NK Cells and Other Natural Effector Cells

NK Cells and Other Natural Effector Cells

1st Edition - January 28, 1982

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  • Author: Ronald B. Herberman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323139717

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NK Cells and Other Natural Effector Cells reviews the state of knowledge on NK cells and other natural effector mechanisms. The coverage of immune effector systems ranges from basic studies on their nature, regulation, and mechanisms of action to important practical issues such as their role in host resistance, their modulation by therapeutic intervention, and alterations of their activity in disease. The book is organized into 12 parts. Parts I and II examine the characteristics of NK cells and other natural effector cells, respectively. Part III focuses on the cell lineage of NK and related effector cells, providing evidence for or against T cell lineage, for or against macrophage lineage, and for or against other or separate lineage. Part IV deals with the genetics of natural resistance in the mouse and rat. Part V presents studies on the regulation of cytotoxic activity. Part VI examines the specificity of natural effector cells, covering the nature of target cell structures and the nature of recognition receptors in effector cells. Part VII discusses the cytotoxicity by cultured lymphoid cells while Part VIII turns to the mechanisms of cytotoxicity. Part IX deals with natural cell-mediated reactivity against primary tumor cells and against non-tumor targets. Part X examines NK cell tumors or the presence of NK cells at the site of tumor growth. Part XI presents clinical studies with natural effector cells. Part XII provides evidence for in vivo reactivity of natural effector cells.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    I. Characteristics of NK Cells

    A. Large Granular Lymphocytes

    1. Human

    2. Other Species

    B. Characterization by Surface Markers

    1. Human

    2. Other Species

    II. Characteristics of Other Natural Effector Cells

    A. Human

    Natural Killer Cells are Distinct from Lectin-Dependent Effector Cells in Man as Determined by the Two-Target Conjugate Single Cell Assay

    Virus Dependent Natural Cytotoxicity (VDCC) of Human Lymphocytes

    Natural Cytotoxicity of Human Monocytes

    Natural Cytotoxicity of Human Mononuclear Phagocytes: Role of Contaminating Endotoxin and Expression by Different Macrophage Populations

    B. Mouse

    Natural Killer Cell Subsets

    Solid Tumors are Killed by NK and NC Cell Populations: Interferon Inducing Agents Do Not Augment NC Cell Activity under NK Activating Conditions

    NC Cells Do Not Express NK-Associated Cell Surface Antigens and are Not Culture Activated NK Cells

    Enrichment and Characterization of Effector Populations Mediating NK, NC, ADCC, and Spontaneous Macrophage Cytotoxicity in Murine Peritoneal Exúdate Cell Preparations

    Further Studies on the Cytostatic Activity Mediated by Murine Splenocytes

    III. Cell Lineage of NK and Related Effector Cells

    A. Evidence for or Against T Cell Lineage

    Cell Lineage of NK Cell: Evidence for T Cell Lineage

    Immunoregulation of Mouse NK Activity by the Serum Thymic Factor (FTS)

    Distinctive Characteristics between Splenic Natural Killer Cells and Prothymocytes

    Hypothesis on the Development of Natural Killer Cells and Their Relationship to T Cells

    Comment on the Nomenclature of Lymphocyte Mediated Cytotoxic Effects

    B. Evidence for or against Macrophage Lineage

    Cells with Natural Killer Activity are Eliminated by Treatment with Monoclonal Specific Anti-Macrophage Antibody plus Complement

    Effect of Anti-HLA and Anti-Beta-2 Microglobulin Antisera on the Natural Cytotoxic Activity of Human NK Cells and Monocytes

    C. Evidence for or against Other or Separate Lineage

    Could Human Large Granular Lymphocytes Represent a New Cell Lineage?

    Natural Killer Cells: A Separate Lineage?

    Natural Killer Activity in Mast Cell-Deficient W/WV Mice

    IV. Genetics of Natural Resistance

    A. Mouse

    NK-Activity Against YAC-1 is Regulated by Two H-2 Associated Genes

    Genetic Control of NC Activity in the Mouse: Three Genes Located in Chromosome

    Approaches to the Genetic Analysis of Natural Resistance In Vivo

    The Beige (bg) Gene Influences the Development of Autoimmune Disease in SB/Le Male Mice

    NK Cell Activation in SM/J Mice

    Chromosome 1 Locus: A Major Regulator of Natural Resistance to Intracellular Pathogens

    B. Rat

    Genetic Variation in Natural Killer (NK) Activity in the Rat

    V. Regulation of Cytotoxic Activity

    A. Ontogeny of NK Cells

    Ontogeny of Nk-1+ Natural Killer Cells

    Marrow Dependence of Natural Killer Cells

    Age-Independent Natural Killer Cell Activity in Murine Peripheral Blood

    Ontogenic Development of Porcine NK and K Cells

    B. Augmentation

    1. Interferon or Interferon Inducers

    2. Other Augmenting Agents

    C. Inhibition or Suppression of Activity

    1. Suppressor Cells

    2. Other Mechanisms

    D. Accessory Cells for Cytotoxic Effector Cells

    Regulation of Human NK Activity against Adherent Tumor Target Cells by Monocyte Subpopulations, Interleukin-1, and Interferons

