Not Just Bad Kids

Not Just Bad Kids

The Adversity and Disruptive Behavior Link

1st Edition - January 25, 2022

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  • Editors: Akeem Marsh, Lara Cox
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128189511
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128189542

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Not Just Bad Kids: The Adversity and Disruptive Behavior Link explores the theory that all behavior makes sense in context. If you understand a person’s frame of reference – their background, history and experience – you can imagine what might be driving their behavior. The book describes the social, cultural and environmental factors that shape the lives of many youths, including early childhood attachment which sets the foundation for how they interact with authority figures. The book also delves into an explanation of conduct disorder which is characterized by persistent, repetitive behaviors that violate the basic rights of other human beings and break rules. Studies have shown that conduct disorder affects 1-4% of adolescents in the United States and oppositional defiant disorder is estimated to develop in approximately 10.2% of children. The presence of DBD is also known to be more prevalent in boys than it is in girls. As there is a growing need to understand why children and adolescent exhibit signs of hostility, defiance and isolation, this book is an ideal resource for this timely topic.

Key Features

  • Encompasses both ODD and conduct disorder
  • Introduces readers to the social, cultural and environmental factors that play a crucial part in disruptive behavior
  • Demonstrates the interrelationship of attachment problems, chronic trauma and disruptive behavior
  • Discusses current best practices for intervention and treatment in youth with disruptive behaviors
  • Provides casework examples of patients with disruptive behavior disorder


Students and researchers studying psychology, trauma, and disruptive behaviors

- psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health clinicians working with youth

- social workers

- caregivers of youth with trauma and disruptive behaviors

- pediatricians, nurses, and other health care professionals working with youth

- school staff, including teachers and administrators

- individuals working in the juvenile justice and criminal legal systems, including juvenile detention staff and administrators, attorneys, judges, probation officers, law enforcement professionals, etc.

