Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies for Fluid Foods - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123814708, 9780123814715

Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies for Fluid Foods

1st Edition

Editors: PJ Cullen Brijesh Tiwari Vasilis Valdramidis
eBook ISBN: 9780123814715
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123814708
Paperback ISBN: 9780128103739
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 17th August 2011
Page Count: 542
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Food processing is the step of the food chain that principally affects a food's physical or biochemical properties, along with determining the safety and shelf life of the product.  This book provides a comprehensive overview of innovations in non-thermal technologies specifically for fluid foods, recognized for their high bioavailability of macronutrients and micronutrients.

Considerable resources and expertise has been devoted to the processing of safe and wholesome foods.  Non-thermal technologies have been developed as an alternative to thermal processing, while still meeting required safety or shelf-life demands and minimising the effects on its nutritional and quality attributes.

Key Features

  • Examines non-thermal processing techniques specifically applied to fluid foods
  • Includes methods for mathematically evaluating each technique
  • Addresses global regulatory requirements for fluid foods
  • Provides recommendations and opportunities for various safety-related issues


Professionals in food processing research, quality assurance/control, product development. Also professionals involved with technical services and regulatory affairs in food processing

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Status and Trends of Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies for Fluid Foods

1.1. What are Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies?

1.2. Fluid Foods and Process Validation

1.3. Technology Drivers

1.4. Hurdle Concept

1.5. Book Objectives

Chapter 2. Fluid Dynamics in Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Processes

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Some Basic Considerations on Fluid Mechanics

2.3. High-Pressure Processing

2.4. Pulsed Electric Fields

2.5. Ultrasound

2.6. Light Pulses

2.7. Ohmic Heating

2.8. Conclusion

Chapter 3. Fluid Rheology in Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Processes

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Fluid Rheology

3.3. Influence of Rheology on Process Efficacy

3.4. Effects of Treatment on Fluid Rheology

3.5. Conclusions

Chapter 4. Pulsed Electric Field Processing of Fluid Foods

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Principles of Operation

4.3. Process Control Parameters

4.4. Treatment Parameters

4.5. Microorganism, Enzyme and Quality- and Health-Related Compound Characteristics

4.6. Product Parameters

4.7. Microbial Inactivation Mechanism

4.8. Pulsed Electric Field in Combination with Other Technologies

4.9. Effects on Fluid Food Nutritional and Quality Parameters

4.10. Shelf-Life of Pulsed Electric Field-Processed Fluid Foods

4.11. Current Status and Future Trends

Chapter 5. High-Pressure Processing of Fluid Foods

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Technology Governing Principles

5.3. Microbiological Safety

5.4. Impact of Combined Pressure–Heat Treatments on Quality Attributes of Foods

5.5. Combined Pressure–Heat Treatment Effects on Nutrient Content of Foods

5.6. Regulatory Aspects

5.7. Conclusions

Chapter 6. Ultrasound Processing of Fluid Foods

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Generation of Power Ultrasound

