Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Foods

Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Foods

Processing Effects and Product-Specific Implications

1st Edition - November 10, 2016

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  • Editors: Bhesh Bhandari, Yrjö Roos
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081003091
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081003350

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Non-equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Foods: Processing Effects and Product Specific Implications presents the tactics needed to understand and control non-equilibrium states and glass transitions in food, an essential element in maintaining the shelf-life and quality of foods. After brief introductory chapters introduce the science behind non-equilibrium states and glass transitions in foods, the book details how glass transition temperature is affected by composition and the ways it influences processability and physico-chemical changes during the storage of foods, also exploring how these effects can be controlled. The second section looks at individual foods, highlighting the implications of non-equilibrium states and glass transitions within these foods. Maintaining and improving the quality of food is of upmost importance to food companies who have to ensure that the shelf life of their products is as long as possible. A large amount of research has been performed into glass transitions in food over the last few years, however there has not been a comprehensive review. This book fills that gap.

Key Features

  • Provides the only book on the market that covers non-equilibrium states and glass transitions in food from a practical standpoint
  • Presents food industry professionals in the area of food quality with essential information on the effects of glass transitions and non-equilibrium states on the shelf life of specific products
  • Edited by global leaders in glass transition technology in foods


Academics working in the field of food quality, particularly those with an interest in food processing and its effects on product shelf life, and industry professionals who wish to gain a solid understanding of glass transitions in food and methods to control them

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
    • Introduction to Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transitions—The Fundamentals Applied to Foods Systems
    • Chapter 1: Methods of Measurement of Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transition
      • Abstract
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Mechanical, electrical and thermal relaxation methods
      • 1.3. Time constant and the F-function
      • 1.4. Comparison of mechanical, electrical, and thermal systems
      • 1.5. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
      • 1.6. Thermomechanical analysis
      • 1.7. Differential scanning calorimetry
      • 1.8. Thermally stimulated current
      • 1.9. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy
      • 1.10. Dielectric thermal analysis
      • 1.11. Dynamic moisture isotherm
      • 1.12. Nuclear magnetic resonance
      • 1.13. Measurement issues and techniques
      • 1.14. Standards
      • 1.15. Conclusions
    • Part I: Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transition—Processing Relationships
      • Chapter 2: Food Freezing and Non-Equilibrium States
        • Abstract
        • 2.1. Introduction
        • 2.2. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in freezing process
        • 2.3. Frozen storage and non-equilibrium states
        • 2.4. Non-equilibrium state and Tg′ related changes in complex systems
        • 2.5. Conclusions and final remarks
      • Chapter 3: Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Bakery Products
        • Abstract
        • 3.1. Introduction
        • 3.2. Characterization methods
        • 3.3. Non-equilibrium states in major types of bakery products
        • 3.4. Future research trends
      • Chapter 4: Air-Drying and Non-Equilibrium States/Glass Transition
        • Abstract
        • 4.1. Introduction
        • 4.2. Air-drying
        • 4.3. Air-drying and glass transition
        • 4.4. Conclusions
      • Chapter 5: Spray-Drying and Non-Equilibrium States/Glass Transition
        • Abstract
        • 5.1. Introduction
        • 5.2. Spray drying—an emerging technique to induce phase transformation of food powders
        • 5.3. Case study: characterization of spray-dried amorphous alpha-cyclodextrin powders
        • 5.4. Conclusions
      • Chapter 6: Extrusion Technology and Glass Transition
        • Abstract
        • 6.1. Introduction
        • 6.2. Extruder, extrusion, and extrusion cooking
        • 6.3. Glass transition in extruded products
        • 6.4. Conclusions
      • Chapter 7: Glass Transition and Crystallization in Foods
        • Abstract
        • 7.1. Introduction
        • 7.2. Glass transition and crystallization in sugar
        • 7.3. Glass transition and crystallization in polyols
        • 7.4. Glass transition and crystallization in macromolecules
        • 7.5. Future research trends
    • Part II: Product-Specific Implications of Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transitions—Understanding and Controlling the Transitions
      • Chapter 8: Implications of Non-Equilibrium State Glass Transitions on Carbohydrate Polymers
        • Abstract
        • 8.1. Introduction
        • 8.2. Implications of amorphous glassy state on carbohydrate polymers
        • 8.3. Implications of supercooled amorphous liquid or rubbery state on carbohydrate polymers
        • 8.4. Glass transition and plasticization by different ingredients in starchy products
        • 8.5. Concluding remarks
      • Chapter 9: Implications of Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Fried Foods
        • Abstract
        • 9.1. Introduction
        • 9.2. Physics and chemistry of frying
        • 9.3. Phase transitions and physical states in fried foods
        • 9.4. Other chemical changes related to moisture and physical states
        • 9.5. Moisture migration
        • 9.6. Conclusions
      • Chapter 10: Non-equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Fruits and Vegetables
        • Abstract
        • 10.1. Introduction
        • 10.2. Glass transitions of fruits and vegetables
        • 10.3. Mechanism of glass formation in fruits and vegetables
        • 10.4. Implications of glass transitions in dried fruit and vegetables
        • 10.5. Controlling glass transitions in dried fruits and vegetables
        • 10.6. Future trends
        • Nomenclature
        • Acknowledgment
      • Chapter 11: Implications of Non-Equilibrium State Glass Transitions in Spray-Dried Sugar-Rich Foods
        • Abstract
        • 11.1. Introduction
        • 11.2. The stickiness problem during drying of sugar-rich foods
        • 11.3. Spray-drying and physical state
        • 11.4. Approaches for solving the stickiness problem in spray-dried sugar-rich foods
        • 11.5. Stickiness of sugar-rich foods during spray-drying
        • 11.6. Conclusions
      • Chapter 12: Non-equilibrium States in Confectionery
        • Abstract
        • 12.1. Introduction
        • 12.2. Cotton candy
        • 12.3. Hard candy, toffee, brittles
        • 12.4. Caramel
        • 12.5. Marshmallow and taffy
        • 12.6. Nougat and chews
        • 12.7. Gummies and jellies
        • 12.8. Fruit leather and snacks
        • 12.9. Summary and future developments
      • Chapter 13: Implications of Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transition in Dairy Powders
        • Abstract
        • 13.1. Introduction
        • 13.2. Glass transition and dairy products
        • 13.3. Glass transition, spray-drying, and stickiness
        • 13.4. Influences of food components and their concentrations
        • 13.5. How can stickiness be avoided during the spray-drying of dairy products?
        • 13.6. Changes during storage
        • 13.7. Conclusions and final remarks
      • Chapter 14: Implications of Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Frozen and Dried Fish and Meat Products
        • Abstract
        • 14.1. Introduction
        • 14.2. Fish and meat: muscular structure; proximal and physicochemical composition
        • 14.3. Denaturation effects
        • 14.4. Glass-transition effects on frozen fish and meats
        • 14.5. Glass-transition effects in dried fish and meats
        • 14.6. Final remarks
      • Chapter 15: Glass-Transition and Non-equilibrium States of Edible Films and Barriers
        • Abstract
        • 15.1. Introduction
        • 15.2. Processing of edible films: case studies for solvent casting and extrusion process
        • 15.3. Glass-transition measurement of edible films
        • 15.4. Components effects on Tg of edible films
        • 15.5. Glass-transition-related properties of edible films
        • 15.6. Stability/changes of edible film
        • 15.7. Conclusions and future work
      • Chapter 16: The Effects of Non-Equilibrium States and Storage Conditions on Glass Transitions in Food
        • Abstract
        • 16.1. Introduction
        • 16.2. Storage conditions that exert influence on glass transition
        • 16.3. Effects of storage conditions on glass transitions in low-moisture foods
        • 16.4. Glass transitions of frozen foods as affected by temperature fluctuations during storage
        • 16.5. Structural relaxation and aging of amorphous foods stored below glass transition temperature
        • 16.6. Strategies for preventing changes in glass transitions in stored foods
        • 16.7. Final remarks
      • Chapter 17: Influence of Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transition on the Survival of Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • 17.1. Introduction
        • 17.2. Factors affecting non-equilibrium state
        • 17.3. Probiotic stability during storage
        • 17.4. Future trends
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 514
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2016
  • Published: November 10, 2016
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081003091
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081003350

