Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies for Fluid Foods

Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies for Fluid Foods

1st Edition - July 21, 2011

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  • Editors: PJ Cullen, Brijesh Tiwari, Vasilis Valdramidis
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123814715
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128103739

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Food processing is the step of the food chain that principally affects a food's physical or biochemical properties, along with determining the safety and shelf life of the product.  This book provides a comprehensive overview of innovations in non-thermal technologies specifically for fluid foods, recognized for their high bioavailability of macronutrients and micronutrients. Considerable resources and expertise has been devoted to the processing of safe and wholesome foods.  Non-thermal technologies have been developed as an alternative to thermal processing, while still meeting required safety or shelf-life demands and minimising the effects on its nutritional and quality attributes.

Key Features

  • Examines non-thermal processing techniques specifically applied to fluid foods
  • Includes methods for mathematically evaluating each technique
  • Addresses global regulatory requirements for fluid foods
  • Provides recommendations and opportunities for various safety-related issues


Professionals in food processing research, quality assurance/control, product development. Also professionals involved with technical services and regulatory affairs in food processing

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Status and Trends of Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies for Fluid Foods

    1.1. What are Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies?

    1.2. Fluid Foods and Process Validation

    1.3. Technology Drivers

    1.4. Hurdle Concept

    1.5. Book Objectives

    Chapter 2. Fluid Dynamics in Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Processes

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. Some Basic Considerations on Fluid Mechanics

    2.3. High-Pressure Processing

    2.4. Pulsed Electric Fields

    2.5. Ultrasound

    2.6. Light Pulses

    2.7. Ohmic Heating

    2.8. Conclusion

    Chapter 3. Fluid Rheology in Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Processes

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Fluid Rheology

    3.3. Influence of Rheology on Process Efficacy

    3.4. Effects of Treatment on Fluid Rheology

    3.5. Conclusions

    Chapter 4. Pulsed Electric Field Processing of Fluid Foods

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Principles of Operation

    4.3. Process Control Parameters

    4.4. Treatment Parameters

    4.5. Microorganism, Enzyme and Quality- and Health-Related Compound Characteristics

    4.6. Product Parameters

    4.7. Microbial Inactivation Mechanism

    4.8. Pulsed Electric Field in Combination with Other Technologies

    4.9. Effects on Fluid Food Nutritional and Quality Parameters

    4.10. Shelf-Life of Pulsed Electric Field-Processed Fluid Foods

    4.11. Current Status and Future Trends

    Chapter 5. High-Pressure Processing of Fluid Foods

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Technology Governing Principles

    5.3. Microbiological Safety

    5.4. Impact of Combined Pressure–Heat Treatments on Quality Attributes of Foods

    5.5. Combined Pressure–Heat Treatment Effects on Nutrient Content of Foods

    5.6. Regulatory Aspects

    5.7. Conclusions

    Chapter 6. Ultrasound Processing of Fluid Foods

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. Generation of Power Ultrasound

