Nuclear and Radiochemistry

Nuclear and Radiochemistry

1st Edition - May 18, 2012

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  • Authors: Jozsef Konya, Noémi Nagy
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123914873

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Description

The field of nuclear and radiochemistry is wide-reaching, with results having functions and use across a variety of disciplines. Drawing on 40 years of experience in teaching and research, this concise book explains the basic principles and applications of the primary areas of nuclear and radiochemistry. Separate chapters cover each main area of recent radiochemistry. This includes nuclear medicine and chemical aspects of nuclear power plants, namely the problems of nuclear wastes and nuclear analysis (both bulk and surface analysis), with the analytical methods based on the interactions of radiation with matter. Furthermore, special attention is paid to thermodynamics of radioisotope tracer methods, the very diluted system (carrier-free radioactive isotopes) and the principles of chemical processes with unsealed radioactive sources. This book will be helpful to students and researchers in chemistry, chemical engineering, environmental sciences, and specialists working in all fields of radiochemistry.

Key Features

  • Basic concepts are introduced and practical applications explained, providing a full view of the subject.
  • Laboratory work with unsealed radiochemicals is discussed in details that can be applied in research and authority in the lab environment.

Readership

Students and researchers in chemistry, chemical engineering, and specialists working in any fields of radiochemistry such as agriculture, geology, medicine, or physics.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Introduction

    Further Reading

    2. Basic Concepts

    2.1 Atomic Nuclei

    2.2 Forces in the Nucleus

    2.3 Other Properties of Nuclei

    2.4 Elementary Particles

    2.5 Models of Nuclei

    Further Reading

    3. Isotopes

    3.1 Isotopic Effects

    3.2 Separation of Isotopes

    3.3 Isotope Composition in Nature

    3.4 Study of Geological Formations and Processes by Stable Isotope Ratios

    Further Reading

    4. Radioactive Decay

    4.1 Kinetics of Radioactive Decay

    4.2 Radioactive Decay Series

    4.3 Radioactive Dating

    4.4 Mechanism of Radioactive Decay

    Further Reading

    5. Interaction of Radiation with Matter

    5.1 Basic Concepts

    5.2 Interaction of Alpha Particles with Matter

    5.3 Interaction of Beta Radiation with Matter

    5.4 Interaction of Gamma Radiation with Matter

    5.5 Interaction of Neutrons with Matter

    Further Reading

    6. Nuclear Reactions

    6.1 Kinetics of Nuclear Reactions

    6.2 Classification of Nuclear Reactions

    6.3 General Scheme of Radionuclide Production by Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Decay

    6.4 Chemical Effects of Nuclear Reactions

    Further Reading

    7. Nuclear Energy Production

    7.1 Nuclear Power Plants

    7.2 Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    7.3 Storage and Treatment of Spent Fuel and Other Radioactive Waste

    7.4 New Trends in Nuclear Energy Production

    7.5 Nuclear Weapons

    Further Reading

    8. Radioactive Tracer Methods

    8.1 History of Radioactive Tracer Methods

    8.2 Basic Concepts

    8.3 Selection of Tracers

    8.4 Position of the Labeling Atom in a Molecule

    8.5 General Methods for the Preparation of Radioactive Tracers

    8.6 Radioactive Isotopes in Tracer Methods

    8.7 The Main Steps of the Production of Unsealed Radioactive Preparations (Lajos Baranyai)

    8.8 Production of Encapsulated Radioactive Preparations (Sealed Sources) (Lajos Baranyai)

    8.9 Facilities, Equipment, and Tools Serving for Production of Radioactive Substances (Lajos Baranyai)

    Further Reading

    9. Physicochemical Application of Radiotracer Methods

    9.1 The Thermodynamic Concept of Classification (Distribution of Radioactive and Stable Isotopes)

    9.2 Classification of Tracer Methods

    9.3 Physicochemical Applications of Tracer Methods

    Further Reading

    10. Radio- and Nuclear Analysis

    10.1 Radioactive Isotopes as Tracers

    10.2 Radioanalytical Methods Using the Interaction of Radiation with Matter

    Further Reading

    11. Industrial Application of Radioisotopes

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Tracer Investigations with Open Radioisotopes

    11.3 Absorption and Scattering Measurements with Sealed Radioactive Sources

    Further Reading

    12. An Introduction to Nuclear Medicine

    12.1 Fields of Nuclear Medicine

    12.2 The Role and Aspects of Applying Radiotracers in Medicine

    12.3 In Vitro Diagnostics with Radioisotopes

    12.4 Radionuclide Imaging

    12.5 Some Examples of Gamma Camera Imaging Procedures

    12.6 Positron Emission Tomography

    Further Reading

    13. Environmental Radioactivity

    13.1 Natural Radioactive Isotopes

    13.2 Radioactive Isotopes of Anthropogenic Origin

    13.3 Occurrence of Radioactive Isotopes in the Environment

    13.4 Biological Effects of Radiation

    Further Reading

    14. Detection and Measurement of Radioactivity

    14.1 Gas-Filled Tubes

    14.2 Scintillation Detectors

    14.3 Semiconductor Detectors

    14.4 Electric Circuits Connected to Detectors

    14.5 Track and Other Detectors

    14.6 Absolute Measurement of Decomposition

    14.7 Statistics of Radioactive Decay

    Further Reading

Product details

  • No. of pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2012
  • Published: May 18, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123914873

About the Authors

Jozsef Konya

Jozsef Konya
József Kónya is the professor of radiochemistry in the Isotope Laboratory of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen, Hungary. He received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in physical chemistry at the University of Debrecen. He has a D.Sc. degree of radiochemistry from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He has more than 50 years’ experience in nuclear and radiochemistry teaching. His research interest is the study of the interfacial processes of natural sorbents, including soils, rocks, clay minerals mainly by radioactive tracer methods. Recently, he has dealt with the principal studies of nuclear waste storage. He has written or co-written numerous peer-reviewed articles and is the co-author of four books in the fields of nuclear and radiochemistry as well as the interfacial chemistry of geological formations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Isotope Laboratory, Department of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Noémi Nagy

Noémi Nagy
Noémi M. Nagy is the professor of radiochemistry in the Isotope Laboratory of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen, Hungary. She received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in radiochemistry at the University of Debrecen. She has a D.Sc. degree of agrochemistry from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. She has approximately 30 years’ experience in nuclear and radiochemistry teaching. Her research interest is the study of the interfacial processes of natural sorbents, including soils, rocks, clay minerals mainly by radioactive tracer methods. Recently, she has dealt with the principal studies of nuclear waste storage. She has written or co-written numerous peer-reviewed articles and is the co-author four books in the fields of nuclear and radiochemistry as well as the interfacial chemistry of geological formations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Isotope Laboratory, Department of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen, Hungary

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