Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics

Transport and Rate Processes in Physical, Chemical and Biological Systems

3rd Edition - December 16, 2013

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  • Author: Yasar Demirel
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595812

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Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, Third Edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapter on stochastic approaches to include the statistical thermodynamics, mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics, fluctuation theory, information theory, and modeling the coupled biochemical systems in thermodynamic analysis. This new addition also comes with more examples and practice problems.

Key Features

  • Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field
  • Contributions from leading authorities and industry experts
  • A useful text for seniors and graduate students from diverse engineering and science programs to analyze some nonequilibrium, coupled, evolutionary, stochastic, and dissipative processes
  • Highlights fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics, transport processes and chemical reactions
  • Expands the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its use in coupled transport processes and chemical reactions in physical, chemical, and biological systems
  • Presents a unified analysis for transport and rate processes in various time and space scales
  • Discusses stochastic approaches in thermodynamic analysis including fluctuation and information theories
  • Has 198 fully solved examples and 287 practice problems
  • An Instructor Resource containing the Solution Manual can be obtained from the author:


Graduate students in chemical, biological, mechanical, biomedical, environmental, and systems engineering programs, and in biophysical and biochemical science programs. Advanced students in diverse engineering programs

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface to the Third Edition

    List of Symbols

    Greek letters



    Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Equilibrium Thermodynamics


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Basic definitions

    1.3 Reversible and irreversible processes

    1.4 Equilibrium

    1.5 The thermodynamic laws

    1.6 Balance equations

    1.7 Entropy and entropy production

    1.8 The Gibbs equation

    1.9 Fluid phase equilibrium



    Further Reading

    Chapter 2. Transport and Rate Processes


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Nonequilibrium systems

    2.3 Kinetic approach

    2.4 Transport phenomena

    2.5 The Maxwell–Stefan equations

    2.6 Transport coefficients

    2.7 Electric charge flow

    2.8 The relaxation theory

    2.9 Chemical reactions

    2.10 Coupled processes



    Further Reading

    Chapter 3. Fundamentals of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Local thermodynamic equilibrium

    3.3 The second law of thermodynamics

    3.4 Balance equations and entropy production

    3.5 Entropy production equation

    3.6 Phenomenological equations

    3.7 Onsager’s Relations

    3.8 Transformation of forces and flows

    3.9 Chemical reactions

    3.10 Heat conduction

    3.11 Diffusion

    3.12 Validity of linear phenomenological equations

    3.13 Curie–Prigogine principle

    3.14 Time variation of entropy production

    3.15 Minimum entropy production

    3.16 Entropy production in an electrical circuit



    Further Reading

    Chapter 4. Using the Second Law: Thermodynamic Analysis


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Second law analysis

    4.3 Equipartition principle

    4.4 Exergy analysis

    4.5 Applications of exergy analysis

    4.6 Pinch analysis

    4.7 Optimization problem



    Further Reading

    Chapter 5. Thermoeconomics


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Thermodynamic cost

    5.3 Ecological cost

    5.4 Availability

    5.5 Thermodynamic optimum

    5.6 Equipartition and optimization in separation systems



    Further Reading

    Chapter 6. Diffusion


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Maxwell–Stefan equation

    6.3 Diffusion in electrolyte systems

    6.4 Diffusion without shear forces

    6.5 Diffusion of biological solutes in liquids



    Further Reading

    Chapter 7. Heat and Mass Transfer


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Coupled heat and mass transfer

    7.3 Heat of transport

    7.4 Degree of coupling

    7.5 Efficiency of coupling

    7.6 Coupled mass and energy balances

    7.7 Separation by thermal diffusion

    7.8 Heat and mass transfer in discontinuous systems

    7.9 Thermoelectric effects



    Further Reading

    Chapter 8. Chemical Reactions


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Chemical reaction equilibrium constant

    8.3 The principle of detailed balance

    8.4 Dissipation for chemical reactions

    8.5 Reaction velocity (flow)

    8.6 Multiple chemical reactions

    8.7 Stationary states

    8.8 Biochemical reaction networks

    8.9 Energy conversion in coupled chemical reactions



    Further Reading

    Chapter 9. Coupled Systems of Chemical Reactions and Transport Processes


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Nonisothermal reaction-diffusion systems

    9.3 Chemical reaction with coupled heat and mass flows

    9.4 Coupled system of chemical reaction and transport processes

    9.5 Evolution of coupled systems

    9.6 Nonlinear macrokinetics in a reaction-diffusion system



    Further Reading

    Chapter 10. Membrane Transport


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Membrane equilibrium

    10.3 Passive transport

    10.4 Facilitated and active transport in membranes

    10.5 Biomembranes



    Further Reading

    Chapter 11. Thermodynamics and Biological Systems


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Simplified analysis in living systems

    11.3 Bioenergetics

    11.4 Proper pathways

    11.5 Coupling in mitochondria

    11.6 Regulation in bioenergetics

    11.7 Reaction-mass transport in bioenergetics

    11.8 Exergy use in bioenergetics

    11.9 Molecular machines

    11.10 Molecular evolution

    11.11 Evolutionary criterion



    Further Reading

    Chapter 12. Stability Analysis


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 The Gibbs stability theory

    12.3 Stability and entropy production

    12.4 Thermodynamic fluctuations

    12.5 Stability in nonequilibrium systems

    12.6 Linear stability analysis



    Further Reading

    Chapter 13. Organized Structures


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Equilibrium and nonequilibrium structures

    13.3 Bifurcation

    13.4 Limit cycle

    13.5 Order in physical structures

    13.6 Order in chemical systems

    13.7 Biological structures



    Further Reading

    Chapter 14. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Approaches


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Network thermodynamics with bond-graph methodology

    14.3 Mosaic nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    14.4 Rational thermodynamics

    14.5 Extended nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    14.6 GENERIC formulations

    14.7 Matrix model

    14.8 Internal variables


    Further Reading

    Chapter 15. Probabilistic Approach in Thermodynamics


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Statistical thermodynamics

    15.3 Stochastic thermodynamics

    15.4 Fluctuation theorems

    15.5 Information theory

    15.6 Applications: biomolecules and biochemical cycles

    15.7 Statistical rate theory

    15.8 Mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics


    Further Reading

    Appendix A. Tensors

    Appendix B. Thermochemical Parameters

    Appendix C. Some Biochemical Reaction Properties

    Appendix D. Steam Tables

    Appendix E. Gas Properties

    Appendix F. The Lee/Kesler Generalized-Correlation Tables


Product details

  • No. of pages: 792
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2014
  • Published: December 16, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595812

About the Author

Yasar Demirel

Dr. Yasar Demirel earned his PhD degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Birmingham, UK in 1981. He joined the faculty of Çukurova University in Adana, Turkey, and promoted to associate professorship in 1986. In 1993, he joined the faculty of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran Saudi Arabia where he was promoted to full professorship in 2000. He carried out research and scholarly work at the University of Delaware between 1999 and 2001. He worked at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg as a visiting professor between 2002 and 2006. Currently, he is on the faculty of University of Nebraska, Lincoln. He has accumulated broad teaching and research experience over the years in diverse fields of engineering. He is the editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Thermodynamics. Dr. Demirel authored and co-authored three books, four book chapters, and 160 research papers. The first edition of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics was published in 2002. After it was expanded to a graduate textbook, the third edition was published in 2014. The second edition new book titled “Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling” is published in 2016. He has obtained several awards and scholarships, and presented invited seminars.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA

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