration) Single Phase Hydraulic Friction Factor Defining the Input Architecture for NOC System Defaults and Program Control Inputs Finite Difference Mesh Time Independent Part (or region) Inputs Operating History Histogram Inputs The Modeling of Time Time Dependent Inputs Time dependent loop connection table inputs Time dependent part inputs Nuclear inputs and power shapes Program design and suggestions Program Architecture Input module Full input processing Input pre-scanning Full input summary edits Auto-mesh generation Initial dependent variable boundary conditions Restart input processing The restart file structure The analysis module Loop 1 ? Operating Steps Keeping track of time Loop 2 ? Temporal Power Rows Loop 3 ? Descending the loop connection table Loop 4 ? The inner-most loop over mesh cells Dynamic solution repair Consider a freezing strategy Row convergence A word about convergence Preserving the mass balance Partial row rebalance Oscillatory solutions A special case mass rebalance Wrapping up the problem Summary tables The output module Summary Pre and post processing (the GUI interface) Post processing functionality Special solution edits Simulation graphical trends Summary Afterward References. Glossary Nomenclature Appendix A. Nickel equilibria Cobalt equilibria Zinc equilibria
- No. of pages:
- © Butterworth-Heinemann 2009
- 26th August 2009
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Lockheed Martin, Nuclear Engineer; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Advisory Engineer
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