    6.3. The Measurement of Ultrasonic Energy (Dosimetry)

    6.4. Ultrasound in Liquid Food Sterilization

    6.5. Effect on Quality Parameters

    6.6. Current Status and Challenges

    6.7. Conclusions

    Chapter 7. Irradiation of Fluid Foods

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Irradiation Technologies

    7.3. General Mode of Action

    7.4. Food Safety and Shelf-Life of Irradiated Liquids

    7.5. Sensory and Nutritive Properties

    7.6. Operational Parameter Case Study: Container Orientation

    7.7. Regulations and Consumer Attitude of Food Irradiation: China

    7.8. Case Study: Irradiated Wine, China

    7.9. Conclusions

    Chapter 8. Ultraviolet and Pulsed Light Processing of Fluid Foods

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Principles of Operation

    8.3. Process Control Parameters

    8.4. Microbial Inactivation Mechanism

    8.5. Antimicrobial Effects of Ultraviolet and Pulsed Light in Specific Products

    8.6. Effects on Fluid Food Nutritional and Quality Parameters

    8.7. Industrial Scale-Up and Challenges

    8.8. Conclusions

    Chapter 9. Ozone Processing of Fluid Foods

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Generation of Ozone

    9.3. Ozone in Liquid Food Processing

    9.4. Factors Affecting Efficacy of Ozone Processing

    9.5. Microbial Inactivation

    9.6. Microbial Inactivation Mechanism

    9.7. Mycotoxins

    9.8. Effect on Fluid Food Quality

    9.9. Current Status and Future Trends

    Chapter 10. Dense-Phase Carbon Dioxide Processing of Fluid Foods

    10.1. Principles

    10.2. Process Control Parameters

    10.3. Microbial Inactivation Mechanisms

    10.4. Effects on Fluid Food Nutritional and Quality Parameters

    10.5. Current Status and Future Trends

    Chapter 11. Ohmic Heating of Fluid Foods

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Principles

    11.3. Process Control Parameters

    11.4. Microbial Inactivation Mechanism

    11.5. Effects on Nutritional and Quality Characteristics of Fluid Food

    11.6. Current Status and Future Trends

    Chapter 12. Microwave Heating of Fluid Foods

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. General Principles of Microwave Heating

    12.3. Role of Dielectric Properties in Microwave Heating

    12.4. Interactions of Microwave with Food Components

    12.5. Dielectric Properties of Selected Foods

    12.6. Microwave Processing of Foods

    12.7. Microwave Processing and Equipment

    12.8. Challenges in Microwave Processing

    12.9. Conclusions

    Chapter 13. Infrared Heating of Fluid Foods

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Basic Principles Governing Infrared Radiation

    13.3. Opportunities for the Infrared Processing of Liquid Foods

    13.4. Equipment for Infrared Processing of Liquid Foods

    13.5. Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Work

    Chapter 14. Modeling the Kinetics of Microbial and Quality Attributes of Fluid Food During Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Processes

    14.1. Introduction

    14.2. AD HOC Hypotheses for Kinetic Studies

    14.3. Parameters of Interest for Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Processes

    14.4. Experimental Design

    14.5. Data (Pre)Processing

    14.6. Model Structure Characterization of Microbial Dynamics

    14.7. Model Structure Characterization of Chemical Dynamics

    14.8. Model Parameter Estimation

    14.9. Model Validation

    14.10. Applications on the Design and Optimization of Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies

    14.11. Conclusion and Future

    Chapter 15. Regulatory and Legislative Issues for Non-Thermal Technologies

    15.1. Introduction

    15.2. An Overview of How Law is Created in the EU

    15.3. Overview of the Regulation of Food in the European Union

    15.4. The Novel Food Regime

    15.5. How Does this Apply to Specific Emerging Non-Thermal Technologies?

    15.6. Other Existing Regulatory Requirements

    15.7. It’s a Small World, but is One Set of Global Rules Realistic?

    15.8. Conclusions

    Food Science and Technology International SeriesIndex

Product details

  • No. of pages: 542
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: July 21, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123814715
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128103739

About the Editors

PJ Cullen

PJ Cullen’s research interests include the development of novel technologies for the food and pharmaceutical industries. He spent 10 years at the Dublin Institute of Technology where he was team leader of the Process Analytical Technology group and the BioPlasma research group. He has published more than 100 journal articles and book chapters. His current research interests include the development of non-thermal plasmas for biological applications in food and medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

BioPlasma Group, School of Food Science & Environmental Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland

Brijesh Tiwari

Brijesh K Tiwari, M.Sc., Ph.D., FIFST, FRSC is a principal research officer at TEAGASC and adjunct Professor at University College Dublin, Ireland. Previously he was a Research Professor @ Food Research Center; Manchester Metropolitan University, UK; He has been an external research project evaluator for Research Council of Norway and External evaluator for Norwegian Strategic Research Programme, Norway; Executive Agency for Higher Education and Research, Development and Innovation. Dr. Tiwari does extensive research all around the world, has won many awards, is an editorial board member and a keynote speaker at international conferences with over 175 peer-reviewed research publications and over 100 book chapters. He has also co-edited 10 books and is a book series editor for IFST Advances in Food Science book series. He is currently the Editor-in-chief of the Journal of Food Processing and Preservation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Research Officer, TEAGASC, Adjunct Professor; University College Dublin, Ireland

Vasilis Valdramidis

Affiliations and Expertise

University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

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