- individuals working with youth in a variety of community settings, including the foster care system, youth development organizations, etc.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Biographies
  • Nick's words
  • Nick's world
  • Chapter 1. Setting the stage—putting kids in context
  • History of the juvenile justice system in the United States
  • A better future for justice-involved youth
  • Nick at family court
  • Chapter 2. Attachment: theory, application, & clinical tools
  • Starting at the beginning
  • Attachment theory and its origins
  • The nervous system
  • Attachment and the nervous system
  • Emotion regulation
  • Internal working models
  • Attachment styles and the strange situation
  • Attachment research
  • Attachment and trauma
  • Clinical tools from an attachment perspective
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 3. Defining trauma, adversity, & toxic stress
  • Defining trauma, adversity, and toxic stress
  • Trauma versus traumatization
  • Adversity and toxic stress
  • Various forms of adversity and their impacts
  • The impact of trauma
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter vignette: the link between adversity and disruptive behavior
  • Chapter 4. Trauma, adversity, the brain, & the body
  • Chapter 5. The impact on interactions
  • Chapter 6. Trauma & externalizing behaviors
  • The wrong people
  • Gettin’ by
  • Doin’ what I gotta do
  • Reckless shit
  • Buggin’
  • My heart cold
  • Nick in the emergency room
  • Formulation
  • Chapter 7. The overlap between trauma & disruptive behavior disorders
  • Introduction
  • The “why” of conduct disorder, the reason for behavior: trauma is often the missing piece
  • Consequences of diagnosing conduct disorder: missing trauma and not treating it
  • Why isn't trauma considered
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 8. The words we use
  • Introduction
  • What’s in a diagnosis?
  • Race, ethnicity, and culture: developing a common language
  • Connecting culture and behavior
  • Are all words created equal?
  • Social influences on understanding behavior
  • Deconstructing and reducing the impact of cognitive biases
  • Creating the labels
  • Strategies for managing cognitive biases
  • How is institutional racism operating here?
  • An overview of disruptive behavior disorders
  • Conduct disorder
  • Oppositional defiant disorder
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Trauma-related disorders: DSM IV to DSM V
  • Discussion of the potential prejudicial effect of certain diagnoses
  • Prejudicial effects on the child and adolescent
  • Prejudicial effects on clinicians and the public
  • Prejudicial effects at the structural and institutional level
  • Clinical descriptions intersect with racism and classism
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 9. Young kids: The impact of early adverse relational experiences
  • The role of the therapists in the context of systemic relational trauma
  • Rosa and how she changed the way she thought of herself
  • Conclusion
  • Nick at home
  • Physical aggression, curfew violation, suspected gang activity
  • Chapter 10. Kids at home
  • Introduction
  • Reactions to trauma
  • Household-based trauma
  • Community-based trauma
  • Conclusion
  • Nick at school
  • Police contact
  • Chapter 11. Kids in school
  • Why won't they just sit still and listen?!
  • Well, it worked for me and my parents and my parent's parents
  • Race, implicit bias, and zero tolerance
  • Suspensions, expulsions, and root behaviors
  • Restorative justice: a more compassionate response
  • Stopping the bad before it starts
  • Heart-centered communities
  • Comprehensive behavioral health model: a compassionate community response
  • The Childhood-Trauma Learning Collaborative: a regional multipartner project
  • Compassionate and holistic model of mental health treatment for all students
  • Conclusions: not bad kids, bad environments—that we can change
  • Nick and the boys
  • Chapter 12. Kids & their crews
  • Glossary of terms
  • Introduction
  • Friendship
  • Case vignette: Marcos
  • Gangs
  • Case vignette: Ray
  • Social media
  • Case vignette: Joel
  • Romantic relationships
  • Case vignette: Chauncey
  • Police
  • Case vignette: Reese
  • Conclusion
  • Nick in foster care
  • Chapter 13. Kids in foster care
  • Overview of foster care
  • Introduction
  • Foster care entry
  • Visitation
  • Permanency planning
  • What should teams do
  • Conclusion
  • Nick in detention
  • Chapter 14. Kids in detention
  • Understand the why
  • Build authentic and appropriate relationships
  • Highlight the positive
  • Use silence
  • Provide choices
  • Model the behavior you would like to see
  • Concluding remarks
  • Nick and Mama J
  • Chapter 15. Kids and drugs
  • Opening story discussion
  • Trauma
  • Trauma discussion
  • First hit
  • First hit discussion
  • Drugs and mental health in music: 11years old
  • Drugs and mental health in music discussion
  • ADHD and addiction
  • ADHD and addiction discussion
  • Street pharmacist—“trapping”/“flipping packs”/“drug dealing”
  • Dealing discussion
  • Pathway to polysubstance use
  • Pathway to polysubstance use discussion
  • Ongoing treatment issues
  • Ongoing treatment issues discussion
  • Kids, drugs, and the carceral system
  • Conclusion (and what could be)
  • Chapter 16. Kids grown up
  • Trauma and chronic illnesses of adulthood
  • Special considerations for subpopulations: substance misuse and adulthood
  • Attachment and development gone awry in adulthood
  • Long-term effects of adversity on parenting
  • Vagabondage and adulthood
  • Coming of age and incarceration
  • Special considerations for subpopulations: LGBTQIA+communities
  • Special considerations for subpopulations: adults and their crews
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 17. Standard management—Part I: Embracing youth & families through Treatment Foster Care Oregon
  • Introduction
  • Treatment Foster Care Oregon
  • A case study—Charles
  • TFCO research
  • TFCO in action
  • Charles's response to his team
  • Bringing the evidence to life
  • Charles—day two notes
  • Day 2 notes from foster parents
  • Day 2 notes from parents
  • Charles—after three months
  • Charles's response to emotion modulation
  • Charles—after nine months
  • Charles—entering aftercare
  • From the Petri dish to the street; a personal view of implementation of TFCO
  • Community building and engagement
  • The details of implementation
  • Feasibility and readiness: preparing a community for success
  • Cultural responsivity and adaptation
  • Summary
  • Chapter 18. Standard management–Part II: Multidimensional interventions for youth with trauma & disruptive behaviors
  • Systems- and Family-Level Interventions
  • Individual interventions specific to antisocial personality disorder
  • Youth-focused interventions specific to disruptive behavior disorders
  • Youth-Focused Interventions for trauma-related disorders and PTSD
  • Pharmacotherapy for traumatic stress and conduct/antisocial personality disorders
  • Considerations for the present and future
  • Chapter 19. Check your own baggage
  • Vignettes
  • Checking your baggage—terminology
  • How bias and racism affect the minoritized
  • What we can—and need to—do now
  • Nick in therapy
  • Chapter 20. Let's talk about race
  • Fundamentals
  • Understanding racism through attachment theory and trauma lens
  • Racial/ethnic socialization: why the conversation matters
  • Racial/ethnic socialization: Talking to kids about race/racism
  • The talk: special considerations for BIPOC youth
  • Considerations and challenges for multiracial/ethnic youth and ethnically ambiguous youth
  • Considerations and challenges for white identified/majority culture youth
  • How to help all kids cope with racial trauma
  • Antiracism—decolonization—liberation in action
  • Conclusion
  • Nick & Mich
  • Chapter 21. Be a person
  • Glossary
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 676
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: January 25, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128189511
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128189542