    E. Production of Interferon by NK Cells

    Production of Interferon by Human Natural Killer Cells in Response to Mitogens, Viruses and Bacteria

    Interferon Production and Natural Cytotoxicity by Human Lymphocytes Fractionated by Percoll Density Gradient Centrifugation

    VI. Specificity of Natural Effector Cells

    A. Nature of Target Cell Structures

    Recognition Structures for Natural Killer Cells on Human Lymphocytes: A Panel Study

    Specificity of Fresh and Activated Human Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

    Fractionation of Natural Killer Cells on Target Cell Monolayers

    Non-NK Leukocytes Demonstrate NK-Patterned Binding

    Target Cell Recognition by Natural Killer and Natural Cytotoxic Cells

    The Relationship between NK and Natural Antibody Target Structures

    Effect of Sodium Butyrate and Hemin on NK Sensivity of K562 Cells

    Analysis of Differentiation Events Causing Changes in NK Cell Tumor-Target Sensitivity

    Specificity of Natural Killer (NK) Cells: Nature of Target Cell Structures

    Effects of Interferon and Tumor Promoter, 12-0-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, on the Sensitivity of Trophoblast Cells to Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Serological Approaches to the Elucidation of NK Target Structures

    Surface Sialic Acid of Tumor Cells Inversely Correlates with Susceptibility to Natural Killer Cell Mediated Lysis

    Inhibition of Spontaneous and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Using Mono- and Oligosaccharides

    B. Nature of Recognition Receptors on Effector Cells

    The Use of a Monoclonal Antibody to Analyse Human NK Cell Function

    VII. Cytotoxicity by Cultured Lymphoid Cells

    A. Short Term Cultures

    Heterogeneity of MLC-Generated NK-Like Cells

    Stimulation of Lymphocytes with Allogeneic Normal Cells and Autologous Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines: Distinction between NK-Like Cells and Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes by Monoclonal Antibodies

    Generation of Lytic Potential in Mixed Cultures and Its Modification by IFN-α

    Cultured Natural Killer Cells

    Spontaneous Monocyte Mediated Cytotoxicity in Man: Evidence for T Helper Activity

    B. Continued Cultures and Clones

    Cultures of Purified Human Natural Killer Cells

    Lytic Effect of T-Cell Cultures against Tumor Biopsy Cells and K562

    Natural Killer Cell-Like Cytotoxicity Mediated by Herpesvirus Transformed Marmoset T Cell Lines

    Cloned Cell Lines with Natural Killer Activity

    Characterization of Cloned Murine Cell Lines Having High Cytolytic Activity against YAC-I Targets

    Induction of NK-Like Anti-Tumor Reactivity in Vitro and in Vivo by IL-2

    Cloned Lines of Mouse Natural Killer Cells

    Clonal Analysis of Human Natural Killer Cells

    Continuous Culture of Human NK-T Cell Clones

    Permanently Growing Murine Cell Clones with NK-Like Activities

    Natural Killer Activity in Cloned IL-2 Dependent Allospecific Lymphoid Populations

    Regulation by Interferon and T Cells of IL-2-Dependent Growth of NK Progenitor Cells: A Limiting Dilution Analysis

    Natural Cytotoxic Activity of Mouse Spleen Cell Cultures Maintained with Interleukin-3

    VIII. Mechanisms of Cytotoxicity

    A. Role of Proteases

    Evidence for Proteases with Specificity of Cleavage at Aromatic Amino Acids in Human Natural Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    The Role of Neutral Serine Proteases in the Mechanism of Tumor Cell Lysis by Human Natural Killer Cells

    The Role of Surface Associated Proteases in Human NK Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity. Evidence Suggesting a Mechanism by which Concealed Surface Enzymes Become Exposed during Cytolysis

    The Relationship between Secretion of a Novel Cytolytic Protease and Macrophage-Mediated Tumor Cytotoxicity

    B. Role of Phospholipids

    Phospholipid Metabolism during NK Cell Activity: Possible Role for Transmethylation and Phospholipase A2 Activation in Recognition and Lysis

    C. Role of Soluble Mediators

    Role of Natural Killer Cytotoxic Factors (NKCF) in the Mechanism of NK Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity

    Role of Lymphotoxins in Natural Cytotoxicity

    Carbohydrate Receptors in Natural Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    D. Other Mechanisms or Information on Mechanisms

    Cellular Secretion Associated with Human Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Mechanism of NK Cell Lysis