About the Editors

Bhesh Bhandari

Professor Bhesh Bhandari has been associated with the University of Queensland for the last 28 years. His research and teaching areas include food materials science, processing, physical and engineering properties of foods and recently 3D printing of foods. Professor Bhandari has published seven co-edited books and more than 400 book chapters and research papers. His publications have been cited nearly 22,000 times (2020), and he is recognised as one of the leading researchers in glass transition and encapsulation technologies in the food science discipline. Professor Bhandari was listed as a highly cited researcher in his discipline in 2015 by Thomson Reuters and by Clarivate in 2019. He was also listed as a leading researcher in Australia in Food Science and Technology discipline by The Australian in 2020. He has patented two significant technologies, a continuous microgel particle formation device for encapsulation of food and pharmaceuticals and a technology to produce ethylene powder by applying materials science approach.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, University of Queensland, Australia

Yrjö Roos

Prof. Roos is associated with the University College Cork, Ireland. His teaching and research activities involve food materials science including glass transition. More specifically, his main research interests include crystallization, freezing, dehydration, encapsulation, reaction kinetics, state transitions and water relations of food and biological materials. He is a known authority in developing and applying glass transition concept in various food systems. He has authored one book Phase transitions in foods and two co-edited books. He has published more than 200 papers including book chapters which are cited close to 8000 times (2014). Prof Roos has appeared on as a highly cited scientist in the field of Agricultural Sciences. He is President (2013-) and an elected member of the Central Committee of International Symposium of Water in Foods (ISOPOW) and member of several international scientific organizations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, School of Food & Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland

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