About the Editors

Akeem Marsh

Dr. Akeem Marsh has dedicated his career to working with children and families of medically neglected communities. He currently serves as the Assistant Medical Director of the Home for Integrated Behavioral Health – The New York Foundling and as a member of the Verywell Mind Review Board. He also holds a faculty appointment as a Clinical Assistant Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the New York University Grossman School of Medicine. He previously served for many years as an Attending Psychiatrist with the Bellevue Juvenile Justice Mental Health Service, providing clinical care to youth in New York City’s juvenile detention system. Dr. Marsh is board-certified in both general and child & adolescent psychiatry. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from the prestigious Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education/CUNY School of Medicine at the City College of New York and earned his Medical Doctorate from the SUNY Health Science Center at Brooklyn/Downstate College of Medicine. He completed both his residency in general psychiatry and his fellowship in child and adolescent psychiatry at the Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell. Dr. Marsh is a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association and a distinguished fellow of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). He also serves as a member of the Board of Directors of the New York Council on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and on the editorial board of the organization’s newsletter.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Medical Director of the Home of Integrated Behavioral Health – The New York Foundling; Clinical Assistant Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, NY USA

Lara Cox

Dr. Lara Cox is an attending psychiatrist with Correctional Health Services, the division of New York City Health + Hospitals that provides medical and mental health care to individuals incarcerated on Rikers Island. She was previously an attending psychiatrist with the Bellevue Juvenile Justice Mental Health Service, providing clinical care to youth in secure and nonsecure juvenile detention in New York City, and had a dual appointment as a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and the Division of Forensic Psychiatry at New York University’s Grossman School of Medicine. She completed her adult psychiatry residency, in addition to her child and adolescent psychiatry and forensic psychiatry fellowships, at NYU. Dr. Cox is board-certified in general, child and adolescent, and forensic psychiatry. She earned her medical degree and a master's degree in clinical research from the University of Pittsburgh, after graduating from Kenyon College with a bachelor's degree with high honors in neuroscience and psychology. She maintains membership in the American Psychiatric Association, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. Drs. Marsh and Cox have shared primary interests in terms of clinical care, advocacy, and research, including the nexus of trauma-related symptoms and disruptive behaviors, trauma-informed juvenile justice reform, and antiracism in education and practice. They also have a vision for the future of creating a safe space for and with youth in the community, dedicated to meeting their needs, so kids who too often must fend for themselves will always have a place to go and caring people who will be there for them. Since 2016, Drs. Cox and Marsh have given many presentations on trauma and disruptive behaviors as well as racism in medicine and psychiatry. They have presented both together and individually, to a wide range of local, national, and international audiences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Attending Psychiatrist, Correctional Health Services, New York City Health + Hospitals, New York, NY, USA

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