6.3. The Measurement of Ultrasonic Energy (Dosimetry)

6.4. Ultrasound in Liquid Food Sterilization

6.5. Effect on Quality Parameters

6.6. Current Status and Challenges

6.7. Conclusions

Chapter 7. Irradiation of Fluid Foods

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Irradiation Technologies

7.3. General Mode of Action

7.4. Food Safety and Shelf-Life of Irradiated Liquids

7.5. Sensory and Nutritive Properties

7.6. Operational Parameter Case Study: Container Orientation

7.7. Regulations and Consumer Attitude of Food Irradiation: China

7.8. Case Study: Irradiated Wine, China

7.9. Conclusions

Chapter 8. Ultraviolet and Pulsed Light Processing of Fluid Foods

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Principles of Operation

8.3. Process Control Parameters

8.4. Microbial Inactivation Mechanism

8.5. Antimicrobial Effects of Ultraviolet and Pulsed Light in Specific Products

8.6. Effects on Fluid Food Nutritional and Quality Parameters

8.7. Industrial Scale-Up and Challenges

8.8. Conclusions

Chapter 9. Ozone Processing of Fluid Foods

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Generation of Ozone

9.3. Ozone in Liquid Food Processing

9.4. Factors Affecting Efficacy of Ozone Processing

9.5. Microbial Inactivation

9.6. Microbial Inactivation Mechanism

9.7. Mycotoxins

9.8. Effect on Fluid Food Quality

9.9. Current Status and Future Trends

Chapter 10. Dense-Phase Carbon Dioxide Processing of Fluid Foods

10.1. Principles

10.2. Process Control Parameters

10.3. Microbial Inactivation Mechanisms

10.4. Effects on Fluid Food Nutritional and Quality Parameters

10.5. Current Status and Future Trends

Chapter 11. Ohmic Heating of Fluid Foods

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Principles

11.3. Process Control Parameters

11.4. Microbial Inactivation Mechanism

11.5. Effects on Nutritional and Quality Characteristics of Fluid Food

11.6. Current Status and Future Trends

Chapter 12. Microwave Heating of Fluid Foods

12.1. Introduction

12.2. General Principles of Microwave Heating

12.3. Role of Dielectric Properties in Microwave Heating

12.4. Interactions of Microwave with Food Components

12.5. Dielectric Properties of Selected Foods

12.6. Microwave Processing of Foods

12.7. Microwave Processing and Equipment

12.8. Challenges in Microwave Processing

12.9. Conclusions

Chapter 13. Infrared Heating of Fluid Foods

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Basic Principles Governing Infrared Radiation

13.3. Opportunities for the Infrared Processing of Liquid Foods

13.4. Equipment for Infrared Processing of Liquid Foods

13.5. Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Work

Chapter 14. Modeling the Kinetics of Microbial and Quality Attributes of Fluid Food During Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Processes

14.1. Introduction

14.2. AD HOC Hypotheses for Kinetic Studies

14.3. Parameters of Interest for Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Processes

14.4. Experimental Design

14.5. Data (Pre)Processing

14.6. Model Structure Characterization of Microbial Dynamics

14.7. Model Structure Characterization of Chemical Dynamics

14.8. Model Parameter Estimation

14.9. Model Validation

14.10. Applications on the Design and Optimization of Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies

14.11. Conclusion and Future

Chapter 15. Regulatory and Legislative Issues for Non-Thermal Technologies

15.1. Introduction

15.2. An Overview of How Law is Created in the EU

15.3. Overview of the Regulation of Food in the European Union

15.4. The Novel Food Regime

15.5. How Does this Apply to Specific Emerging Non-Thermal Technologies?

15.6. Other Existing Regulatory Requirements

15.7. It’s a Small World, but is One Set of Global Rules Realistic?

15.8. Conclusions

Food Science and Technology International Series



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About the Editor

PJ Cullen

PJ Cullen’s research interests include the development of novel technologies for the food and pharmaceutical industries. He spent 10 years at the Dublin Institute of Technology where he was team leader of the Process Analytical Technology group and the BioPlasma research group. He has published more than 100 journal articles and book chapters. His current research interests include the development of non-thermal plasmas for biological applications in food and medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

BioPlasma Group, School of Food Science & Environmental Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland

Brijesh Tiwari

Brijesh Kumar Tiwari, M.Sc., Ph.D., FIFST, FRSC, is currently a Principal Research Officer at Teagasc – the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority. His primary research interests relate to the investigation of green and sustainable solutions to food industry challenges. He is a fellow of Institute of Food Science & Technology (UK) and Royal Society of Chemistry (UK). He is also the Editor in Chief of Journal of Food Processing and Preservation and also part of the Editorial Board for Food Engineering Reviews.

Affiliations and Expertise

Food Chemistry and Technology, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin, Ireland

Vasilis Valdramidis

Affiliations and Expertise

University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland


"This book provides a comprehensive overview of thermal process innovations (such as ohmic, microwave and infrared heating) and non-thermal technologies (including pulsed electric field, high pressure, ultrasound, irradiation, ozone, dense-phase carbon dioxide, ultraviolet and pulsed light) as they are applied specifically for fluid foods. Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies for Fluid Foods brings together information on fluid and microbial and quality dynamics for fluid foods to facilitate process validation and technology adoption. It includes methods for mathematically evaluating each technique, addresses global regulatory requirements for fluid foods and provides recommendations for various safety-related issues." --FST