    Mechanisms of NK Activation: Models to Study Induction of Lysis and Enhancement of Lytic Efficiency

    Augmented Binding of Tumor Cells by Activated Murine Macrophages and Its Relevance to Tumor Cytotoxicity

    The Role of Free Oxygen Radicals in the Activation of the NK Cytolytic Pathway

    Cell Surface Thiols in Human Natural Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    Activated Macrophage Mediated Cytotoxicity for Transformed Target Cells

    The Uropod as an Integral and Specialized Structure of Large Granular Lymphocytes

    Morphological Characteristics of Lymphocyte-Target Cell Interactions and Their Relations to Cytolytic Activity in the Human NK System

    IX. Natural Cell-Mediated Reactivity Against Primary Tumor Cells and Against Non-Tumor Targets

    A. Primary Tumor Cells as Targets

    Cytotoxic and Cytostatic Activity of Human Large Granular Lymphocytes against Allogeneic Tumor Biopsy Cells and Autologous EBV Infected B Lymphocytes

    Association of Human Natural Killer Cell Activity against Human Primary Tumors with Large Granular Lymphocytes

    Auto-Tumor Lytic Potential of Lymphocytes Separated from Human Solid Tumors

    Natural Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity against Spontaneous Mouse Mammary Tumors

    B. Normal Cells as Targets

    Natural Killing of Hematopoietic Cells

    Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells as Effectors and Targets of Natural Killing

    C. Parasites as Targets

    Natural Killer (NK) Cell Activity against Extracellular Forms of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Mechanisms of Natural Macrophage Cytotoxicity against Protozoa

    D. Fungi as Targets

    In Vitro Effects of Natural Killer (NK) Cells on Cryptococcus neoformans

    X. Possible NK Cell Tumors or Presence of NK Cells at Site of Tumor Growth

    A. Human Tumors

    NK Activity of Tumor Infiltrating and Lymph Node Lymphocytes in Human Pulmonary Tumors

    Natural Killer Activity in Human Ovarian Tumors

    Natural Cytotoxic Effectors in Human Tumours and Tumour Draining Nodes

    Control of Natural Cytotoxicity in the Regional Lymph Node in Breast Cancer

    Leukemic Blasts as Effectors in Natural Killing and Antibody Dependent Cytotoxicity Assay

    B. Other Species

    Natural Killer Cell Activity Associated with Spontaneous and Transplanted Reticulum Cell Neoplasms

    Reticulum Cell Sarcomas of SJL/J Mice: Pre-B Cell Lymphoma with Apparent Natural Killer Cell Function

    Identification and Characterization of Large Granular Lymphocyte (LGL) Leukemias in F344 Rats

    XI. Clinical Studies with Natural Effector Cells

    A. Alterations with Various Diseases

    1. Cancer

    2. Other Diseases

    B. Augmentation of Reactivity by Biological Response Modifiers

    1. Interferon

    2. Other Agents

    C. Depression of Reactivity by Treatments

    Effect of Diethylstilbestrol and Estramustine Phosphate (Estracyt®) on Natural Killer Activity in Patients with Carcinoma of the Prostate

    XII. Evidence for In Vivo Reactivity of Natural Effector Cells

    A. Against Tumors

    1. Transplantable Tumors

    2. Against Primary Tumors and Possible Role in Surveillance

    B. Against Microbial Agents

    The Role of NK(HSV-l) Effector Cells in Resistance to Herpesvirus Infections in Man

    The Role of Natural Killer Cells and Interferon in Resistance to Murine Cytomegalovirus

    Loss of Genetic Resistance to Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection in C3H Mice Treated with 89Sr

    Studies of NK Cell Activation and of Interferon Induction after Injection of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Type 3 (MHV3)

    Interferon, Natural Killer Cells, and Genetically Determined Resistance of Mice against Herpes Simplex Virus

    Natural Resistance against Mouse Hepatitis Virus 3

    Induction of Natural Killer Cells and Interferon Production during Infection of Mice with Babesia microti of Human Origin

    Natural Cell-Mediated Immunity and Interferon in Malaria and Babesia Infections

    Natural Cell-Mediated Resistance in Cryptococcosis

    Natural Cell-Mediated Immunity against Bacteria

    Genetic and Cellular Mechanisms of Natural Resistance to Intracellular Bacteria

    C. Resistance to Transplants of Bone Marrow

    The Role of Asialo GM1+ (GA1+) Cells in the Resistance to Transplants of Bone Marrow or Other Tissues

    Direct Evidence for the Involvement of Natural Killer Cells in Bone Marrow Transplantation

    D. Possible Role in Graft Versus Host Disease

    In Vivo Role of NK(HSV-l) in the Induction of Graft versus Host Disease in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients


Product details

  • No. of pages: 1566
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323139717

About the Author

Ronald B. Herberman

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